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Alcoa

This article is about the company. For the town, see Alcoa, Tennessee. For the river, see Alcoa River. For other uses, see Alcoa (disambiguation).

Alcoa Corporation (a portmanteau of Aluminum Company of America) is an American industrial corporation. It is the world's eighth largest producer of aluminum, with corporate headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Alcoa conducts operations in 10 countries. Alcoa is a major producer of primary aluminum, fabricated aluminum, and alumina combined, through its active and growing participation in all major aspects of the industry: technology, mining, refining, smelting, fabricating, and recycling.

Alcoa Corporation
TypePublic
ISINUS0138721065
IndustryMetals
FoundedPittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US (1888)
FounderCharles Martin Hall
HeadquartersPittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
RevenueUS$11.652 billion(2017)
US$1.205 billion(2017)
US$217 million(2017)
Total assetsUS$17.447 billion(2017)
Total equityUS$4.523 billion(2017)
Number of employees
~14,600(December 2017)
Websitealcoa.com

In May 2007, Alcoa Inc. made a US$27 billion hostile takeover bid for Alcan in an attempt to form the world's largest aluminum producer. The bid was withdrawn when Alcan announced a friendly takeover by Rio Tinto in July 2007.

On November 1, 2016, Alcoa Inc. split into two new entities: Alcoa Corporation, which is engaged in the mining and manufacture of raw aluminium, and Arconic, which processes aluminum and other metals.

After having relocated corporate operations to New York City in 2006, Alcoa moved its headquarters back to Pittsburgh effective September 1, 2017. In October 2018, Alcoa announced plans to move from Pittsburgh's North Shore to a more downtown Pittsburgh location.

Contents

In 1886, Charles Martin Hall, a graduate of Oberlin College, discovered the process of smelting aluminium, almost simultaneously with Paul Héroult in France. He realized that by passing an electric current through a bath of cryolite and aluminium oxide, the then semi-rare metal aluminium remained as a byproduct. This discovery, now called the Hall–Héroult process, along with the Bayer process, are the dominant processes for production of aluminum from bauxite ore.

A tablet marking where in November 1888, the Pittsburgh Reduction Company, now Aluminum Company of America, produced the first commercial run of aluminium by the Hall Electrolytic Process. Tablet installed by Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania in 1938.

Probably fewer than ten sites in the United States and Europe produced any aluminium at the time.[citation needed] In 1887, Hall made an agreement to try his process at the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company plant in Lockport, New York, but it was not used and Hall left after one year. On Thanksgiving Day 1888, with the help of Alfred E. Hunt, he started the Pittsburgh Reduction Company with an experimental smelting plant on Smallman Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1891, the company went into production in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. In 1895, a third site opened at Niagara Falls. By about 1903, after a settlement with Hall's former employer, and while its patents were in force, the company was the only legal supplier of aluminium in the United States.

By 1902 New Kensington consisted of 173,000 sq. feet on 15 acres with 276 employees and the company operated hydropower and reduction plants in Niagara Falls, NY (1895), Shawinigan Falls, Quebec (1900), mining operations in Bauxite, AR (1901) and reduction facilities in East St. Louis, IL (1902). "The Aluminum Company of America" became the firm's new name on January 1, 1907. The acronym "Alcoa" was coined in 1910, given as a name to two of the locales where major corporate facilities were located (although one of these has since been changed), and in 1999 was adopted as the official corporate name.

From 1902 until 1915 additional plants in Massena, NY (1903), Alcoa, TN (1911), Edgewater, NJ (1915), Badin, NC (1915) came online while New Kensington had 31 buildings in the complex housing six departments (tubes, sheets, rods, bar and wire, extrusion, jobbing, foil) and two subsidiaries (Aluminum Cooking Utensil Company and Aluminum Seal Company). In 1907 it created the "company town" of Pine Grove, New York, for workers outside Massena. In Baden, Alcoa, Maryville and elsewhere the company funded the construction of schools, parks, playgrounds and medical facilities.

By the end of World War I Alcoa's New Kensington facility accounted for 3,292 workers—a fifth of the local population—and covered over 1 million square feet of manufacturing space on 75 acres.

After WWI, Alcoa obtained the rights to Alfred Wilm's duralumin patent, which led to additional research into other aluminum alloys. By 1923, Alcoa's New Kensington, Pennsylvania plant was using horizontal extrusion presses, with preheated billets, for aerospace and construction applications. One of the first industrial uses was for the Navy's Shenandoah, followed ten years later with airplane applications.

In 1938, the Justice Department charged Alcoa with illegal monopolization, and demanded that the company be dissolved. The case of United States v. Alcoa was settled six years later.

In 1963, John D. Harper, a Tennessee native who had started with the company in 1925, then was hired, in 1933, as an electrical engineer, following his graduation from the University of Tennessee, and who had subsequently served as vice president and director; was named president of Alcoa, then CEO, in 1965, then chairman, in 1970, serving until his retirement from Alcoa, in 1975. Harper was also a director of Mellon Bank N.A., Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and Procter & Gamble, and a trustee of Carnegie-Mellon University. An advocate of close associations between business and government; in 1972, Harper, with General Electric CEO Fred J. Borch was instrumental in co-founding the Business Roundtable, and served as its chairman for three years.

