fbpx
Wikipedia

Airbus

Coordinates:43°36′26″N1°21′51″E /43.6073046°N 1.3642356°E /43.6073046; 1.3642356

Airbus SE (; French: (); German: (); Spanish: ) is a European multinational aerospace corporation. Airbus designs, manufactures and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures aircraft in Europe and various countries outside Europe. The company has three divisions: Commercial Aircraft (Airbus S.A.S.), Defence and Space, and Helicopters, the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries.

Airbus SE
Lagardère production plant in Toulouse, France
FormerlyParent company:
  • European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV (2000–2014)
  • Airbus Group NV (2014–2015)
  • Airbus Group SE (2015–2017)
Subsidiary:
  • Airbus Industrie GIE (1970–2001)
  • Airbus SAS (2001–present)
TypePublic (Societas Europaea)
ISINNL0000235190
IndustryAerospace, defence
PredecessorAérospatiale-Matra, DASA, CASA, BAe
Founded18 December 1970; 50 years ago (1970-12-18) (as Airbus Industrie GIE)
Founder
Headquarters
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
Revenue 49.91 billion (2020)
-€510 million (2020)
-€1.17 billion (2020)
Total assets €110.1 billion (2020)
Total equity €6.46 billion (2020)
OwnerAs of November 2020[update]:
Number of employees
131,349 (2020)
Divisions
Subsidiaries
Websitewww.airbus.com

The company's main civil aeroplane business is conducted through the French company Airbus S.A.S., based in Blagnac, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities mostly in Europe (France, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom) but also in China, the United States and Canada. Final assembly production is based in Toulouse, France; Hamburg, Germany; Seville, Spain; Tianjin, China; Mobile, United States; and Montreal, Canada. The company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, and the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 12,000th aircraft, an A220, was delivered to Delta Air Lines on 20 May 2019. By October 2016, the global Airbus fleet have performed more than 110 million flights, totalling over 215 billion kilometres and carrying 12 billion passengers. As of 2019, Airbus is the world's largest airliner manufacturer and took the most airliner orders, surpassing rival Boeing.

Airbus's registered headquarters is in Leiden, Netherlands, but its head office is located in Toulouse, France. The 'SE' in its corporate name means it is a societas Europaea, which enables it to be registered as European rather than Dutch. Its shares are traded in France, Germany and Spain. The company is led by CEO Guillaume Faury and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.

Contents

Main article: History of Airbus

The current company is the product of consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as Airbus SAS, a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired BAE Systems's remaining 20% of Airbus. EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE, the executive committees of the parent and subsidiary companies were aligned in January 2017, but the companies were kept as separate legal entities. The holding company was given its present name in April 2017.

Airbus SE
(Est. 2000, renamed 2017)
Aérospatiale-Matra
(Est. 1999)

Aérospatiale
(Formed 1970)

Matra
(Est. 1937)

DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG
(Est. 1989)

Daimler-Benz's aerospace interests

MTU München
(Est. 1934)

Dornier Flugzeugwerke
(Est. 1922)

Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm
(Est. 1968)

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
(Est. 1923)

The logos of Airbus Industrie GIE and Airbus SAS displayed a stylised turbine symbol, redolent of a jet engine, and a font similar to Helvetica Black. The logo colours were reflected in the standard Airbus aircraft livery in each period. The EADS logo between 2000 and 2010 combined the logos of the merged companies, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (a four-ray star) and Aérospatiale-Matra (a curved arrow), after which these elements were removed and a new font with 3D shading was chosen. This font was retained in the logos of Airbus Group NV (2014–2015) and Airbus Group SE (2015–2017), then Airbus SE:

Civilian

The Airbus A380, the world's largest airliner

The Airbus product line started with the A300 in 1972, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310.

Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320, the first commercial jet to use a digital fly-by-wire control system. The A320 has been, and continues to be, a major commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets. A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320 family's primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family.

The longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres (9,000 nmi), the second-longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR (range of 17,446 km or 9,420 nautical miles).

All Airbus aircraft developed since then have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing 777.

Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft". Those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements. This "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017–2018.

On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like the Chinese Comac C919, scheduled to operate by 2015–2020.

In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, and A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff.

Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003.

Product list and details (date information from Airbus)
Aircraft Description Seats Max 1st flight Production ceased
A220 2 engines, single aisle, originally Bombardier CSeries 108–130 133–160 2013-09-16
A300 2 engines, twin aisle 228–254 361 1972-10-28 2007-03-27 (561 built)
A310 2 engines, twin aisle, modified A300 187 279 1982-04-03 1998-03-27 (255 built)
A318 2 engines, single aisle, shortened 6.17 m from A320 107 132 2002-01-15 2013-12-31 (80 built)
A319 2 engines, single aisle, shortened 3.77 m from A320 124 156 1995-08-25
A320 2 engines, single aisle 150 186 1987-02-22
A321 2 engines, single aisle, lengthened 6.94 m from A320 185 240 1993-03-11
A330 2 engines, twin aisle 246–300 406–440 1992-11-02
A340 4 engines, twin aisle 239–377 377–440 1991-10-25 2011-11-10 (380 built)
A350 2 engines, twin aisle 270–350 475 2013-06-14
A380 4 engines, twin aisle, double deck 555 853 2005-04-27 2021 (251 built)
VIP aircraft Airbus A330 of Qatar Amiri Flight taxiing at Zagreb airport

Airbus Corporate Jets markets and modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997. Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was initially used only for the A319CJ, it is now often used for all models, including the VIP widebodies. As of December 2008, 121 corporate and private jets are operating, 164 aircraft have been ordered, including an A380 Prestige and 107 A320 family Corporate Jet.

In September 2014, Aerion partnered with Airbus (mainly Airbus Defence) to collaborate on designing the Aerion AS2, a supersonic 11-seater private business jet, hoping for a market entry in 2021. Airbus was replaced with Lockheed Martin in 2017.

Consumer products

In June 2013, Airbus announced that it was developing a range of "smart suitcases" known as Bag2Go for air travellers, in conjunction with luggage-maker Rimowa and IT firm T-Systems. The cases feature a collection of built-in electronic gadgets which communicate with a smartphone app and with the IT systems of the airline, to assist the traveller and improve reliability and security of baggage handling. Gadgets include a weighing scale and a location tracker, using GPS for location tracking, RFID for identification, and a SIM card for messaging. Since then, similar products have been announced by other companies.

Military

In the late 1990s, Airbus became increasingly interested in developing and selling to the military aviation market. It embarked on two main fields of development: aerial refuelling with the Airbus A310 MRTT (Multi-Role Tanker Transport) and the Airbus A330 MRTT, and tactical airlift with the Airbus A400M Atlas.

The first A400M in Seville, 26 June 2008

In January 1999 Airbus established a separate company, Airbus Military SAS, to undertake development and production of a turboprop-powered tactical transport aircraft, the A400M. The A400M is being developed by several NATO members, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, Turkey, and the UK, as an alternative to relying on foreign aircraft for tactical airlift capacity, such as the Ukrainian Antonov An-124 Ruslan and the American C-130 Hercules. The A400M project has suffered several delays; Airbus has threatened to cancel the development unless it receives state subsidies.

Pakistan placed an order for the Airbus A310 MRTT in 2008, which will be a conversion of an existing airframe as the base model A310 is no longer in production. On 25 February 2008 Airbus won an order for three air refuelling MRTT aircraft, adapted from A330 passenger jets, from the United Arab Emirates. On 1 March 2008 a consortium of Airbus and Northrop Grumman had won a $35 billion contract to build the new in-flight refuelling aircraft KC-45A, a US built version of the MRTT, for the USAF. The decision drew a formal complaint from Boeing, and the KC-X contract was cancelled to begin bidding afresh.

Airbus aircraft numbering system

The Airbus numbering system is an alpha numeric model number followed by a dash and a three digit number.

The model number often takes the form of the letter "A" followed by a '3', a digit, then followed normally by a '0', for example A350. There are some exceptions such as: A220, A318, A319, A321 and A400M. The succeeding three digit number represents the aircraft series, the engine manufacturer and engine version number respectively. To use an A380-800 with Engine Alliance (EA) GP7200 engines as an example; The code is 8 for series 800, 6 for Engine Alliance and engine version 1, thus the aircraft number is A380-861.

An additional letter is sometimes used. These include, 'C' for a combi version (passenger/freighter), 'F' for a freighter model, 'R' for the long range model, and 'X' for the enhanced model.

Engine codes

Code Manufacturing company
0 General Electric (GE)
1 CFM International (GE and SNECMA, now a subsidiary of Safran)
2 Pratt & Whitney (P&W)
3 International Aero Engines (P&W, R-R, MTU, Kawasaki, Mitsubishi, and IHI) (IAE V2500 for A320ceo Family)
4 Rolls-Royce (R-R)
5 CFM International (GE and SNECMA/Safran) (CFM-I LEAP-1A for A320neo Family)
6 Engine Alliance (GE and P&W) (EA GP7200 for the A380)
7 Pratt & Whitney (P&W) (PW1100G for A320neo Family)

Orders and deliveries

Aircraft Orders Deliveries In operation Unfilled
A220 644 168 168 476
A300 561 561 231
A310 255 255 56
A320ceo* 8,127 8,094 7,517 51
A320neo* 7,468 1,877 1,877 5,591
A330ceo* 1,480 1,455 1,375 25
A330neo* 331 63 62 268
A340* 377 377 214
A350* 915 438 438 477
A380 251 248 243 3
Total 20,409 13,536 12,181 6,873

* All models included.

Data as of 31 July 2021.

Divisions

Revenues by division, as of 2014:

Commercial aircraft (69%)
Defence and Space (21%)
Helicopters (10%)

Revenues by division, as of 2018:

Commercial aircraft (74%)
Defence and Space (17%)
Helicopters (9%)

Commercial aircraft

Commercial aircraft generated 66% of total revenue for the group in 2013. The product portfolio of such aircraft encompasses short range models such as the A320 family and the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. Final assembly for this division is the Airbus Toulouse facility.

Airbus Transport International

Airbus Transport International is a cargo airline that operates a fleet of five Airbus Beluga aircraft. The belugas carry aircraft parts from factories to final assembly lines. In 2020, three Airbus Beluga XL aircraft which can carry two A350 wings rather than one Airbus A350 wing. These will slowly replace the five original belugas in the coming years.

Defence and space

The division Airbus Defence and Space was formed in January 2014 as part of the group restructuring from the former EADS divisions Airbus Military, Astrium, and Cassidian (composed of Cassidian Electronics – develops and manufactures sensors, radars, avionics and electronic warfare systems for military and security applications, Cassidian Air Systems – develops manned and unmanned aerial systems (UAVs), mission avionics, electronic defence and warning systems and Cassidian Systems – provides global security systems such as command & control, lead system integration, TETRA and TETRAPOL communication systems for public safety, industry, transportation and defence. This line of business was the first one in the world to begin field tests with TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS).).

  • EADS 3 Sigma – a Hellenic company focused in the design, development, production and services provision of airborne and surface target drone systems.

The Airbus Military division, which manufactured tanker, transport and mission aircraft; Airbus Helicopters, the world's largest helicopter supplier; Astrium, provided systems for aerial, land, naval and civilian security applications including Ariane, Galileo and Cassidian. Through Cassidian, EADS was a partner in the Eurofighter consortium as well as in the missile systems provider MBDA.

Helicopters

Airbus Helicopters, formerly known as Eurocopter, is a helicopter manufacturing and support company. See also: Airbus Helicopters, Inc.