In 1998, Alcoa acquired Alumax in a cash and share deal for $2.8 billion. Alcoa paid $50 a share in cash for half of the shares and 0.6975 Alcoa share for each of the remaining Alumax shares. Alcoa also assumed $1 billion in debt. Alumax's assets included the Eastalco aluminum smelter in Adamstown Maryland, the Intalco aluminum smelter in Ferndale Washington, and the Kawneer brand of building construction products.

In 2000, Alcoa acquired Reynolds Metals Co. in an all-share deal for $4.5 billion. To clear anti-competition regulatory hurdles, Alcoa was required to sell Reynolds's 25% interest in a Washington smelter and all of Reynolds's alumina refineries. Reynolds owned a 56% interest in the Worsley alumina refinery in Australia, 50% interest in a refinery in Germany and 100% interest in a Texas refinery. Alcoa also planned to sell Reynolds's construction and distribution business and the company's $400 million transportation business. Alcoa sold its packaging and consumer business, formerly called Reynolds Metals, to the Rank Group for $2.7 billion in 2008.

In 2000, Alcoa also purchased Cordant Technologies Inc. for $57 a share in cash, or $2.3 billion, and also assumed $685 million of Cordant's debt for a total transaction value of $2.9 billion. Cordant's divisions included Huck Fasteners, Jacobson Mfg. Co., Continental/Midland Group, its 85% interest in Howmet International Inc., and Thiokol Corporation. In 2001, Alcoa sold Thiokol for $2.9 billion to Alliant Techsystems (ATK).

Alcoa purchased an 8% stake of Aluminium Corporation of China (Chalco) in 2001. It tried to form a strategic alliance with China's largest aluminium producer, at its Pingguo facility; however, it was unsuccessful. Alcoa sold their stake in Chalco on September 12, 2007, for around $2 billion.

In 2004, Alcoa's specialty chemicals business was sold to two private equity firms led by Rhône Group for an enterprise value of $342 million, which included the assumption of debt and other unfunded obligations. Rhône Group then changed the name to Almatis, Inc.

In 2005 Alcoa acquired two major production facilities in Russia, at Samara and Belaya Kalitva.

In 2005, Alcoa began construction in Iceland on Alcoa Fjarðaál, a state-of-the-art aluminium smelter and the company's first greenfield smelter in more than 20 years, albeit under heavy criticism by local and international NGOs related to a controversial dam project exclusively dedicated to supplying electricity to this smelter. Also, Alcoa has completed or is undergoing primary aluminium expansion projects in Brazil, Jamaica, and Pinjarra, Western Australia.

In 2006, Alcoa relocated its top executives from Pittsburgh to New York City. Although the company's principal office was relocated to New York City, the company's operational headquarters were still located at its Corporate Center in Pittsburgh. Alcoa employed approximately 2,000 people at its Corporate Center in Pittsburgh and 60 at its principal office in New York.

Alcoa was named one of the top three most sustainable corporations in the world at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

On May 8, 2008, Klaus Kleinfeld was appointed CEO of Alcoa, succeeding Alain Belda. On April 23, 2010, Alcoa's board of directors selected Kleinfeld to the office of chairman, following Belda's planned retirement.

On July 16, 2012, Alcoa announced that it would take over full ownership and operation of Evermore Recycling and make it part of Alcoa's Global Packaging group. Evermore Recycling is a leader in used beverage can recycling, purchasing more recycled cans than any other group worldwide.

In June 2013, Alcoa announced it would permanently close its Fusina primary aluminium smelter in Venice, Italy, where production had been curtailed since June 2010.

On January 9, 2014, Alcoa reached a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice over charges of bribing Bahraini officials. Under the terms of the settlement they will pay the SEC $175 million to settle the charges. To settle the criminal claims with the DoJ, Alcoa World Alumina (AWA, a company within Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals) is pleading guilty to one count of violating the anti-bribery provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). AWA will pay the DoJ $223 million in five equal installments over the next four years, bringing the company's total bill for the scandal to $384 million.

In June 2016, Alcoa Inc. announced plans to split itself into two companies. Alcoa Inc would be renamed as Arconic and would take over the business of designing and building processed metal parts, primarily for the automotive and aerospace industries. A new company, Alcoa Corporation, would be set up and spun out of Alcoa Inc. and retain the Alcoa name. Alcoa Corp. would continue the business of mining, smelting, and refining of raw aluminium. The split was completed on November 1, 2016.

In April 2017, Alcoa announced that it would relocate its corporate headquarters back to Pittsburgh as part of a general consolidation of administrative facilities around the world.

The Political Economy Research Institute ranks Alcoa 15th among corporations emitting airborne pollutants in the United States. The ranking is based on the quantity (13 million pounds in 2005) and toxicity of the emissions. In April 2003, Alcoa Inc. agreed to spend an estimated $330 million to install a new coal-fired power plant with state-of-the-art pollution controls to eliminate the vast majority of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from the power plant at Alcoa's aluminium production facility in Rockdale, Texas. The settlement was the ninth case the Bush administration pursued to bring the coal-fired power plant industry into full compliance with the Clean Air Act. Alcoa was unlawfully operating at the Rockdale facility since it overhauled the Rockdale power plant without installing necessary pollution controls and without first obtaining proper permits required by "New Source Review" program of the Clean Air Act. In February 1999, Alcoa cleaned soils and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and lead at the York Oil federal Superfund site in Moira, New York, in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency. The site, a former waste oil recycling storage facility, accepted waste oil from a number of companies, including Alcoa. The facility was improperly managed and operated and, as a result, soils on the York Oil Property and nearby wetlands sediments and groundwater were contaminated. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Superfund Unilateral Order on December 31, 1998, requiring Alcoa to excavate, treat and dispose of the contaminated wetlands sediments.

Jamaica

Alcoa formed the Alcoa Minerals of Jamaica subsidiary on the island in 1959, shipping their first load of bauxite in 1963 from Rocky Point. Later in 1972, Alcoa established a 500,000 tonne per year refinery where they process bauxite into alumina. They have continued to upgrade the plant through the years and its now capable 1,425,000 tonnes per year. In 1988 the Jamaican government gained a 50% share in the subsidiary and renamed the operation to Jamalco, Alcoa being the managing partner. Expansion of the operation in 2007 resulted in Alcoa owning a total of 55% of the operation. Alcoa continues to mine bauxite in the Jamaican parishes of Clarendon and Manchester while competitors' operations take place in nearby parishes.

Ghana

Alcoa's affiliate in Ghana, the Volta Aluminium Company, was completely closed between May 2003 and early 2006, due to problems with its electricity supply.

Guinea

Alcoa is a major owner of the fr:Compagnie des bauxites de Guinée through Halco Mining, together with Rio Tinto Alcan and the Guinean government. Guinea is the second global producer of bauxite and it is said to have half of the world's reserves.

Iceland

Main article: Alcoa Fjarðaál

The Alcoa Fjarðaál smelter in eastern Iceland was completed in June 2007, and brought into full operation the following April. The plant processes 940 tons of aluminium a day, with a capacity of 346,000 metric tons a year, making it Alcoa's second largest capacity smelter. For power, the plant relies on the Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant, constructed and operated by the state owned Landsvirkjun specifically for the smelting operation. That project was subject to controversy due to its impact on the environment.

In 2006, Alcoa and the government of Iceland signed an agreement on instigating a thorough feasibility study for a new 250,000 tpy (Tons Per Year) smelter in Bakki by Húsavík in Northern Iceland. In October 2011, the proposed project was dropped because "the power availability and proposed pricing would not support an aluminum smelter".

Alcoa announced plans to close the office in Reykjavik.

Wales

On November 21, 2006, Alcoa announced that it planned to close the Waunarlwydd works in Swansea, with the loss of 298 jobs. Production ceased at the Swansea plant on January 27, 2007. A small site closure team worked at the site until December 31, 2008. The site is still owned by Alcoa, but is now managed locally and renamed, Westfield Industrial Park.[citation needed] Several of the large buildings are leased out to local businesses.

Australia

Alcoa operates bauxite mines, alumina refineries and aluminium smelters through Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals, a joint venture between Alumina Limited and Alcoa. Alcoa operates two bauxite mines in Western Australia—the Huntly and Willowdale mines. Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals owns and operates three alumina refineries in Western Australia: Kwinana, Pinjarra, and Wagerup. The Wagerup expansion plans have been put on hold due to the Global Financial Crisis. Two aluminium smelters are also operated in the state of Victoria at Portland and Point Henry; the Point Henry smelter was scheduled to be closed in August 2014. Alcoa Australia Rolled Products, a 100% Alcoa Inc. venture, operates two rolling mills. The Point Henry Rolling mill in Victoria and the Yennora rolling mill in N.S.W. have a combined rolling capacity of approx. 200,000 tonnes. Alcoa uses 12,600 GWh or 15% of Victoria's electricity annually.

Alcoa's Western Australian Wagerup plant has a troubled history in the context of claims that pollution from the plant has had an adverse impact on the health of members of the adjacent local community.

United States

On January 3, 2003, Alcoa opened its new operations headquarters on the North Shore of Pittsburgh. This move came about after it donated its 50-year-old skyscraper headquarters in Downtown Pittsburgh to the Regional Development Authority.

Alcoa created a plant just outside Maryville in Blount County, Tennessee. To support the factory, Alcoa built a small city and named it as such. The Alcoa Tenn Federal Credit Union was the first employee created credit union in the state. The plant is no longer an Alcoa business.

Alcoa's Massena West plant is the longest operating smelter in the United States, having been in continuous operation since 1902. The Reynolds Aluminum Plant became Massena East when the companies merged in 2000.

Alcoa had a smelting plant in Badin, North Carolina from 1917 to 2007 and continued a hydroelectric power operation there until February 1, 2017 when the Yadkin Hydroelectric Project was sold to Cube Hydro.

Alcoa also operates an aluminium smelting plant of similar size to the one in Tennessee in Warrick County, Indiana, just east of Newburgh, Vectren Energy operates a coal power plant on the site to provide electricity. In 2021, Alcoa retained the aluminum smelter and generating station while selling the rest of the facility to Kaiser Aluminum. This sale included the casthouse, ingot facilities, hot mill, cold mills, and finishing mills.