Subsidiaries

Joint ventures

Name Holding Description
Airbus Canada Limited Partnership
75%
manufacturer of Airbus A220 aircraft
ArianeGroup
50%
manufacturer of Ariane 5 and Ariane 6 launch vehicles
ATR
50%
manufacturer of ATR 42 and ATR 72 regional aircraft
Dassault Aviation
10%
manufacturer of Dassault Rafale and Dassault Mirage 2000
Eurofighter GmbH
46%
manufacturer of Eurofighter Typhoon
MBDA
37.5%
develops and manufactures missiles
Panavia Aircraft GmbH
42.5%
manufacturer of Panavia Tornado

In September 2014 Airbus considered divesting Dassault and several other units to focus on aerospace. It reduced its shareholding in Dassault Aviation to 10% by the end of 2016.

Governance

The corporate management of the Airbus SE as of July 2021:

Chief Executive Officer: Guillaume Faury

Executive Committee:

Member Title
Dominik Asam Chief Financial Officer
Thierry Baril Chief Human Resources Officer
Bruno Even Chief Executive Officer Airbus Helicopters
John Harrison General Counsel
Catherine Jestin Executive Vice President Digital and Information Management
Michael Schöllhorn Chief Executive Officer Airbus Defence and Space
Julie Kitcher Executive Vice President Communications and Corporate Affairs
Philippe Mhun Executive Vice President Programmes and Services
Christian Scherer Chief Commercial Officer and Head of Airbus International
Alberto Gutiérrez Chief Operating Officer
Sabine Klauke Chief Technical Officer

Corporate affairs

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(March 2016)

The subsidiary Airbus Middle East is headquartered in the Dubai Airport Free Zone. This subsidiary opened in 2006.

The subsidiary Airbus Japan K.K. (エアバス・ジャパン株式会社) is headquartered in the Roppongi Hills Mori Tower in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo.

International manufacturing presence

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(October 2021)
Main Airbus factory in Hamburg, Germany
Main Airbus factory in Getafe, Madrid, Spain
The Airbus factory at Broughton, Flintshire, Wales, UK

Airbus has several final assembly lines for different models and markets. These are:

Airbus, however, has a number of other plants in different European locations, reflecting its foundation as a consortium. An original solution to the problem of moving aircraft parts between the different factories and the assembly plants is the use of the Airbus Beluga, a modified cargo aircraft capable of carrying entire sections of fuselage. Boeing adopted a similar solution with 4 adapted 747-400s to transport the components of the 787. An exception to this scheme is the A380, whose fuselage and wings are too large for sections to be carried by the Beluga. Large A380 parts are brought by ship to Bordeaux, and then transported to the Toulouse assembly plant by the Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit, a specially enlarged waterway and road route.

Airbus opened an assembly plant in Tianjin, People's Republic of China for its A320 series airliners in 2009. Airbus started constructing a $350 million component manufacturing plant in Harbin, China in July 2009, which will employ 1,000 people. Scheduled to be operated by the end of 2010, the 30,000 square metre plant will manufacture composite parts and assemble composite work-packages for the A350 XWB, A320 families and future Airbus programmes. Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Corporation, Hafei Aviation Industry Company Ltd, AviChina Industry & Technology Company and other Chinese partners hold the 80% stake of the plant while Airbus control the remaining 20%.[unreliable source?]

North America is an important region to Airbus in terms of both aircraft sales and suppliers. 2,000 of the total of approximately 5,300 Airbus jetliners sold by Airbus around the world, representing every aircraft in its product line from the 107-seat A318 to the 565-passenger A380, are ordered by North American customers. According to Airbus, US contractors, supporting an estimated 120,000 jobs, earned an estimated $5.5 billion (2003) worth of business. For example, one version of the A380 has 51% American content in terms of work share value.

Plans for a Mobile, Alabama aircraft assembly plant were unveiled by Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Centre on 2 July 2012. The plans include a $600 million factory at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley for the assembly of the A220, A319, A320 and A321 aircraft. It could employ up to 1,000 full-time workers when operational. Construction began on 8 April 2013, and became operable by 2015, producing up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017.

In February 2019, Airbus stated that production of the A380 will end in 2021 after Emirates, the biggest customer for the plane, reduced its outstanding order for 53 planes to just fourteen.

Financial information

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2020)

Revenues by region, as of 2013:

Europe (36%)
Asia-Pacific (33%)
North America (15%)
Middle East (9%)
Africa and Latin America (7%)

In October 2005 the British Ministry of Defence warned European politicians to stop, as it sees it, interfering in the corporate governance of EADS. The former UK Defence Procurement Minister Lord Drayson hinted that the UK government, a major customer for EADS, may withhold future contracts. "As a key customer, we see it as important for EADS to move in a direction that is free from political interference."

On 4 April 2006, DaimlerChrysler announced its intention to reduce its shareholding from 30 % to 22.5 %. The company places a value of the stake at "approximately €2.0 billion." Lagardère will reduce its holding by an identical amount. However, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, a unit of the French government, acquired 2.25 % of EADS. At issue as a result is the fact that the German and French shareholdings are now in imbalance.

On 30 August 2006, shortly after the stock price decline caused by the A380 delivery delays, more than 5 % of EADS stock has been reportedly purchased by the Russian state-owned Vneshtorgbank. Now its share is nearly 6 %. In December 2007, Vneshtorgbank sold EADS shares to another state-controlled bank Vneshekonombank. EADS sharers are to be delivered by Vneshekonombank to the charter capital of JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" in 2008.

On 3 October 2006, shortly after EADS admitted further delays in the Airbus 380 programme would cost the company 4.8 billion euros in lost earnings in 2010, EADS shares, traded on the Paris arm of Euronext, were suspended after they surpassed the 10 % loss limit. Trading resumed later in the day with the one-day loss holding at 7 %.

In 2007, Dubai Holding acquired 3.12 % of EADS stock, making the Dubai buy-out fund one of the largest institutional shareholders.

In 2008, EADS had arms sales equivalent of $17.9 billion, which constituted 28 % of total revenue.

In April 2013, Daimler sold its shares in EADS.

As of 22 June 2018[update], 73.6 % of Airbus Group stock is publicly traded on six European stock exchanges, while the remaining 26.4 % is owned by a "Contractual Partnership". As at 26 April 2018, the partnership is owned by SOGEPA (11.1%), GZBV (11.1%) and SEPI (4.2%). SOGEPA is owned by the French State, GZBV is majority owned by KfW, while SEPI is a Spanish state holding company.

In April 2020, Airbus announced that it has cut aircraft production by a third due to the COVID-19 outbreak. According to Guillaume Faury, the company was "bleeding cash at an unprecedented speed." The recession put its survival at stake and presented the need for deep job cuts throughout all Airbus departments. 3,000 workers in France were involved in government-assisted furlough schemes.

Finances 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Sales EUR billion 59.256 56.480 49.128 45.752 42.822 43.265 39.123 39.434 34.206 31.761
EBITDA in Mio. EUR 4.575 4.142 3.473 2.769 1.446 4.439 1.751 2.033 4.365 3.841
EBIT in Mio. EUR 2.661 2.186 1.696 1.231 (322) 2.830 52 399 2.852 2.432
Research and development costs EUR million 3.160 3.142 3.152 2.939 2.825 2.669 2.608 2.458 2.075 2.126
Consolidated net income EUR million 1.465 1.198 1.104 584 (722) 1.613 (433) 199 1.769 1.342
Earnings per share in EUR 1,85 1,46 1,27 0,68 (0,94) 1,95 (0,56) 0,12 2,11 1,50
Dividend per share in EUR 0,75 0,60 0,45 0,22 0,00 0,20 0,12 0,12 0,65 0,50
Free cash flow in EUR million (818) 3.472 958 2.707 585 2.559 3.354 2.029 2.413 1.614
New orders in EUR million 218.681 102.471 131.027 83.147 45.847 98.648 136.799 69.018 92.551 44.117
Order backlog at 31.12. in EUR million 686.734 566.463 540.978 448.493 389.067 400.248 339.532 262.810 253.235 184.288
Employees (number) 31.12. 144.061 140.405 133.115 121.691 119.506 118.349 116.493 116.805 113.210 110.662
accounted for under IFRS; The fiscal year ends on 31/12.

Sales of military equipment in 2012 amounted to 15.4 billion US dollars.

Airbus has committed to the "Flightpath 2050", an aviation industry plan to reduce noise, CO2, and NOx emissions.

Airbus was the first aerospace business to become ISO 14001 certified, in January 2007; this is a broader certification covering the whole organisation, not just the aircraft it produces.

In association with Honeywell and JetBlue, Airbus has developed a biofuel to reduce pollution and dependence on fossil fuels, claiming that this has the potential to replace up to a third of the world's aviation fuel. Algae-based biofuel absorbs carbon dioxide during growth and does not compete with food production. This alternative may be commercially available by 2030 but algae and other vegetation-based fuels are in an early stage of development and fuel-bearing algae has been expensive to develop. Airbus offers delivery flights to airlines using a 10% biofuel blend in standard engines. The fuel does not cut carbon emissions but is free of sulphur emissions and demonstrates that the fuel could be used in commercial flights in unmodified engines.

In September 2020, Airbus unveiled three liquid hydrogen-fueled "ZEROe" concept aircraft that it claims could become the first commercial zero-emission aircraft, entering service by 2035.

Government subsidies

Boeing has continually protested over "launch aid" and other forms of government aid to Airbus, while Airbus has argued that Boeing receives illegal subsidies through military and research contracts and tax breaks.

In July 2004 former Boeing CEO Harry Stonecipher accused Airbus of abusing a 1992 bilateral EU-US agreement providing for disciplines for large civil aircraft support from governments. Airbus is given reimbursable launch investment (RLI), called "launch aid" by the US, from European governments with the money being paid back with interest plus indefinite royalties, but only if the aircraft is a commercial success. Airbus contends that this system is fully compliant with the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. The agreement allows up to 33% of the programme cost to be met through government loans which are to be fully repaid within 17 years with interest and royalties. These loans are held at a minimum interest rate equal to the cost of government borrowing plus 0.25%, which would be below market rates available to Airbus without government support. Airbus claims that since the signature of the EU-US agreement in 1992, it has repaid European governments more than U.S.$6.7 billion and that this is 40% more than it has received.

Airbus argues that the military contracts awarded to Boeing, the second largest U.S. defence contractor, are in effect a form of subsidy, such as the controversy surrounding the Boeing KC-767 military contracting arrangements. The significant U.S. government support of technology development via NASA also provides significant support to Boeing, as do the large tax breaks offered to Boeing, which some people claim are in violation of the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. In its recent products such as the 787, Boeing has also been offered direct financial support from local and state governments.

In January 2005 the European Union and United States trade representatives, Peter Mandelson and Robert Zoellick respectively, agreed to talks aimed at resolving the increasing tensions. These talks were not successful with the dispute becoming more acrimonious rather than approaching a settlement.

WTO ruled in August 2010 and in May 2011 that Airbus had received improper government subsidies through loans with below market rates from several European countries. In a separate ruling in February 2011, WTO found that Boeing had received local and federal aid in violation of WTO rules.

Cluster bomb allegation

In 2005 the Government Pension Fund of Norway recommended the exclusion of several companies producing cluster bombs or components. EADS and its sister company EADS Finance BV were among them, arguing that EADS manufactures "key components for cluster bombs". The criticism was centred around TDA, a joint venture between EADS and Thales S.A. TDA produced the mortar ammunition PR Cargo, which can be considered cluster ammunition, however this definition has since been successfully battled by EADS. EADS and its subsidiaries are now regarded as fulfilling all the conditions of the Ottawa Treaty. According to the new point of view, no product of EADS or its subsidiaries falls into the category of antipersonnel mines as defined by the Ottawa Treaty ("landmines under the Ottawa Treaty"). In April 2006, the fund declared that the basis for excluding EADS from investments related to production of cluster munitions is no longer valid, however its shareholding of MBDA means the fund still excludes EADS due to its indirect involvement in nuclear weapons production.

Insider trading investigation

On 2 June 2006 co-CEO Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert resigned following the controversy caused by the June 2006 announcement that deliveries of the A380 would be delayed by a further six months. Forgeard was one of a number of executives including Jean-Paul Gut who exercised stock options in November 2005 and March 2006. He and twenty-one other executives are[when?] under investigation as to whether they knew about the delays in the Airbus A380 project which caused a 26 % fall in EADS shares when publicised. The French government's actions were also under investigation; The state-owned bank Caisse des Dépots et Consignations (CDC) bought part of Lagardère's 7.5 % stake in EADS in April 2006, allowing that latter to partially escape the June 2006 losses.

Bribery allegations

South Africa

In 2003 Tony Yengeni, former chief whip of South Africa's African National Congress, was convicted of fraud worth around US$5 billion relating to an arms deal with South Africa, in which Airbus (formerly EADS) were major players,. It was claimed that Airbus had admitted that it had "rendered assistance" to around thirty senior officials, including defence force chief General Siphiwe Nyanda, to obtain luxury vehicles. In March 2003, South Africa withdrew all charges of bribery against the former head of EADS South Africa, and in September 2004, the prosecutor's office dismissed the bribery charges against Yengeni.[citation needed]

Saudi Arabia

In August 2012 the UK's Serious Fraud Office opened a criminal investigation into an EADS subsidiary, GPT Special Project Management Ltd, regarding bribery allegations made by GPT's former programme director, Ian Foxley. Foxley alleged that luxury cars were bought for senior Saudis, and that millions of pounds sterling were paid to mysterious Cayman Islands companies, possibly to secure a £2 billion contract to renew the Saudi Arabian National Guard's military telecommunications network. Foxley's allegations were supported by two other GPT employees. The later agreement between Airbus and the SFO on 31 January 2020 excluded settlement of this case.

British and French investigations

The French National Financial Prosecutor's Office (PNF), the UK Serious Fraud Office (SFO) and the US Department of Justice (DoJ) had been jointly investigating irregularities in Airbus marketing practices since 2016, in particular the activities of agents Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Austria, but also China, the United Arab Emirates, South Korea, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Kuwait, Turkey, Russia, Mexico, Brazil, Vietnam, India, Colombia and Nepal.

In July 2016, SFO opened a criminal investigation into "suspicions of fraud, bribes and corruption" after Airbus informed British authorities of a failure to disclose the role played by some intermediaries facilitating the sale of aircraft. Airbus was required to provide this information in order to benefit from export credits, which the British, French and German governments had suspended. In March 2017, the PNF subsequently opened a preliminary investigation into "suspicions of fraud and corruption in civil aviation activities" in cooperation with the SFO.

The allegations included that from 2012 onwards Airbus was responsible for recruiting and remunerating intermediaries to influence the award of civil and military contracts. Payments worth hundreds of millions of euros in alleged secret commissions were made and numerous sales including in Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Indonesia, Austria, China and Mauritius were under suspicion of bribery.[verification needed]

The investigation focussed on the Airbus, Strategy and Marketing Organization (SMO), the department responsible for negotiating sales contracts and which, La Tribune reported as having "a network and an incredible influence around the world." Directed successively by Jean-Paul Gut and Marwan Lahoud, the SMO was dissolved in 2016 under the new executive director, Thomas Enders, as part of a “clean hands” operation.

In 2014, in a case referred to as the Kazakhgate affair, a search at Airbus Helicopters by French authorities found emails confirming that Airbus had agreed in principle to pay €12 million in pots of wine to the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan to facilitate the sale of helicopters. Officers from the Central Anti-Corruption Office (OCLCIFF) then searched the home of Marwan Lahoud on 8 February 2016. This revealed that two Turkish intermediaries had claimed payment of commissions due in connection with the sale of 160 aircraft to China valued at US$10 billion. A message by Lahoud suggested that the commissions could reach US$250 million. The SMO was to conceal these commissions as false invoices for a fictitious Caspian pipeline project.

In January 2020, French, British and American courts validated three agreements between Airbus and the PNF, the UK SFO, and the US DoJ. Airbus recognised the charges and agreed to pay fines of €3.6 billion in France, €984 million in the United Kingdom and €526 million in the United States. The penalties were the highest ever issued by the French and British bodies.

These settlements close the prosecution of Airbus regarding the Kazakhstan case but not allegations of misconduct in Saudi Arabia, China and Turkey, which Airbus denies. Airbus managers may still be pursued as private individuals.

In 2015 Airbus launches an accelerator program to infuse startup and intrapreneurial innovations called Airbus BizLab.