Alcoa maintains several Research and Development Centers in the United States. The largest one, Alcoa Technical Center, is located East of its Pittsburgh Headquarters at Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania. The "Tech Center" is as large as some college campuses, has its own zip code and maintains an extensive intellectual and physical resource for innovation. Alcoa's extensive safety program continuously improves safety at the Tech Center. After Paul O'Neill became Alcoa CEO in 1987, Alcoa became one of the safest companies in the world, despite the aluminium industry's inherent risks.

Alcoa plans to close offices in Richmond, Virginia; Nashville, Tennessee; and Chicago.

Alcoa Steamship Company

The Alcoa Steamship company was a subsidiary of ALCOA since the company was formed in 1917.

  • List of ships:
    • SS Alcoa Banner (SS Sundance)
    • SS Alcoa Cavalier
    • SS Alcoa Clipper
    • SS Alcoa Corsair
    • SS Alcoa Guide
    • SS Alcoa Partner
    • SS Alcoa Patriot
    • SS Alcoa Pegasus
    • SS Alcoa Pennant
    • SS Alcoa Pilgrim
    • SS Alcoa Pioneer
    • SS Alcoa Planter
    • SS Alcoa Pointer
    • SS Alcoa Polaris
    • SS Alcoa Puritan
    • SS Alcoa Ranger
    • SS Alcoa Roamer
    • SS Alcoa Runner
    • SS Bushranger

Alcoa is portrayed as the main sponsor of the CBS' 1953 program See It Now in George Clooney's Academy Award–nominated film Good Night, and Good Luck.

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Alcoa
alcoa, language, watch, edit, this, article, about, company, town, tennessee, river, river, other, uses, disambiguation, corporation, portmanteau, aluminum, company, america, american, industrial, corporation, world, eighth, largest, producer, aluminum, with, . Alcoa Language Watch Edit This article is about the company For the town see Alcoa Tennessee For the river see Alcoa River For other uses see Alcoa disambiguation Alcoa Corporation a portmanteau of Aluminum Company of America is an American industrial corporation It is the world s eighth largest producer of aluminum 2 with corporate headquarters in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 3 Alcoa conducts operations in 10 countries Alcoa is a major producer of primary aluminum fabricated aluminum and alumina combined through its active and growing participation in all major aspects of the industry technology mining refining smelting fabricating and recycling 4 Alcoa CorporationTypePublicTraded asNYSE AARussell 1000 ComponentISINUS0138721065IndustryMetalsFoundedPittsburgh Pennsylvania US 1888 FounderCharles Martin HallHeadquartersPittsburgh PennsylvaniaArea servedWorldwideKey peopleMichael Morris Chairman Roy Harvey CEO ProductsBauxite Alumina AluminiumRevenueUS 11 652 billion 2017 1 Operating incomeUS 1 205 billion 2017 1 Net incomeUS 217 million 2017 1 Total assetsUS 17 447 billion 2017 1 Total equityUS 4 523 billion 2017 1 Number of employees 14 600 December 2017 1 Websitealcoa wbr com In May 2007 Alcoa Inc made a US 27 billion hostile takeover bid for Alcan in an attempt to form the world s largest aluminum producer 5 The bid was withdrawn when Alcan announced a friendly takeover by Rio Tinto in July 2007 6 On November 1 2016 Alcoa Inc split into two new entities Alcoa Corporation which is engaged in the mining and manufacture of raw aluminium and Arconic which processes aluminum and other metals 7 After having relocated corporate operations to New York City in 2006 Alcoa moved its headquarters back to Pittsburgh effective September 1 2017 8 In October 2018 Alcoa announced plans to move from Pittsburgh s North Shore to a more downtown Pittsburgh location 9 Contents 1 History 2 Environmental record 3 Operations by country 3 1 Jamaica 3 2 Ghana 3 3 Guinea 3 4 Iceland 3 5 Wales 3 6 Australia 3 7 United States 3 8 Alcoa Steamship Company 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory EditIn 1886 Charles Martin Hall a graduate of Oberlin College discovered the process of smelting aluminium almost simultaneously with Paul Heroult in France He realized that by passing an electric current through a bath of cryolite and aluminium oxide the then semi rare metal aluminium remained as a byproduct This discovery now called the Hall Heroult process along with the Bayer process are the dominant processes for production of aluminum from bauxite ore A tablet marking where in November 1888 the Pittsburgh Reduction Company now Aluminum Company of America produced the first commercial run of aluminium by the Hall Electrolytic Process Tablet installed by Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania in 1938 Probably fewer than ten sites in the United States and Europe produced any aluminium at the time citation needed In 1887 Hall made an agreement to try his process at the Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company plant in Lockport New York but it was not used and Hall left after one year On Thanksgiving Day 1888 with the help of Alfred E Hunt he started the Pittsburgh Reduction Company with an experimental smelting plant on Smallman Street in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania In 1891 the company went into production in New Kensington Pennsylvania In 1895 a third site opened at Niagara Falls By about 1903 after a settlement with Hall s former employer and while its patents were in force the company was the only legal supplier of aluminium in the United States 10 11 By 1902 New Kensington consisted of 173 000 sq feet on 15 acres with 276 employees and the company operated hydropower and reduction plants in Niagara Falls NY 1895 Shawinigan Falls Quebec 1900 mining operations in Bauxite AR 1901 and reduction facilities in East St Louis IL 1902 The Aluminum Company of America became the firm s new name on January 1 1907 12 The acronym Alcoa was coined in 1910 given as a name to two of the locales where major corporate facilities were located although one of these has since been changed and in 1999 was adopted as the official corporate name From 1902 until 1915 additional plants in Massena NY 1903 Alcoa TN 1911 Edgewater NJ 1915 Badin NC 1915 came online while New Kensington had 31 buildings in the complex housing six departments tubes sheets rods bar and wire extrusion jobbing foil and two subsidiaries Aluminum Cooking Utensil Company and Aluminum Seal Company In 1907 it created the company town of Pine Grove New York for workers outside Massena In Baden Alcoa Maryville and elsewhere the company funded the construction of schools parks playgrounds and medical facilities 12 By the end of World War I Alcoa s New Kensington facility accounted for 3 292 workers a fifth of the local population and covered over 1 million square feet of manufacturing space on 75 acres 12 After WWI Alcoa obtained the rights to Alfred Wilm s duralumin patent which led to additional research into other aluminum alloys By 1923 Alcoa s New Kensington Pennsylvania plant was using horizontal extrusion presses with preheated billets for aerospace and construction applications 13 One of the first industrial uses was for the Navy s Shenandoah followed ten years later with airplane applications 14 In 1938 the Justice Department charged Alcoa with illegal monopolization and demanded that the company be dissolved The case of United States v Alcoa was settled six years later In 1963 John D Harper a Tennessee native who had started with the company in 1925 15 then was hired in 1933 as an electrical engineer following his graduation from the University of Tennessee and who had subsequently served as vice president and director was named president of Alcoa then CEO in 1965 then chairman in 1970 serving until his retirement from Alcoa in 1975 Harper was also a director of Mellon Bank N A Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and Procter amp Gamble and a trustee of Carnegie Mellon University An advocate of close associations between business and government 16 17 in 1972 Harper with General Electric CEO Fred J Borch was instrumental in co founding the Business Roundtable and served as its chairman for three years 18 In 1998 Alcoa acquired Alumax in a cash and share deal for 2 8 billion Alcoa paid 50 a share in cash for half of the shares and 0 