  1. "contact us". Airbus.
  2. "René Obermann". Airbus.
  3. "Guillaume Faury". Airbus.
  4. Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2020(PDF). Airbus. Retrieved28 May 2021.
  5. "Share Price & Information". Airbus. Retrieved17 November 2020.
  6. "AIRBUS SE : Shareholders Board Members Managers and Company Profile | NL0000235190 | MarketScreener". www.marketscreener.com.
  7. "Airbus Annual Report 2019"(PDF). Airbus SE. p. 124. The Company is a European public company (Societas Europaea), with its corporate seat in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and registered with the Dutch Commercial Register (Handelsregister) ...
  8. "About Airbus". Airbus. Retrieved16 June 2017.
  9. Airbus SE Annual Report 2019 General Description of the Company and its Share Capital - 3.3.6 Simplified Group Structure Chart
  10. "Worldwide presence". Airbus. Retrieved24 February 2020.
  11. Beatson, Jim (2 April 1989). "Air Safety: Is America Ready to 'Fly by Wire'?". The Washington Post.
  12. "History – Imaginative advances". Airbus. Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved30 September 2009.
  13. "Airbus celebrates delivery of its 12,000th aircraft – an A220-100 to Delta Air Lines" (Press release). Airbus. 20 May 2019.
  14. "A journey of 10,000 aircraft and counting: Airbus' pioneering spirit and commitment to shaping the future" (Press release). Airbus. 14 October 2016.
  15. "Exclusive: Airbus beats goal with 863 jet deliveries in 2019, ousts Boeing from top spot". Reuters. 1 January 2020.
  16. "Contact us". Airbus. Retrieved12 January 2021.
  17. "BAE Systems says completed sale of Airbus stake to EADS". Forbes. 13 October 2006. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved13 October 2006.
  18. "EADS changes name to Airbus"(subscription required). Financial Times, 2014.
  19. "Airbus Group Shareholders Approve All Resolutions At 2015 AGM" (Press release). Airbus Group. 27 May 2015. Retrieved25 August 2016.
  20. "Frankfurt Stock Exchange". Archived from the original on 8 February 2019.
  21. "Airbus shareholders approve all resolutions at 2017 AGM" (Press release). Airbus. 12 April 2017. Retrieved12 April 2017.
  22. Stevenson, Richard (21 March 1993). "A321 set for takeoff at Airbus Question of subsidies, threat to U.S. companies rise". Chicago Tribune.
  23. "Simon Calder: The man who pays his way". The Independent. UK. 18 October 2003. Retrieved23 April 2010.
  24. Ostrower, John (10 November 2011). "EADS indicates "termination" of Airbus A340 programme". Flightglobal. Retrieved11 November 2011.
  25. "Airbus may not do A320 replacement alone". Aviation Week. 2 July 2007.
  26. "The 737 Story: Smoke and mirrors obscure 737 and Airbus A320 replacement studies". Flight International. 7 February 2006. Retrieved4 September 2011.
  27. "Airbus aims to thwart Boeing's narrowbody plans with upgraded 'A320 Enhanced'". Flight International. 20 June 2006.
  28. "China names first jumbo jet C919, to take off in 8 years". Xinhua News Agency. 6 March 2009. Retrieved8 September 2009.
  29. "Airbus needs extra cash for new planes". Reuters. 24 September 2009. Retrieved1 July 2011.
  30. "Airbus to base A320 production in Hamburg, 350s and 380s in Toulouse". Forbes. 15 January 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007.
  31. Webster, Ben (1 May 2003). "BA chief blames French for killing off Concorde". The Times. UK.
  32. Woodman, Peter (10 April 2003). "End of an era – Concorde is retired". The Independent. UK.
  33. News, Metropolitan Airport (9 April 2021). "Last Ever Airbus A380 Completes Successful Test Flight - Aviation News". Metropolitan Airport News. Retrieved15 May 2021.
  34. "Airbus Executive and Private Aviation". airbus.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved6 June 2015.
  35. "Airbus Group teams up with Aerion" Leeham Co, 27 October 2014. Accessed: 26 September 2014.
  36. Van Wagenen, Juliet. "Airbus and Aerion Collaborate to Develop Supersonic Business Jet, High-Performance Flight" Aviation Today, 22 September 2014. Accessed: 27 October 2014.
  37. "Lockheed Martin Becomes Newest Partner for Aerion’s Supersonic BizJet"
  38. David Flynn (7 June 2013). "Airbus reveals iPhone-enabled 'smart bag' with RFID, GPS tracking". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved30 March 2015.
  39. "Applying innovation to improve the airline luggage experience". Airbus. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved30 March 2015.
  40. "Airbus Bag2Go Uses GPS And RFID To Get Your Bags Where They Belong". GadgetReview.com. 10 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved30 March 2015.
  41. Shawn Knighe (7 June 2013). "Airbus Bag2Go smart luggage packs mobile radio, GPS and RFID". TechSpot. Retrieved30 March 2015.
  42. "A400M (Future Large Aircraft) Tactical Transport Aircraft, Europe". airforce-technology.com. Retrieved1 October 2009.[unreliable source?]
  43. "A400M Programme: A Brief History". Airbus. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved17 January 2014.
  44. "Strategic airlift agreement enters into force". NATO. 3 March 2006.
  45. O’Connell, Dominic (11 January 2009). "RAF transport aircraft delay". The Times. UK.
  46. Hoyle, Craig (28 April 2008). "Hercules support deal transforms RAF operations". Flight International.
  47. "Why wait for the Airbus?". Defence Management. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011.
  48. "Airbus A400M delay does not foster confidence". Forbes. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved8 December 2016.
  49. "A400M Partners to Renegotiate Contract with EADS". Defense News. 27 July 2009.[dead link]
  50. Hollinger, Peggy; Clark, Pilita; Lemer, Jeremy (5 January 2010). "Airbus threatens to scrap A400M aircraft". Financial Times.
  51. Ansari, Usman (3 November 2008). "Pakistan eyes boost in Transport, Lift". Defense News.[dead link]
  52. Hepher, Tim (25 February 2008). "Airbus EAE tanker order". Reuters.
  53. "Air tanker deal provokes US row". BBC News. 1 March 2008. Retrieved4 September 2011.
  54. "Boeing Protests U.S. Air Force Tanker Contract Award". Boeing. 11 March 2008. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008.
  55. "Statement regarding the bid protest decision resolving the Aerial Refueling Tanker protest by the Boeing Company"(PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. 18 June 2008.
  56. "SecDEF announces return of KC-X program". Secretary of the Air Force Public Affairs. 16 September 2009.
  57. Wolf, Jim; Shalal-Esa, Andrea (24 September 2009). "Pentagon's new tanker rules exclude trade fight". Reuters.
  58. "Airbus Numbering System". aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved1 October 2009.
  59. "Airbus official O&D". www.airbus.com. Airbus. 8 January 2021. Retrieved8 January 2021.
  60. "Investors & Shareholders". airbusgroup.com. Retrieved25 August 2016.
  61. "Airbus FY results 2018"(PDF). Retrieved4 March 2019.
  62. Airbus Group, We Make It Fly - Annual review 2013
  63. "EADS demonstrates world's first high speed data solution over TETRA". Bapco Journal. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved12 July 2011.
  64. EADS changes name to Airbus, subscription required.
  65. "Airbus APWorks". Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved10 February 2015.
  66. "Airbus and Embry-riddle in Singapore Sign MoU on Aviation Education". asdnews.com. 14 March 2019. Retrieved21 August 2019.
  67. "Apsys-Airbus". Apsys.
  68. "EADS Registration Document 2013 (Page 48)"(PDF). EADS. Retrieved12 February 2015.
  69. Kaminski-Morrow, David (13 February 2020). "Airbus takes 75% of A220 programme as Bombardier exits". Flight Global.
  70. Jens Flottau, Tony Osborne and Amy Svitak. "Airbus Group To Focus On Military Aircraft, Space And Missiles" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 September 2014. Accessed: 24 September 2014. Archived on 24 September 2014
  71. "Executive and Operational Committees". Airbus. 1 July 2021. Retrieved20 July 2019.
  72. "Airbus Middle East - Airbus, Commercial Aircraft". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved9 March 2016.
  73. "People & Organization - Airbus, Commercial Aircraft". Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved9 March 2016.
  74. "日本におけるエアバス". Airbus.
  75. "Airbus in the United Kingdom". Airbus. Retrieved29 January 2021.
  76. Bray, Rob (June 2007). "Supersize Wings". Ingenia. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved2 December 2008.
  77. "Airbus to build A320 jet assembly line in Tianjin in 2006". AsiaInfo Services. 18 July 2006. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.
  78. "Airbus delivers first China-assembled A320 jet". Sify News. 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved1 October 2009.
  79. "Airbus signs framework agreement with Chinese consortium on A320 Final Assembly Line in China". Airbus official. 26 October 2006. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006.
  80. Jianguo, Jiang (16 July 2008). "Airbus, Harbin Aircraft form Chinese parts venture". Bloomberg.
  81. Kogan, Eugene (8 February 2008). "China's commercial aviation in take-off mode". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 14 June 2007.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  82. "Airbus starts $350 million Harbin plant construction". China Daily. 1 July 2009.
  83. "Airbus offers sneak-peek inside Alabama A320 factory". 14 September 2015.
  84. Melissa Nelson-Gabriel (2 July 2012). "Airbus to Build 1st US Assembly Plant in Alabama". Associated Press. Retrieved2 July 2012.
  85. "Airbus confirms its first US factory to build A320 jet". BBC News. 2 July 2012. Retrieved2 July 2012.
  86. Jolly, Jasper (14 February 2019). "A380: Airbus to stop making superjumbo as orders dry up". Retrieved18 February 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
  87. Roberston, David (5 October 2006). "MoD tells European leaders to stop meddling in EADS". The Times. UK. Retrieved15 October 2006.
  88. "Daimler and Lagardère cut EADS stakes". Financial Times. Agence France-Presse. 4 April 2006.[permanent dead link]
  89. "Airbus plays catch-up with A350 jet." Phillips, D. International Herald Tribune. 11 April 2006.
  90. "EADS shares up on Vneshtorgbank reports[dead link]." Yahoo News. 30 August 2006.
  91. "Russian bank acquires 5% in EADS". The Economic Times. 30 August 2006. Retrieved16 March 2020.
  92. "UPDATE 1-Russia VTB to sell EADS stake at market price-CEO". Reuters. 8 December 2007. Retrieved16 March 2020.
  93. European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. "EADS REGISTRATION DOCUMENT 2011"(pdf). Retrieved16 March 2020.
  94. John, Isaac. "Dubai Int'l Capital buys 3.12pc stake in EADS" Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Khaleej Times, 6 July 2007.
  95. The SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing companies, 2008 Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 12 April 2010. Retrieved: 4 May 2010.
  96. "Portfolio changes and strategic cooperations". Annual Report 2013. Daimler. 21 February 2014. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved10 January 2018. Daimler sells remaining equity interest in EADS: On 27 March 2013, the extraordinary shareholders' meeting of EADS approved a new management and shareholder structure. Subsequently, on 2 April 2013, the shareholders' pact concluded in the year 2000 was dissolved and replaced with a new shareholders' pact without the participation of Daimler.
  97. "Share Price & Information: Shareholding structure: Current capital structure". Airbus Group. 26 April 2018. Retrieved22 June 2018.
  98. "Airbus boss warns company is 'bleeding cash'". BBC News. 27 April 2020. Retrieved27 April 2020.
  99. "Airbus Group Figures". airbus-group.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved8 May 2014.
  100. Marcus Theurer (31 January 2014). "Militärausgaben: Die Rüstungsindustrie schrumpft". faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved2 February 2014.
  101. "Environment | Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". Airbus.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved14 January 2013.
  102. "Eco-efficiency | Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". Airbus.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved14 January 2013.
  103. Skillings, Jonathan (15 May 2008). "Biofuel gets lift from Honeywell, Airbus, JetBlue". CNET. Retrieved4 September 2011.
  104. "Airbus demonstrates regular customer delivery flights with sustainable jet fuel". Airbus. Retrieved16 July 2018.
  105. "Airbus unveils 'first zero-emission planes' plan". BBC News. 21 September 2020. Retrieved22 September 2020.
  106. Tidey, Alice (21 September 2020). "Airbus unveils concepts for zero-emission planes powered by hydrogen". euronews. Retrieved22 September 2020.
  107. Anderson, Jack (8 May 1978). "New European Airbus could affect US jobs". Free-lance Star.
  108. Porter, Andrew (29 May 2005). "Trade war threatened over £379m subsidy for Airbus". The Times. UK.
  109. "Q&A: Boeing and Airbus". BBC News. 7 October 2004. Retrieved1 January 2010.
  110. "See you in court; Boeing v Airbus: The Airbus-Boeing subsidy row". The Economist. 25 March 2005.
  111. Burgos, Annalisa (11 January 2005). "U.S., EU To Settle Airbus-Boeing Dispute". Forbes.
  112. "US, EU meet on Airbus-Boeing dispute". Journal of Commerce Online. 24 February 2005.
  113. "U.S.-EU Talks on Boeing, Airbus Subsidies Falter". Los Angeles Times. 19 March 2005.
  114. Schneider, Howard (19 May 2011). "U.S. claims victory in Airbus-Boeing case". The Washington Post, Bloomberg. Retrieved19 May 2011.
  115. "WTO Rules Boeing Got Improper U.S. Subsidies". The Wall Street Journal. 1 February 2011.
  116. "The exclusion of EADS from the investment universe of the Government Pension Fund – Global has been reviewed". Regjeringen.no. 10 May 2006.
  117. "Inside story; Share scandals in France". The Economist. 13 October 2007.
  118. "Jailed Yengeni shows no remorse". Sunday Times (South Africa). 27 August 2006.
  119. "Top ANC official resigns". BBC News. 4 October 2001. Retrieved12 July 2011.
  120. "Court Diary". The Arms Deal Virtual Press Office. C²I² Systems. Archived from the original on 17 March 2005.
  121. "SFO launches criminal probe into deal with Saudi national guard". Exaro. 10 August 2012.
  122. "Third insider blows whistle on 'corrupt' Saudi defence deal". Exaro. 9 July 2012.
  123. "R v Airbus SE – Deferred Prosecution Agreement". Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom). 2 March 2020.
  124. Martine Orange and Yann Philippin (1 August 2017)."The huge corruption scandal threatening Airbus". Mediapart.
  125. "Airbus ran 'massive' bribery scheme to win orders". Financial Times. 31 January 2020.
  126. "Airbus Corruption Scandal May Lead Straight to the Top". Der Spiegel. 9 October 2017. Hence, the message from Enders to all those who haven't yet got the message, to those who think they can just carry on as before, including the bribery: "Leave this company rather than make us take you out of the company. Because we're in a dead serious situation, dear colleagues."
  127. "convention judiciaire d'intérêt public entre le procureur de la république financier et Airbus SE"(PDF) (in French). Parquet national financier. 29 January 2020.
  128. "SFO enters into €991m Deferred Prosecution Agreement with Airbus as part of a €3.6bn global resolution". Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom). 31 January 2020.
  129. "USA v. Airbus SE deferred prosecution agreement". District court for the district of Columbia. 31 January 2020.
  130. "Airbus Agrees to Pay over $3.9 Billion in Global Penalties to Resolve Foreign Bribery and ITAR Case". justice.gov. 31 January 2020.
  131. "Airbus to pay SFO €1bn in corruption settlement". BBC. 31 January 2020.
  132. "Airbus fined billions in global bribery settlement". Deutsche Welle. 1 February 2020.
  133. "Airbus bribery investigation highlights power of international cooperation in tackling corruption". Transparency International. 3 February 2020.
  134. "Bribery Scandal(s): Airbus rocked by corruption allegations". Handelsblatt. 10 September 2017.
  135. "Airbus BizLab". Airbus. Retrieved12 July 2021.
  1. "The reports identified problematic transactions in the sale of civil aircraft in several countries, including Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Austria. This list is far from exhaustive"
  2. "In February 2016, French police officers from the Central Anti-Corruption Office searched the homes of both Lahoud, Airbus's former second-in-command"
  3. "They revealed, too, the tricks the SMO used to hide the alleged commissions on the sale of 34 Airbuses to Turkey, thanks to false invoices in relation to a fictitious pipeline project in the Caspian Sea"
  4. "The Agreement does not provide any protection against prosecution of any natural ' persons"
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Airbus.