6975 Alcoa share for each of the remaining Alumax shares Alcoa also assumed 1 billion in debt 19 Alumax s assets included the Eastalco aluminum smelter in Adamstown Maryland the Intalco aluminum smelter in Ferndale Washington and the Kawneer brand of building construction products In 2000 Alcoa acquired Reynolds Metals Co in an all share deal for 4 5 billion To clear anti competition regulatory hurdles Alcoa was required to sell Reynolds s 25 interest in a Washington smelter and all of Reynolds s alumina refineries Reynolds owned a 56 interest in the Worsley alumina refinery in Australia 50 interest in a refinery in Germany and 100 interest in a Texas refinery Alcoa also planned to sell Reynolds s construction and distribution business and the company s 400 million transportation business 20 Alcoa sold its packaging and consumer business formerly called Reynolds Metals to the Rank Group for 2 7 billion in 2008 21 In 2000 Alcoa also purchased Cordant Technologies Inc for 57 a share in cash or 2 3 billion and also assumed 685 million of Cordant s debt for a total transaction value of 2 9 billion Cordant s divisions included Huck Fasteners Jacobson Mfg Co Continental Midland Group its 85 interest in Howmet International Inc and Thiokol Corporation 22 23 24 In 2001 Alcoa sold Thiokol for 2 9 billion to Alliant Techsystems ATK Alcoa purchased an 8 stake of Aluminium Corporation of China Chalco in 2001 25 It tried to form a strategic alliance with China s largest aluminium producer at its Pingguo facility however it was unsuccessful Alcoa sold their stake in Chalco on September 12 2007 for around 2 billion 26 27 In 2004 Alcoa s specialty chemicals business was sold to two private equity firms led by Rhone Group for an enterprise value of 342 million which included the assumption of debt and other unfunded obligations 28 Rhone Group then changed the name to Almatis Inc In 2005 Alcoa acquired two major production facilities in Russia at Samara and Belaya Kalitva 29 In 2005 Alcoa began construction in Iceland on Alcoa Fjardaal a state of the art aluminium smelter and the company s first greenfield smelter in more than 20 years 30 albeit under heavy criticism by local and international NGOs related to a controversial dam project exclusively dedicated to supplying electricity to this smelter Also Alcoa has completed or is undergoing primary aluminium expansion projects in Brazil Jamaica and Pinjarra Western Australia In 2006 Alcoa relocated its top executives from Pittsburgh to New York City Although the company s principal office was relocated to New York City the company s operational headquarters were still located at its Corporate Center in Pittsburgh Alcoa employed approximately 2 000 people at its Corporate Center in Pittsburgh and 60 at its principal office in New York 31 Alcoa was named one of the top three most sustainable corporations in the world at the World Economic Forum in Davos Switzerland 32 33 On May 8 2008 Klaus Kleinfeld was appointed CEO of Alcoa succeeding Alain Belda 34 On April 23 2010 Alcoa s board of directors selected Kleinfeld to the office of chairman following Belda s planned retirement 35 On July 16 2012 Alcoa announced that it would take over full ownership and operation of Evermore Recycling and make it part of Alcoa s Global Packaging group Evermore Recycling is a leader in used beverage can recycling purchasing more recycled cans than any other group worldwide 36 In June 2013 Alcoa announced it would permanently close its Fusina primary aluminium smelter in Venice Italy where production had been curtailed since June 2010 37 On January 9 2014 Alcoa reached a settlement with the U S Securities and Exchange Commission and the U S Department of Justice over charges of bribing Bahraini officials Under the terms of the settlement they will pay the SEC 175 million to settle the charges To settle the criminal claims with the DoJ Alcoa World Alumina AWA a company within Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals is pleading guilty to one count of violating the anti bribery provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act FCPA AWA will pay the DoJ 223 million in five equal installments over the next four years bringing the company s total bill for the scandal to 384 million 38 In June 2016 Alcoa Inc announced plans to split itself into two companies Alcoa Inc would be renamed as Arconic and would take over the business of designing and building processed metal parts primarily for the automotive and aerospace industries A new company Alcoa Corporation would be set up and spun out of Alcoa Inc and retain the Alcoa name Alcoa Corp would continue the business of mining smelting and refining of raw aluminium 39 The split was completed on November 1 2016 7 In April 2017 Alcoa announced that it would relocate its corporate headquarters back to Pittsburgh as part of a general consolidation of administrative facilities around the world 40 Environmental record EditThe Political Economy Research Institute ranks Alcoa 15th among corporations emitting airborne pollutants in the United States The ranking is based on the quantity 13 million pounds in 2005 and toxicity of the emissions 41 In April 2003 Alcoa Inc agreed to spend an estimated 330 million to install a new coal fired power plant with state of the art pollution controls to eliminate the vast majority of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from the power plant at Alcoa s aluminium production facility in Rockdale Texas The settlement was the ninth case the Bush administration pursued to bring the coal fired power plant industry into full compliance with the Clean Air Act Alcoa was unlawfully operating at the Rockdale facility since it overhauled the Rockdale power plant without installing necessary pollution controls and without first obtaining proper permits required by New Source Review program of the Clean Air Act 42 In February 1999 Alcoa cleaned soils and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls PCB and lead at the York Oil federal Superfund site in Moira New York in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency The site a former waste oil recycling storage facility accepted waste oil from a number of companies including Alcoa The facility was improperly managed and operated and as a result soils on the York Oil Property and nearby wetlands sediments and groundwater were contaminated The United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA issued a Superfund Unilateral Order on December 31 1998 requiring Alcoa to excavate treat and dispose of the contaminated wetlands sediments 43 Operations by country EditJamaica Edit Alcoa formed the Alcoa Minerals of Jamaica subsidiary on the island in 1959 shipping their first load of bauxite in 1963 from Rocky