Airbus
airbus, article, talk, language, watch, edit, coordinates, 6073046, 3642356, 6073046, 3642356, ɛər, french, ɛʁbys, listen, german, ˈɛːɐ, bʊs, listen, spanish, ˈejɾbus, european, multinational, aerospace, corporation, designs, manufactures, sells, civil, milita. Airbus Article Talk Language Watch Edit Coordinates 43 36 26 N 1 21 51 E 43 6073046 N 1 3642356 E 43 6073046 1 3642356 Airbus SE ˈ ɛer b ʌ s French ɛʁbys listen German ˈɛːɐ bʊs listen Spanish ˈejɾbus is a European 7 multinational aerospace corporation Airbus designs manufactures and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures aircraft in Europe and various countries outside Europe The company has three divisions Commercial Aircraft Airbus S A S Defence and Space and Helicopters the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries 8 Airbus SELagardere production plant in Toulouse FranceFormerlyParent company European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV 2000 2014 Airbus Group NV 2014 2015 Airbus Group SE 2015 2017 Subsidiary Airbus Industrie GIE 1970 2001 Airbus SAS 2001 present TypePublic Societas Europaea Traded asEuronext AIR BMAD AIR FWB AIR CAC 40 Component Euro Stoxx 50 component MDAX ComponentISINNL0000235190IndustryAerospace defencePredecessorAerospatiale Matra DASA CASA BAeFounded18 December 1970 50 years ago 1970 12 18 as Airbus Industrie GIE FounderRoger Beteille Felix Kracht Henri Ziegler Franz Josef StraussHeadquartersLeiden Netherlands Headquarters Blagnac Greater Toulouse France Main Office 1 Madrid Spain International Office Hamburg Germany Operations Office Area servedWorldwideKey peopleRene Obermann Chairman 2 Guillaume Faury CEO 3 ProductsCivilian A220 A300 A310 A318 A319 A320 A321 A330 A340 A350 A380 Unmanned aerial vehiclesRevenue 49 91 billion 4 2020 Operating income 510 million 4 2020 Net income 1 17 billion 4 2020 Total assets 110 1 billion 4 2020 Total equity 6 46 billion 4 2020 OwnerAs of November 2020 update 5 SOGEPA France 11 0 GZBV Germany 10 9 Capital Group Companies 10 1 6 SEPI Spain 4 1 The Vanguard Group 2 19 6 PRIMECAP Management Company 2 1 6 Invesco 1 1 6 Others 74 0 Number of employees131 349 2020 4 DivisionsAirbus Defence and Space SAS Airbus Helicopters SASSubsidiariesAirbus S A S Airbus Group Inc Airbus Corporate Jets Airbus Operations S A S Navblue Stelia Aerospace Airbus Transport International TestiaWebsitewww wbr airbus wbr com The company s main civil aeroplane business is conducted through the French company Airbus S A S 9 based in Blagnac a suburb of Toulouse with production and manufacturing facilities mostly in Europe France Germany Spain United Kingdom but also in China the United States and Canada Final assembly production is based in Toulouse France Hamburg Germany Seville Spain Tianjin China Mobile United States and Montreal Canada 10 The company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly by wire airliner the Airbus A320 11 12 and the world s largest passenger airliner the A380 The 12 000th aircraft an A220 was delivered to Delta Air Lines on 20 May 2019 13 By October 2016 the global Airbus fleet have performed more than 110 million flights totalling over 215 billion kilometres and carrying 12 billion passengers 14 As of 2019 Airbus is the world s largest airliner manufacturer and took the most airliner orders surpassing rival Boeing 15 Airbus s registered headquarters is in Leiden Netherlands but its head office is located in Toulouse France 16 The SE in its corporate name means it is a societas Europaea which enables it to be registered as European rather than Dutch Its shares are traded in France Germany and Spain The company is led by CEO Guillaume Faury and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index Contents 1 History 2 Products 2 1 Civilian 2 2 Consumer products 2 3 Military 2 4 Airbus aircraft numbering system 2 4 1 Engine codes 2 5 Orders and deliveries 3 Organisation 3 1 Divisions 3 1 1 Commercial aircraft 3 1 2 Defence and space 3 1 3 Helicopters 3 2 Subsidiaries 3 2 1 Joint ventures 3 3 Governance 3 4 Corporate affairs 3 5 International manufacturing presence 3 6 Financial information 4 Environmental record 5 Controversies 5 1 Government subsidies 5 2 Cluster bomb allegation 5 3 Insider trading investigation 5 4 Bribery allegations 5 4 1 South Africa 5 4 2 Saudi Arabia 5 4 3 British and French investigations 6 Innovation 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory EditMain article History of Airbus The current company is the product of consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970 In 2000 the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS NV was established In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities EADS owned 100 of the pre existing Eurocopter SA established in 1992 as well as 80 of Airbus Industrie GIE In 2001 Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as Airbus SAS a simplified joint stock company In 2006 EADS acquired BAE Systems s remaining 20 of Airbus 17 EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014 and 2015 respectively 18 19 20 Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE the executive committees of the parent and subsidiary companies were aligned in January 2017 but the companies were kept as separate legal entities The holding company was given its present name in April 2017 21 Airbus SE Est 2000 renamed 2017 Aerospatiale Matra Est 1999 Aerospatiale Formed 1970 Matra Est 1937 DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG Est 1989 Daimler Benz s aerospace interests MTU Munchen Est 1934 Dornier Flugzeugwerke Est 1922 Messerschmitt Bolkow Blohm Est 1968 Construcciones Aeronauticas SA Est 1923 vte The logos of Airbus Industrie GIE and Airbus SAS displayed a stylised turbine symbol redolent of a jet engine and a font similar to Helvetica Black The logo colours were reflected in the standard Airbus aircraft livery in each period The EADS logo between 2000 and 2010 combined the logos of the merged companies DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG a four ray star and Aerospatiale Matra a curved arrow after which these elements were removed and a new font with 3D shading was chosen This font was retained in the logos of Airbus Group NV 2014 2015 and Airbus Group SE 2015 2017 then Airbus SE Original for Airbus A300 2014 2017 2017 PresentProducts EditCivilian Edit The Airbus A380 the world s largest airliner The Airbus product line started with the A300 in 1972 the world s first twin aisle twin engined aircraft A shorter re winged re engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310 Building on its success Airbus launched the A320 the first commercial jet to use a digital fly by wire control system The A320 has been and continues to be a major commercial success The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets A stretched version is known as the A321 The A320 family s primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family 22 The longer range widebody products the twin jet A330 and the four engine A340 have efficient wings enhanced by winglets The Airbus A340 500 has an operating range of 16 700 kilometres 9 000 nmi the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777 200LR range of 17 446 km or 9 420 nautical miles 23 All Airbus aircraft developed since then have cockpit systems similar to the A320 making it easier to train crew Production of the four engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin engine counterparts such as the Boeing 777 24 Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series tentatively dubbed NSR for New Short Range aircraft 25 26 Those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9 10 for the NSR Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements 27 This A320 Enhanced should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4 5 shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017 2018 On 24 September 2009 the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from 800 million to 1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like the Chinese Comac C919 28 scheduled to operate by 2015 2020 29 In July 2007 Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx marking the end of the A300 A310 production line Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg and A350 A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex CEO Christian Streiff 30 Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003 31 32 Product list and details date information from Airbus Aircraft Description Seats Max 1st flight Production ceasedA220 2 engines single aisle originally Bombardier CSeries 108 130 133 160 2013 09 16A300 2 engines twin aisle 228 254 361 1972 10 28 2007 03 27 561 built A310 2 engines twin aisle modified A300 187 279 1982 04 03 1998 03 27 255 built A318 2 engines single aisle shortened 6 17 m from A320 107 132 2002 01 15 2013 12 31 80 built A319 2 engines single aisle shortened 3 77 m from A320 124 156 1995 08 25A320 2 engines single aisle 150 186 1987 02 22A321 2 engines single aisle lengthened 6 94 m from A320 185 240 1993 03 11A330 2 engines twin aisle 246 300 406 440 1992 11 02A340 4 engines twin aisle 239 377 377 440 1991 10 25 2011 11 10 380 built 24 A350 2 engines twin aisle 270 350 475 2013 06 14A380 4 engines twin aisle double deck 555 853 2005 04 27 2021 251 built 33 VIP aircraft Airbus A330 of Qatar Amiri Flight taxiing at Zagreb airport Airbus Corporate Jets markets and modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company ranging from the A318 Elite to the double deck Airbus A380 Prestige Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997 Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was initially used only for the A319CJ it is now often used for all models including the VIP widebodies As of December 2008 121 corporate and private jets are operating 164 aircraft have been ordered including an A380 Prestige and 107 A320 family Corporate Jet 34 In September 2014 Aerion partnered with Airbus mainly Airbus Defence 35 to collaborate on designing the Aerion AS2 a supersonic 11 seater private business jet hoping for a market entry in 2021 36 Airbus was replaced with Lockheed Martin in 2017 37 Consumer products Edit In June 2013 Airbus announced that it was developing a range of smart suitcases known as Bag2Go for air travellers in conjunction with luggage maker Rimowa and IT firm T Systems 38 39 The cases feature a collection of built in electronic gadgets which communicate with a smartphone app and with the IT systems of the airline to assist the traveller and improve reliability and security of baggage handling Gadgets include a weighing scale and a location tracker using GPS for location tracking RFID for identification and a SIM card for messaging 40 41 Since then similar products have been announced by other companies Military Edit In the late 1990s Airbus became increasingly interested in developing and selling to the military aviation market It embarked on two main fields of development aerial refuelling with the Airbus A310 MRTT Multi Role Tanker Transport and the Airbus A330 MRTT and tactical airlift with the Airbus A400M Atlas The first A400M in Seville 26 June 2008 In January 1999 Airbus established a separate company Airbus Military SAS to undertake development and production of a turboprop powered tactical transport aircraft the A400M 42 43 The A400M is being developed by several NATO members Belgium France Germany Luxembourg Spain Turkey and the UK as an alternative to relying on foreign aircraft for tactical airlift capacity such as the Ukrainian Antonov An 124 Ruslan 44 and the American C 130 Hercules 45 46 The A400M project has suffered several delays 47 48 Airbus has threatened to cancel the development unless it receives state subsidies 49 50 Pakistan placed an order for the Airbus A310 MRTT in 2008 which will be a conversion of an existing airframe as the base model A310 is no longer in production 51 On 25 February 2008 Airbus won an order for three air refuelling MRTT aircraft adapted from A330 passenger jets from the United Arab Emirates 52 On 1 March 2008 a consortium of Airbus and Northrop Grumman had won a 35 billion contract to build the new in flight refuelling aircraft KC 45A a US built version of the MRTT for the USAF 53 The decision drew a formal complaint from Boeing 54 55 and the KC X contract was cancelled to begin bidding afresh 56 57 Airbus aircraft numbering system Edit The Airbus numbering system is an alpha numeric model number followed by a dash and a three digit number 58 The model number often takes the form of the letter A followed by a 3 a digit then followed normally by a 0 for example A350 There are some exceptions such as A220 A318 A319 A321 and A400M The succeeding three digit number represents the aircraft series the engine manufacturer and engine version number respectively To use an A380 800 with Engine Alliance EA GP7200 engines as an example The code is 8 for series 800 6 for Engine Alliance and engine version 1 thus the aircraft number is A380 861 An additional letter is sometimes used These include C for a combi version passenger freighter F for a freighter model R for the long range model and X