Point Later in 1972 Alcoa established a 500 000 tonne per year refinery where they process bauxite into alumina They have continued to upgrade the plant through the years and its now capable 1 425 000 tonnes per year In 1988 the Jamaican government gained a 50 share in the subsidiary and renamed the operation to Jamalco Alcoa being the managing partner Expansion of the operation in 2007 resulted in Alcoa owning a total of 55 of the operation Alcoa continues to mine bauxite in the Jamaican parishes of Clarendon and Manchester while competitors operations take place in nearby parishes Ghana Edit Alcoa s affiliate in Ghana the Volta Aluminium Company was completely closed between May 2003 and early 2006 due to problems with its electricity supply 44 45 Guinea Edit Alcoa is a major owner of the fr Compagnie des bauxites de Guinee through Halco Mining together with Rio Tinto Alcan and the Guinean government 46 Guinea is the second global producer of bauxite and it is said to have half of the world s reserves Iceland Edit Main article Alcoa Fjardaal The Alcoa Fjardaal smelter in eastern Iceland was completed in June 2007 and brought into full operation the following April The plant processes 940 tons of aluminium a day with a capacity of 346 000 metric tons a year 47 making it Alcoa s second largest capacity smelter For power the plant relies on the Karahnjukar Hydropower Plant constructed and operated by the state owned Landsvirkjun specifically for the smelting operation That project was subject to controversy due to its impact on the environment In 2006 Alcoa and the government of Iceland signed an agreement on instigating a thorough feasibility study for a new 250 000 tpy Tons Per Year smelter in Bakki by Husavik in Northern Iceland In October 2011 the proposed project was dropped because the power availability and proposed pricing would not support an aluminum smelter 4 Alcoa announced plans to close the office in Reykjavik Wales Edit On November 21 2006 Alcoa announced that it planned to close the Waunarlwydd works in Swansea with the loss of 298 jobs Production ceased at the Swansea plant on January 27 2007 A small site closure team worked at the site until December 31 2008 The site is still owned by Alcoa but is now managed locally and renamed Westfield Industrial Park citation needed Several of the large buildings are leased out to local businesses 48 49 Australia Edit Alcoa operates bauxite mines alumina refineries and aluminium smelters through Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals a joint venture between Alumina Limited and Alcoa Alcoa operates two bauxite mines in Western Australia the Huntly and Willowdale mines Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals owns and operates three alumina refineries in Western Australia Kwinana Pinjarra and Wagerup The Wagerup expansion plans have been put on hold due to the Global Financial Crisis Two aluminium smelters are also operated in the state of Victoria at Portland and Point Henry the Point Henry smelter was scheduled to be closed in August 2014 50 Alcoa Australia Rolled Products a 100 Alcoa Inc venture operates two rolling mills The Point Henry Rolling mill in Victoria and the Yennora rolling mill in N S W have a combined rolling capacity of approx 200 000 tonnes Alcoa uses 12 600 GWh or 15 of Victoria s electricity annually 51 Alcoa s Western Australian Wagerup plant has a troubled history in the context of claims that pollution from the plant has had an adverse impact on the health of members of the adjacent local community 52 53 54 United States Edit On January 3 2003 Alcoa opened its new operations headquarters on the North Shore of Pittsburgh This move came about after it donated its 50 year old skyscraper headquarters in Downtown Pittsburgh to the Regional Development Authority Alcoa created a plant just outside Maryville in Blount County Tennessee To support the factory Alcoa built a small city and named it as such The Alcoa Tenn Federal Credit Union was the first employee created credit union in the state The plant is no longer an Alcoa business 55 Alcoa s Massena West plant is the longest operating smelter in the United States having been in continuous operation since 1902 The Reynolds Aluminum Plant became Massena East when the companies merged in 2000 Alcoa had a smelting plant in Badin North Carolina from 1917 to 2007 and continued a hydroelectric power operation there until February 1 2017 when the Yadkin Hydroelectric Project was sold to Cube Hydro 56 Alcoa also operates an aluminium smelting plant of similar size to the one in Tennessee in Warrick County Indiana just east of Newburgh Vectren Energy operates a coal power plant on the site to provide electricity In 2021 Alcoa retained the aluminum smelter and generating station while selling the rest of the facility to Kaiser Aluminum This sale included the casthouse ingot facilities hot mill cold mills and finishing mills Alcoa maintains several Research and Development Centers in the United States The largest one Alcoa Technical Center is located East of its Pittsburgh Headquarters at Alcoa Center Pennsylvania The Tech Center is as large as some college campuses has its own zip code and maintains an extensive intellectual and physical resource for innovation Alcoa s extensive safety program continuously improves safety at the Tech Center After Paul O Neill became Alcoa CEO in 1987 Alcoa became one of the safest companies in the world despite the aluminium industry s inherent risks 57 Alcoa plans to close offices in Richmond Virginia Nashville Tennessee and Chicago 8 Alcoa Steamship Company Edit The Alcoa Steamship company was a subsidiary of ALCOA since the company was formed in 1917 58 List of ships SS Alcoa Banner SS Sundance 59 SS Alcoa Cavalier SS Alcoa Clipper SS Alcoa Corsair SS Alcoa Guide 60 SS Alcoa Partner SS Alcoa Patriot SS Alcoa Pegasus SS Alcoa Pennant SS Alcoa Pilgrim SS Alcoa Pioneer 61 62 SS Alcoa Planter SS Alcoa Pointer SS Alcoa Polaris SS Alcoa Puritan SS Alcoa Ranger SS Alcoa Roamer SS Alcoa Runner SS Bushranger 63 In popular culture EditAlcoa is portrayed as the main sponsor of the CBS 1953 program See It Now in George Clooney s Academy Award nominated film Good Night and Good Luck 64 See also Edit Companies portal Alumina Aluminum can List of alumina refineries Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals Alcoa Tennessee Alcoa Power Generating Inc Cutco a company that sells knives founded in 1949 by Alcoa and Case Cutlery List of aluminium smelters 1953 Alcoa Aluminum advertisement History of aluminiumReferences Edit a b c d e f Alcoa Corporation 2017 Annual Report Form 10 K sec gov U S Securities and Exchange Commission January 2018 The world s leading primary aluminium producing companies in 2017 