for the enhanced model Engine codes Edit Code Manufacturing company0 General Electric GE 1 CFM International GE and SNECMA now a subsidiary of Safran 2 Pratt amp Whitney P amp W 3 International Aero Engines P amp W R R MTU Kawasaki Mitsubishi and IHI IAE V2500 for A320ceo Family 4 Rolls Royce R R 5 CFM International GE and SNECMA Safran CFM I LEAP 1A for A320neo Family 6 Engine Alliance GE and P amp W EA GP7200 for the A380 7 Pratt amp Whitney P amp W PW1100G for A320neo Family Orders and deliveries Edit Aircraft Orders Deliveries In operation UnfilledA220 644 168 168 476A300 561 561 231 A310 255 255 56 A320ceo 8 127 8 094 7 517 51A320neo 7 468 1 877 1 877 5 591A330ceo 1 480 1 455 1 375 25A330neo 331 63 62 268A340 377 377 214 A350 915 438 438 477A380 251 248 243 3Total 20 409 13 536 12 181 6 873 All models included Data as of 31 July 2021 59 Organisation EditDivisions Edit Revenues by division as of 2014 60 Commercial aircraft 69 Defence and Space 21 Helicopters 10 Revenues by division as of 2018 61 Commercial aircraft 74 Defence and Space 17 Helicopters 9 Commercial aircraft Edit An Airbus A330neo and a Qatar Airways Airbus A350 900 at Toulouse Blagnac Airport Commercial aircraft generated 66 of total revenue for the group in 2013 62 The product portfolio of such aircraft encompasses short range models such as the A320 family and the world s largest passenger airliner the A380 Final assembly for this division is the Airbus Toulouse facility EADS Sogerma Airbus Executive and Private Aviation Airbus Transport International Airbus Transport International is a cargo airline that operates a fleet of five Airbus Beluga aircraft The belugas carry aircraft parts from factories to final assembly lines In 2020 three Airbus Beluga XL aircraft which can carry two A350 wings rather than one Airbus A350 wing These will slowly replace the five original belugas in the coming years Defence and space Edit The division Airbus Defence and Space was formed in January 2014 as part of the group restructuring from the former EADS divisions Airbus Military Astrium and Cassidian composed of Cassidian Electronics develops and manufactures sensors radars avionics and electronic warfare systems for military and security applications Cassidian Air Systems develops manned and unmanned aerial systems UAVs mission avionics electronic defence and warning systems and Cassidian Systems provides global security systems such as command amp control lead system integration TETRA and TETRAPOL communication systems for public safety industry transportation and defence This line of business was the first one in the world to begin field tests with TETRA Enhanced Data Service TEDS 63 64 EADS 3 Sigma a Hellenic company focused in the design development production and services provision of airborne and surface target drone systems The Airbus Military division which manufactured tanker transport and mission aircraft Airbus Helicopters the world s largest helicopter supplier Astrium provided systems for aerial land naval and civilian security applications including Ariane Galileo and Cassidian Through Cassidian EADS was a partner in the Eurofighter consortium as well as in the missile systems provider MBDA Helicopters Edit Airbus Helicopters formerly known as Eurocopter is a helicopter manufacturing and support company See also Airbus Helicopters Inc Subsidiaries Edit Airbus APWorks 65 AirBusiness Academy 66 Airbus Group Inc previously EADS North America the U S holding company for the North American activities of Airbus Group Airbus Transport International Cargo Airline managing the transportation of Airbus parts between different facilities APSYS 67 CRISA Dornier Consulting NAVBLUE Premium AEROTEC 68 Satair Stelia Aerospace TestiaJoint ventures Edit Name Holding DescriptionAirbus Canada Limited Partnership 69 75 manufacturer of Airbus A220 aircraftArianeGroup 50 manufacturer of Ariane 5 and Ariane 6 launch vehiclesATR 50 manufacturer of ATR 42 and ATR 72 regional aircraftDassault Aviation 10 manufacturer of Dassault Rafale and Dassault Mirage 2000Eurofighter GmbH 46 manufacturer of Eurofighter TyphoonMBDA 37 5 develops and manufactures missilesPanavia Aircraft GmbH 42 5 manufacturer of Panavia Tornado In September 2014 Airbus considered divesting Dassault and several other units to focus on aerospace 70 It reduced its shareholding in Dassault Aviation to 10 by the end of 2016 Governance Edit The corporate management of the Airbus SE as of July 2021 71 Chief Executive Officer Guillaume Faury Executive Committee Member TitleDominik Asam Chief Financial OfficerThierry Baril Chief Human Resources OfficerBruno Even Chief Executive Officer Airbus HelicoptersJohn Harrison General CounselCatherine Jestin Executive Vice President Digital and Information ManagementMichael Schollhorn Chief Executive Officer Airbus Defence and SpaceJulie Kitcher Executive Vice President Communications and Corporate AffairsPhilippe Mhun Executive Vice President Programmes and ServicesChristian Scherer Chief Commercial Officer and Head of Airbus InternationalAlberto Gutierrez Chief Operating OfficerSabine Klauke Chief Technical OfficerCorporate affairs Edit This section needs expansion You can help by adding to it March 2016 The subsidiary Airbus Middle East is headquartered in the Dubai Airport Free Zone 72 This subsidiary opened in 2006 73 The subsidiary Airbus Japan K K エアバス ジャパン株式会社 is headquartered in the Roppongi Hills Mori Tower in Roppongi Minato Tokyo 74 International manufacturing presence Edit This section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information October 2021 The main Airbus factory in Blagnac is located next to Toulouse Blagnac Airport 43 36 44 N 1 21 47 E 43 61222 N 1 36306 E 43 61222 1 36306 Main Airbus factory in Hamburg Germany Main Airbus factory in Getafe Madrid Spain Play media The Airbus factory at Broughton Flintshire Wales UK Airbus has several final assembly lines for different models and markets These are Toulouse France A320 A330 family A350 family and A380 Hamburg Germany A318 A319 A320 and A321 Seville Spain A400M Tianjin China A319 and A320 Airbus Mobile Mobile Alabama USA A220 A319 A320 and A321 Mirabel Canada A220 Broughton Wales Wings Construction 75 Airbus however has a number of other plants in different European locations reflecting its foundation as a consortium An original solution to the problem of moving aircraft parts between the different factories and the assembly plants is the use of the Airbus Beluga a modified cargo aircraft capable of carrying entire sections of fuselage Boeing adopted a similar solution with 4 adapted 747 400s to transport the components of the 787 An exception to this scheme is the A380 whose fuselage and wings are too large for sections to be carried by the Beluga Large A380 parts are brought by ship to Bordeaux and then transported to the Toulouse assembly plant by the Itineraire a Grand Gabarit a specially enlarged waterway and road route 76 Airbus opened an assembly plant in Tianjin People s Republic of China for its A320 series airliners in 2009 77 78 79 Airbus started constructing a 350 million component manufacturing plant in Harbin China in July 2009 which will employ 1 000 people 80 81 Scheduled to be operated by the end of 2010 the 30 000 square metre plant will manufacture composite parts and assemble composite work packages for the A350 XWB A320 families and future Airbus programmes Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Corporation Hafei Aviation Industry Company Ltd AviChina Industry amp Technology Company and other Chinese partners hold the 80 stake of the plant while Airbus control the remaining 20 82 unreliable source North America is an important region to Airbus in terms of both aircraft sales and suppliers 2 000 of the total of approximately 5 300 Airbus jetliners sold by Airbus around the world representing every aircraft in its product line from the 107 seat A318 to the 565 passenger A380 are ordered by North American customers According to Airbus US contractors supporting an estimated 120 000 jobs earned an estimated 5 5 billion 2003 worth of business For example one version of the A380 has 51 American content in terms of work share value Plans for a Mobile Alabama aircraft assembly plant were unveiled by Airbus CEO Fabrice Bregier from the Mobile Convention Centre on 2 July 2012 The plans include a 600 million factory at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley for the assembly of the A220 A319 A320 and A321 aircraft It could employ up to 1 000 full time workers when operational Construction began on 8 April 2013 and became operable by 2015 83 producing up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017 84 85 In February 2019 Airbus stated that production of the A380 will end in 2021 after Emirates the biggest customer for the plane reduced its outstanding order for 53 planes to just fourteen 86 Financial information Edit This section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information June 2020 Revenues by region as of 2013 60 Europe 36 Asia Pacific 33 North America 15 Middle East 9 Africa and Latin America 7 In October 2005 the British Ministry of Defence warned European politicians to stop as it sees it interfering in the corporate governance of EADS The former UK Defence Procurement Minister Lord Drayson hinted that the UK government a major customer for EADS may withhold future contracts As a key customer we see it as important for EADS to move in a direction that is free from political interference 87 On 4 April 2006 DaimlerChrysler announced its intention to reduce its shareholding from 30 to 22 5 The company places a value of the stake at approximately 2 0 billion 88 Lagardere will reduce its holding by an identical amount However Caisse des Depots et Consignations a unit of the French government acquired 2 25 of EADS At issue as a result is the fact that the German and French shareholdings are now in imbalance 89 On 30 August 2006 shortly after the stock price decline caused by the A380 delivery delays more than 5 of EADS stock has been reportedly purchased by the Russian state owned Vneshtorgbank 90 91 Now its share is nearly 6 In December 2007 Vneshtorgbank sold EADS shares to another state controlled bank Vneshekonombank EADS sharers are to be delivered by Vneshekonombank to the charter capital of JSC United Aircraft Corporation in 2008 92 93 On 3 October 2006 shortly after EADS admitted further delays in the Airbus 380 programme would cost the company 4 8 billion euros in lost earnings in 2010 EADS shares traded on the Paris arm of Euronext were suspended after they surpassed the 10 loss limit Trading resumed later in the day with the one day loss holding at 7 In 2007 Dubai Holding acquired 3 12 of EADS stock making the Dubai buy out fund one of the largest institutional shareholders 94 In 2008 EADS had arms sales equivalent of 17 9 billion which constituted 28 of total revenue 95 In April 2013 Daimler sold its shares in EADS 96 As of 22 June 2018 update 73 6 of Airbus Group stock is publicly traded on six European stock exchanges while the remaining 26 4 is owned by a Contractual Partnership As at 26 April 2018 the partnership is owned by SOGEPA 11 1 GZBV 11 1 and SEPI 4 2 SOGEPA is owned by the French State GZBV is majority owned by KfW while SEPI is a Spanish state holding company 97 In April 2020 Airbus announced that it has cut aircraft production by a third due to the COVID 19 outbreak According to Guillaume Faury the company was bleeding cash at an unprecedented speed The recession put its survival at stake and presented the need for deep job cuts throughout all Airbus departments 3 000 workers in France were involved in government assisted furlough schemes 98 Finances 99 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004Sales EUR billion 59 256 56 480 49 128 45 752 42 822 43 265 39 123 39 434 34 206 31 761EBITDA in Mio EUR 4 575 4 142 3 473 2 769 1 446 4 439 1 751 2 033 4 365 3 841EBIT in Mio EUR 2 661 2 186 1 696 1 231 322 2 830 52 399 2 852 2 432Research and development costs EUR million 3 160 3 142 3 152 2 939 2 825 2 669 2 608 2 458 2 075 2 126Consolidated net income EUR million 1 465 1 198 1 104 584 722 1 613 433 199 1 769 1 342Earnings per share in EUR 1 85 1 46 1 27 0 68 0 94 1 95 0 56 0 12 2 11 1 50Dividend per share in EUR 0 75 0 60 0 45 0 22 0 00 0 20 0 12 0 12 0 65 0 50Free cash flow in EUR million 818 3 472 958 2 707 585 2 559 3 354 2 029 2 413 1 614New orders in EUR million 218 681 102 471 131 027 83 147 45 847 98 648 136 799 69 018 92 551 44 117Order backlog at 31 12 in EUR million 686 734 566 463 540 978 448 493 389 067 400 248 339 532 262 810 253 235 184 288Employees number 31 12 144 061 140 405 133 115 121 691 119 506 118 349 116 493 116 805 113 210 110 662accounted for under IFRS The fiscal year ends on 31 12 Sales of military equipment in 2012 amounted to 15 4 billion US dollars 100 Environmental record EditAirbus has committed to the Flightpath 2050 an aviation industry plan to reduce noise CO2 and NOx emissions 101 Airbus was the first aerospace business to become ISO 14001 certified in January 2007 this is a broader certification covering the whole organisation not just the aircraft it produces 102 In association with Honeywell and JetBlue Airbus has developed a biofuel to reduce pollution and dependence on fossil fuels claiming that this has the potential to replace up to a third of the world s aviation fuel Algae based biofuel absorbs carbon dioxide during growth and does not compete with food production This alternative may be commercially available by 2030 but algae and other vegetation based fuels are in an early stage of development and fuel bearing algae has been expensive to develop 103 Airbus offers delivery flights to airlines using a 10 biofuel blend in standard engines The fuel does not cut carbon emissions but is free of sulphur emissions and demonstrates that the fuel could be used in commercial flights in unmodified engines 104 In September 2020 Airbus unveiled three liquid hydrogen fueled ZEROe concept aircraft that it claims could become the first commercial zero emission aircraft entering service by 2035 105 106 Controversies EditGovernment subsidies Edit Boeing has continually protested over launch aid and other forms of government aid to Airbus while Airbus has argued that Boeing receives illegal subsidies through military and research contracts and tax breaks 107 In July 2004 former Boeing CEO Harry Stonecipher accused Airbus of abusing a 1992 bilateral EU US agreement providing for disciplines for large civil aircraft support from governments Airbus is given reimbursable launch investment RLI called launch aid by the US from European governments with the money being paid back with interest plus indefinite royalties but only if the aircraft is a commercial success 108 Airbus contends that this system is fully compliant with the 1992 agreement and WTO rules The agreement allows up to 33 of the programme cost to be met through government loans which are to be fully repaid within 17 years with interest and royalties These loans are held at a minimum interest rate equal to the cost of government borrowing plus 0 25 which would be below market rates available to Airbus without government support 109 Airbus claims that since the signature of the EU US agreement in 1992 it has repaid European governments more than U S 6 7 billion and that this is 40 more than it has received Airbus argues that the military contracts awarded to Boeing the second largest U S defence contractor are in effect a form of subsidy such as the controversy surrounding the Boeing KC 767 military contracting arrangements The significant U S government support of technology development via NASA also provides significant support to Boeing as do the large tax breaks offered to Boeing which some people claim are in violation of the 1992 agreement and WTO rules In its recent products such as the 787 Boeing has also been offered direct financial support from local and state governments 110 In January 2005 the European Union and United States trade representatives Peter Mandelson and Robert Zoellick respectively agreed to talks aimed at resolving the increasing tensions 111 112 These talks were not successful with the dispute becoming more acrimonious rather than approaching a settlement 113 WTO ruled in August 2010 and in May 2011 that Airbus had received improper government subsidies through loans with below market rates from several European countries 114 In a separate ruling in February 2011 WTO found that Boeing had received local and federal aid in violation of WTO rules 115 Cluster bomb allegation Edit In 2005 the Government Pension Fund of Norway recommended the exclusion of several companies producing cluster bombs or components EADS and its sister company EADS Finance BV were among them arguing that EADS manufactures key components for cluster bombs The criticism was centred around TDA a joint venture between EADS and Thales S A TDA produced the mortar ammunition PR Cargo which can be considered cluster ammunition however this definition has since been successfully battled by EADS EADS and its subsidiaries are now regarded as fulfilling all the conditions of the Ottawa Treaty According to the new point of view no product of EADS or its subsidiaries falls into the category of antipersonnel mines as defined by the Ottawa Treaty landmines under the Ottawa Treaty In April 2006 the fund declared that the basis for excluding EADS from investments related to production of cluster munitions is no longer valid however its shareholding of MBDA means the fund still excludes EADS due to its indirect involvement in nuclear weapons production 116 Insider trading investigation Edit On 2 June 2006 co CEO Noel Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert resigned following the controversy caused by the June 2006 announcement that deliveries of the A380 would be delayed by a further six months Forgeard was one of a number of executives including Jean Paul Gut who exercised stock options in November 2005 and March 2006 He and twenty one other executives are when under investigation as to whether they knew about the delays in the Airbus A380 project which caused a 26 fall in EADS shares when publicised The French government s actions were also under investigation The state owned bank Caisse des Depots et Consignations CDC bought part of Lagardere s 7 5 stake in EADS in April 2006 allowing that latter to partially escape the June 2006 losses 117 Bribery allegations Edit South Africa Edit In 2003 Tony Yengeni former chief whip of South Africa s African National Congress was convicted of fraud worth around US 5 billion relating to an arms deal with South Africa in which Airbus formerly EADS were major players 118 It was claimed that Airbus had admitted that it had rendered assistance to around thirty senior officials including defence force chief General Siphiwe Nyanda to obtain luxury vehicles 119 In March 2003 South Africa withdrew all charges of bribery against the former head of EADS South Africa 120 and in September 2004 the prosecutor s office dismissed the bribery charges against Yengeni citation needed Saudi Arabia Edit In August 2012 the UK s Serious Fraud Office opened a criminal investigation into an EADS subsidiary GPT Special Project Management Ltd regarding bribery allegations made by GPT s former programme director Ian Foxley Foxley alleged that luxury cars were bought for senior Saudis and that millions of pounds sterling were paid to mysterious Cayman Islands companies possibly to secure a 2 billion contract to renew the Saudi Arabian National Guard s military telecommunications network 121 Foxley s allegations were supported by two other GPT employees 122 The later agreement between Airbus and the SFO on 31 January 2020 excluded settlement of this case 123 British and French investigations Edit The French National Financial Prosecutor s Office PNF the UK Serious Fraud Office SFO and the US Department of Justice DoJ had been jointly investigating irregularities in Airbus marketing practices since 2016 in particular the activities of agents Saudi Arabia Kazakhstan the Philippines Indonesia and Austria a but also China the United Arab Emirates South Korea Japan Saudi Arabia Taiwan Kuwait Turkey Russia Mexico Brazil Vietnam India Colombia and Nepal 123 In July 2016 SFO opened a criminal investigation into suspicions of fraud bribes and corruption after Airbus informed British authorities of a failure to disclose the role played by some intermediaries facilitating the sale of aircraft Airbus was required to provide this information in order to benefit from export credits which the British French and German governments had suspended In March 2017 the PNF subsequently opened a preliminary investigation into suspicions of fraud and corruption in civil aviation activities in cooperation with the SFO 123 The allegations included that from 2012 onwards Airbus was responsible for recruiting and remunerating intermediaries to influence the award of civil and military contracts Payments worth hundreds of millions of euros in alleged secret commissions were made and numerous sales including in Saudi Arabia Kazakhstan Philippines Indonesia Austria China and Mauritius were under suspicion of bribery 124 verification needed 125 The investigation focussed on the Airbus Strategy and Marketing Organization SMO the department responsible for negotiating sales contracts and which La Tribune reported as having a network and an incredible influence around the world Directed successively by Jean Paul Gut and Marwan Lahoud the SMO was dissolved in 2016 under the new executive director Thomas Enders as part of a clean hands operation 126 In 2014 in a case referred to as the Kazakhgate affair a search at Airbus Helicopters by French authorities found emails confirming that Airbus had agreed in principle to pay 12 million in pots of wine to the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan to facilitate the sale of helicopters Officers from the Central Anti Corruption Office OCLCIFF then searched the home of Marwan Lahoud on 8 February 2016 b This revealed that two Turkish intermediaries had claimed payment of commissions due in connection with the sale of 160 aircraft to China valued at US 10 billion A message by Lahoud suggested that the commissions could reach US 250 million The SMO was to conceal these commissions as false invoices for a fictitious Caspian pipeline project c In January 2020 French British and American courts validated three agreements between Airbus and the PNF 127 the UK SFO 123 128 and the US DoJ 129 130 Airbus recognised the charges and agreed to pay fines of 3 6 billion in France 984 million in the United Kingdom and 526 million in the United States The penalties were the highest ever issued by the French and British bodies 131 132 133 These settlements close the prosecution of Airbus regarding the Kazakhstan case but not allegations of misconduct in Saudi Arabia China and Turkey which Airbus denies 134 Airbus managers may still be pursued as private individuals d Innovation EditIn 2015 Airbus launches an accelerator program to infuse startup and intrapreneurial innovations called Airbus BizLab 135 See also EditAirbus Training Centre Europe Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom Airbus affair Boeing Bombardier Aerospace Comac Competition between Airbus and Boeing Competition in the regional jet market Embraer Liebherr Aerospace United Aircraft CorporationReferences Edit contact us Airbus Rene Obermann Airbus Guillaume Faury Airbus a b c d e f Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2020 PDF Airbus Retrieved 28 May 2021 Share Price amp Information Airbus Retrieved 17 November 2020 a b c d AIRBUS SE Shareholders Board Members Managers and Company Profile NL0000235190 MarketScreener www marketscreener com Airbus Annual Report 2019 PDF Airbus SE p 124 The Company is a European public company Societas Europaea with its corporate seat in Amsterdam the Netherlands and registered with the Dutch Commercial Register Handelsregister About Airbus Airbus Retrieved 16 June 2017 Airbus SE Annual Report 2019 General Description of the Company and its Share Capital 3 3 6 Simplified Group Structure Chart Worldwide presence Airbus Retrieved 24 February 2020 Beatson Jim 2 April 1989 Air Safety Is America Ready to Fly by Wire The Washington Post History Imaginative advances Airbus Archived from the original on 27 December 2009 Retrieved 30 September 2009 Airbus celebrates delivery of its 12 000th aircraft an A220 100 to Delta Air Lines Press release Airbus 20 May 2019 A journey of 10 000 aircraft and counting Airbus pioneering spirit and commitment to shaping the future Press release Airbus 14 October 2016 Exclusive Airbus beats goal with 863 jet deliveries in 2019 ousts Boeing from top spot Reuters 1 January 2020 Contact us Airbus Retrieved 12 January 2021 BAE Systems says completed sale of Airbus stake to EADS Forbes 13 October 2006 Archived from the original on 19 March 2007 Retrieved 13 October 2006 EADS changes name to Airbus subscription required Financial Times 2014 Airbus Group Shareholders Approve All Resolutions At 2015 AGM Press release Airbus Group 27 May 2015 Retrieved 25 August 2016 Frankfurt Stock Exchange Archived from the original on 8 February 2019 Airbus shareholders approve all resolutions at 2017 AGM Press release Airbus 12 April 2017 Retrieved 12 April 2017 Stevenson Richard 21 March 1993 A321 set for takeoff at Airbus Question of subsidies threat to U S companies rise Chicago Tribune Simon Calder The man who pays his way The Independent UK 18 October 2003 Retrieved 23 April 2010 a b Ostrower John 10 November 2011 EADS indicates termination of Airbus A340 programme Flightglobal Retrieved 11 November 2011 Airbus may not do A320 replacement alone Aviation Week 2 July 2007 The 737 Story Smoke and mirrors obscure 737 and Airbus A320 replacement studies Flight International 7 February 2006 Retrieved 4 September 2011 Airbus aims to thwart Boeing s narrowbody plans with upgraded A320 Enhanced Flight International 20 June 2006 China names first jumbo jet C919 to take off in 8 years Xinhua News Agency 6 March 2009 Retrieved 8 September 2009 Airbus needs extra cash for new planes Reuters 24 September 2009 Retrieved 1 July 