Statista 2018 Retrieved November 18 2018 Alcoa Fortune Retrieved November 25 2018 a b Almy mom coa Inc 2011 Annual Report Form 10 K Filing Date Feb 16 2012 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved June 25 2012 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date May 7 2007 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form SC TO T A Filing Date Jul 12 2007 secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 a b Alcoa Completes Corporate Split Aluminium Insider November 2 2016 Retrieved April 19 2017 a b Alcoa moving headquarters back to Pittsburgh WTAE Associated Press April 20 2017 Retrieved April 20 2017 Belko Mark October 31 2018 Alcoa considering a move from its North Shore home Pittsburgh Post Gazette Retrieved January 4 2019 Hachez Leroy Florence 2006 Aluminium industry a Heritage for Europe PDF Proceedings TICCIH Congress Archived from the original PDF on November 27 2007 Retrieved November 3 2007 Cite journal requires journal help Rosenbaum David Ira 1998 Market Dominance How Firms Gain Hold or Lose It and the Impact on Economic Performance Praeger Publishers via Greenwood Publishing Group p 56 ISBN 0 275 95604 0 Archived from the original on November 14 2007 Retrieved November 3 2007 a b c http www phmc state pa us Portal Communities BHP MPDFs Historic Aluminum Resources of Southwestern PA pdf Sanders Robert 2001 Technology Innovation in Aluminum Products JOM The Minerals Metals amp Materials Society Retrieved October 23 2020 Smith Richard 1965 The Airships Akron amp Macon The Flying Aircraft Carriers of the United States Navy Annapolis Maryland Naval Institute Press p 178 ISBN 0870210653 Retired Alcoa Board Chairman John D Harper Dies at Age 75 Times Wire Services Los Angeles Times July 31 1985 JOHN D HARPER 91 SERVED AS CHAIRMAN OF ALCOA UNTIL 1975 The New York Times Archives The New York Times July 28 1985 pg 001028 John D Harper Find A Grave Business Roundtable org A 2 8 Billion Deal by Alcoa For Alumax nytimes com Retrieved May 18 2020 Alcoa Acquires Reynolds Metals in a Deal Worth 4 5 Billion wsj com Retrieved May 15 2020 Aluminum Foil Maker Reynolds Goes Public wsj com Retrieved May 15 2020 Alcoa Agrees to Buy Aerospace Supplier Cordant Technologies wsj com Retrieved May 15 2020 ACQUISITION Alcoa to Acquire Cordant Huck globalfastenernews com Retrieved May 15 2020 Alcoa Acquires Cordant Technologies globeandmail com Retrieved May 15 2020 Alcoa Form 10 K Annual Report Filing Date Mar 5 2002 secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 News News Releases Alcoa Sells Its Stake in Chalco Will Continue Its Commitment to Chinese Aluminium Industry Alcoa September 12 2007 Retrieved July 13 2010 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date Sep 12 2007 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form 10 Q Quarterly Report Filing Date Apr 23 2004 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form 10 K Annual Report Filing Date Feb 18 2005 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date Oct 8 2004 secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Boselovic Len February 27 2006 Alcoa s HQ relocation to NYC no big surprise Post gazette com Retrieved July 13 2010 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date Mar 22 2005 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date Oct 11 2005 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date May 13 2008 PDF secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Form 8 K Current Report Filing Date Apr 27 2010 secdatabase com Retrieved January 3 2013 Alcoa Takes Full Ownership of Evermore Recycling BrightWire Archived from the original on January 18 2013 Alcoa permanently closes Italian aluminium smelter Mining Weekly South Africa Creamer Media June 28 2013 Alcoa Reaches Settlement With SEC And DOJ Over Bahraini Bribery Scandal Forbes January 9 2014 Alcoa Details Plans to Split into Two Companies The Wall Street Journal June 29 2016 Retrieved April 19 2017 Alcoa to Close New York Headquarters and Seven Other Offices The Wall Street Journal April 19 2017 Retrieved April 19 2017 Political Economy Research Institute Toxic 100 Peri umass edu Archived from the original on July 27 2010 Retrieved July 13 2010 U S Announces Clean Air Act Coal fired Power Plant Settlement with Alcoa Settlement Will Reduce Nitrogen Oxide and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Facility by More than 90 P Yosemite epa gov Retrieved July 13 2010 Alcoa To Carry Out EPA s Order and Expand Cleanup at Superfund Site in Moira New York To Contaminated Wetlands Sediments Newsroom US EPA Yosemite epa gov Retrieved July 13 2010 Aluworks limited ALW Half year best performing stock July 2006 Alcoa in Ghana News News From Ghana Alcoa Government of the Republic of Ghana Agree to Re Start Valco Smelter Alcoa com August 4 2005 Retrieved July 13 2010 Alcoa Guinea www alcoa com Retrieved May 2 2018 Alcoa Iceland www alcoa com Retrieved May 2 2018 Eade Christine April 18 2008 Alcoa sells vacant factory for 13m Markets print Property Week Retrieved July 13 2010 Knight Frank Commercial Search UK Logistics amp Industrial Alcoa announces closure of Port Henry aluminium smelter The Age February 18 2014 Retrieved February 18 2014 Smelter power deals The Age March 2 2010 Retrieved March 6 2013 Something in the Air Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC Four Corners March 10 2005 Retrieved December 24 2009 dead link Alcoa pleads not guilty over Wagerup dust Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC News July 23 2009 Retrieved December 24 2009 dead link Alcoa says health complaints unfounded Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC News December 6 2009 Retrieved December 24 2009 Erickson Melissa ALCOA unveils new company s name Arconic Retrieved March 16 2016 About Badin Works Archived from the original on March 15 2010 Retrieved March 2 2010 Fast Company magazine July 1 2009 Note Dubious Source List of ships Maritime Timetable Images Retrieved July 25 2019 A Tale of Two Ships Trail End Guilds Inc Archived from the original on July 26 2019 Retrieved July 26 2019 Ships hit by U boats Alcoa Guide uboat net Retrieved July 26 2019 Browning Jr Robert M June 13 2011 United States Merchant Marine Casualties of World War II rev ed p 342 ISBN 9780786446001 Retrieved July 25 2019 SS Alcoa Pioneer Armedguard com Retrieved July 25 2019 SS Bushranger www armed guard com Retrieved July 26 2019 Alcoa Online Newsroom www alcoa com Retrieved May 2 2018 External links EditOfficial website Business data for Alcoa Google FinanceYahoo FinanceBloombergReutersSEC filingsRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Alcoa amp oldid 1035705259, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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