2011 Airbus to base A320 production in Hamburg 350s and 380s in Toulouse Forbes 15 January 2007 Archived from the original on 12 October 2007 Webster Ben 1 May 2003 BA chief blames French for killing off Concorde The Times UK Woodman Peter 10 April 2003 End of an era Concorde is retired The Independent UK News Metropolitan Airport 9 April 2021 Last Ever Airbus A380 Completes Successful Test Flight Aviation News Metropolitan Airport News Retrieved 15 May 2021 Airbus Executive and Private Aviation airbus com Archived from the original on 20 April 2010 Retrieved 6 June 2015 Airbus Group teams up with Aerion Leeham Co 27 October 2014 Accessed 26 September 2014 Van Wagenen Juliet Airbus and Aerion Collaborate to Develop Supersonic Business Jet High Performance Flight Aviation Today 22 September 2014 Accessed 27 October 2014 Lockheed Martin Becomes Newest Partner for Aerion s Supersonic BizJet David Flynn 7 June 2013 Airbus reveals iPhone enabled smart bag with RFID GPS tracking Australian Business Traveller Retrieved 30 March 2015 Applying innovation to improve the airline luggage experience Airbus 20 June 2013 Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 Retrieved 30 March 2015 Airbus Bag2Go Uses GPS And RFID To Get Your Bags Where They Belong GadgetReview com 10 June 2013 Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 Retrieved 30 March 2015 Shawn Knighe 7 June 2013 Airbus Bag2Go smart luggage packs mobile radio GPS and RFID TechSpot Retrieved 30 March 2015 A400M Future Large Aircraft Tactical Transport Aircraft Europe airforce technology com Retrieved 1 October 2009 unreliable source A400M Programme A Brief History Airbus Archived from the original on 1 July 2014 Retrieved 17 January 2014 Strategic airlift agreement enters into force NATO 3 March 2006 O Connell Dominic 11 January 2009 RAF transport aircraft delay The Times UK Hoyle Craig 28 April 2008 Hercules support deal transforms RAF operations Flight International Why wait for the Airbus Defence Management 5 May 2009 Archived from the original on 9 July 2011 Airbus A400M delay does not foster confidence Forbes 30 October 2007 Archived from the original on 20 December 2016 Retrieved 8 December 2016 A400M Partners to Renegotiate Contract with EADS Defense News 27 July 2009 dead link Hollinger Peggy Clark Pilita Lemer Jeremy 5 January 2010 Airbus threatens to scrap A400M aircraft Financial Times Ansari Usman 3 November 2008 Pakistan eyes boost in Transport Lift Defense News dead link Hepher Tim 25 February 2008 Airbus EAE tanker order Reuters Air tanker deal provokes US row BBC News 1 March 2008 Retrieved 4 September 2011 Boeing Protests U S Air Force Tanker Contract Award Boeing 11 March 2008 Archived from the original on 14 March 2008 Statement regarding the bid protest decision resolving the Aerial Refueling Tanker protest by the Boeing Company PDF United States Government Accountability Office 18 June 2008 SecDEF announces return of KC X program Secretary of the Air Force Public Affairs 16 September 2009 Wolf Jim Shalal Esa Andrea 24 September 2009 Pentagon s new tanker rules exclude trade fight Reuters Airbus Numbering System aerospaceweb org Retrieved 1 October 2009 Airbus official O amp D www airbus com Airbus 8 January 2021 Retrieved 8 January 2021 a b Investors amp Shareholders airbusgroup com Retrieved 25 August 2016 Airbus FY results 2018 PDF Retrieved 4 March 2019 Airbus Group We Make It Fly Annual review 2013 EADS demonstrates world s first high speed data solution over TETRA Bapco Journal Archived from the original on 7 July 2011 Retrieved 12 July 2011 EADS changes name to Airbus subscription required Airbus APWorks Archived from the original on 10 February 2015 Retrieved 10 February 2015 Airbus and Embry riddle in Singapore Sign MoU on Aviation Education asdnews com 14 March 2019 Retrieved 21 August 2019 Apsys Airbus Apsys EADS Registration Document 2013 Page 48 PDF EADS Retrieved 12 February 2015 Kaminski Morrow David 13 February 2020 Airbus takes 75 of A220 programme as Bombardier exits Flight Global Jens Flottau Tony Osborne and Amy Svitak Airbus Group To Focus On Military Aircraft Space And Missiles Aviation Week amp Space Technology 22 September 2014 Accessed 24 September 2014 Archived on 24 September 2014 Executive and Operational Committees Airbus 1 July 2021 Retrieved 20 July 2019 Airbus Middle East Airbus Commercial Aircraft Archived from the original on 6 March 2016 Retrieved 9 March 2016 People amp Organization Airbus Commercial Aircraft Archived from the original on 9 March 2016 Retrieved 9 March 2016 日本におけるエアバス Airbus Airbus in the United Kingdom Airbus Retrieved 29 January 2021 Bray Rob June 2007 Supersize Wings Ingenia Archived from the original on 20 May 2012 Retrieved 2 December 2008 Airbus to build A320 jet assembly line in Tianjin in 2006 AsiaInfo Services 18 July 2006 Archived from the original on 11 August 2011 Airbus delivers first China assembled A320 jet Sify News 23 June 2009 Archived from the original on 31 October 2014 Retrieved 1 October 2009 Airbus signs framework agreement with Chinese consortium on A320 Final Assembly Line in China Airbus official 26 October 2006 Archived from the original on 14 December 2006 Jianguo Jiang 16 July 2008 Airbus Harbin Aircraft form Chinese parts venture Bloomberg Kogan Eugene 8 February 2008 China s commercial aviation in take off mode Asia Times Archived from the original on 14 June 2007 CS1 maint unfit URL link Airbus starts 350 million Harbin plant construction China Daily 1 July 2009 Airbus offers sneak peek inside Alabama A320 factory 14 September 2015 Melissa Nelson Gabriel 2 July 2012 Airbus to Build 1st US Assembly Plant in Alabama Associated Press Retrieved 2 July 2012 Airbus confirms its first US factory to build A320 jet BBC News 2 July 2012 Retrieved 2 July 2012 Jolly Jasper 14 February 2019 A380 Airbus to stop making superjumbo as orders dry up Retrieved 18 February 2019 via www theguardian com Roberston David 5 October 2006 MoD tells European leaders to stop meddling in EADS The Times UK Retrieved 15 October 2006 Daimler and Lagardere cut EADS stakes Financial Times Agence France Presse 4 April 2006 permanent dead link Airbus plays catch up with A350 jet Phillips D International Herald Tribune 11 April 2006 EADS shares up on Vneshtorgbank reports dead link Yahoo News 30 August 2006 Russian bank acquires 5 in EADS The Economic Times 30 August 2006 Retrieved 16 March 2020 UPDATE 1 Russia VTB to sell EADS stake at market price CEO Reuters 8 December 2007 Retrieved 16 March 2020 European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N V EADS REGISTRATION DOCUMENT 2011 pdf Retrieved 16 March 2020 John Isaac Dubai Int l Capital buys 3 12pc stake in EADS Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Khaleej Times 6 July 2007 The SIPRI Top 100 arms producing companies 2008 Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 12 April 2010 Retrieved 4 May 2010 Portfolio changes and strategic cooperations Annual Report 2013 Daimler 21 February 2014 Archived from the original on 10 January 2018 Retrieved 10 January 2018 Daimler sells remaining equity interest in EADS On 27 March 2013 the extraordinary shareholders meeting of EADS approved a new management and shareholder structure Subsequently on 2 April 2013 the shareholders pact concluded in the year 2000 was dissolved and replaced with a new shareholders pact without the participation of Daimler Share Price amp Information Shareholding structure Current capital structure Airbus Group 26 April 2018 Retrieved 22 June 2018 Airbus boss warns company is bleeding cash BBC News 27 April 2020 Retrieved 27 April 2020 Airbus Group Figures airbus group com Archived from the original on 3 January 2014 Retrieved 8 May 2014 Marcus Theurer 31 January 2014 Militarausgaben Die Rustungsindustrie schrumpft faz net Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Retrieved 2 February 2014 Environment Airbus a leading aircraft manufacturer Airbus com Archived from the original on 15 January 2013 Retrieved 14 January 2013 Eco efficiency Airbus a leading aircraft manufacturer Airbus com Archived from the original on 15 January 2013 Retrieved 14 January 2013 Skillings Jonathan 15 May 2008 Biofuel gets lift from Honeywell Airbus JetBlue CNET Retrieved 4 September 2011 Airbus demonstrates regular customer delivery flights with sustainable jet fuel Airbus Retrieved 16 July 2018 Airbus unveils first zero emission planes plan BBC News 21 September 2020 Retrieved 22 September 2020 Tidey Alice 21 September 2020 Airbus unveils concepts for zero emission planes powered by hydrogen euronews Retrieved 22 September 2020 Anderson Jack 8 May 1978 New European Airbus could affect US jobs Free lance Star Porter Andrew 29 May 2005 Trade war threatened over 379m subsidy for Airbus The Times UK Q amp A Boeing and Airbus BBC News 7 October 2004 Retrieved 1 January 2010 See you in court Boeing v Airbus The Airbus Boeing subsidy row The Economist 25 March 2005 Burgos Annalisa 11 January 2005 U S EU To Settle Airbus Boeing Dispute Forbes US EU meet on Airbus Boeing dispute Journal of Commerce Online 24 February 2005 U S EU Talks on Boeing Airbus Subsidies Falter Los Angeles Times 19 March 2005 Schneider Howard 19 May 2011 U S claims victory in Airbus Boeing case The Washington Post Bloomberg Retrieved 19 May 2011 WTO Rules Boeing Got Improper U S Subsidies The Wall Street Journal 1 February 2011 The exclusion of EADS from the investment universe of the Government Pension Fund Global has been reviewed Regjeringen no 10 May 2006 Inside story Share scandals in France The Economist 13 October 2007 Jailed Yengeni shows no remorse Sunday Times South Africa 27 August 2006 Top ANC official resigns BBC News 4 October 2001 Retrieved 12 July 2011 Court Diary The Arms Deal Virtual Press Office C I Systems Archived from the original on 17 March 2005 SFO launches criminal probe into deal with Saudi national guard Exaro 10 August 2012 Third insider blows whistle on corrupt Saudi defence deal Exaro 9 July 2012 a b c d e R v Airbus SE Deferred Prosecution Agreement Serious Fraud Office United Kingdom 2 March 2020 a b c d Martine Orange and Yann Philippin 1 August 2017 The huge corruption scandal threatening Airbus Mediapart Airbus ran massive bribery scheme to win orders Financial Times 31 January 2020 Airbus Corruption Scandal May Lead Straight to the Top Der Spiegel 9 October 2017 Hence the message from Enders to all those who haven t yet got the message to those who think they can just carry on as before including the bribery Leave this company rather than make us take you out of the company Because we re in a dead serious situation dear colleagues convention judiciaire d interet public entre le procureur de la republique financier et Airbus SE PDF in French Parquet national financier 29 January 2020 SFO enters into 991m Deferred Prosecution Agreement with Airbus as part of a 3 6bn global resolution Serious Fraud Office United Kingdom 31 January 2020 USA v Airbus SE deferred prosecution agreement District court for the district of Columbia 31 January 2020 Airbus Agrees to Pay over 3 9 Billion in Global Penalties to Resolve Foreign Bribery and ITAR Case justice gov 31 January 2020 Airbus to pay SFO 1bn in corruption settlement BBC 31 January 2020 Airbus fined billions in global bribery settlement Deutsche Welle 1 February 2020 Airbus bribery investigation highlights power of international cooperation in tackling corruption Transparency International 3 February 2020 Bribery Scandal s Airbus rocked by corruption allegations Handelsblatt 10 September 2017 Airbus BizLab Airbus Retrieved 12 July 2021 The reports identified problematic transactions in the sale of civil aircraft in several countries including Saudi Arabia Kazakhstan the Philippines Indonesia and Austria This list is far from exhaustive 124 In February 2016 French police officers from the Central Anti Corruption Office searched the homes of both Lahoud Airbus s former second in command 124 They revealed too the tricks the SMO used to hide the alleged commissions on the sale of 34 Airbuses to Turkey thanks to false invoices in relation to a fictitious pipeline project in the Caspian Sea 124 The Agreement does not provide any protection against prosecution of any natural persons 123 Further reading EditCongressional Research Service 1992 Airbus Industrie An Economic and Trade Perspective U S Library of Congress Heppenheimer T A 1995 Turbulent Skies The History of Commercial Aviation John Wiley ISBN 0 471 19694 0 Lynn Matthew 1997 Birds of Prey Boeing vs Airbus a Battle for the Skies Four Walls Eight Windows ISBN 1 56858 107 6 McGuire Steven 1997 Airbus Industrie Conflict and Cooperation in U S E C Trade Relations St Martin s Press McIntyre Ian 1982 Dogfight The Transatlantic Battle Over Airbus Praeger Publishers ISBN 0 275 94278 3 Thornton David Weldon 1995 Airbus Industrie The Politics of an International Industrial Collaboration St Martin s Press ISBN 0 312 12441 4 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Airbus Official website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Airbus amp oldid 1055874086, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.