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David Petraeus

"Petraeus" redirects here. For other uses, see Petraeus (disambiguation).

David Howell Petraeus (; born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official. He served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency from September 6, 2011, until his resignation on November 9, 2012. Prior to his assuming the directorship of the CIA, Petraeus served 37 years in the United States Army. His last assignments in the Army were as commander of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and commander, U.S. Forces – Afghanistan (USFOR-A) from July 4, 2010, to July 18, 2011. His other four-star assignments include serving as the 10th commander, U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) from October 13, 2008, to June 30, 2010, and as commanding general, Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF-I) from February 10, 2007, to September 16, 2008. As commander of MNF-I, Petraeus oversaw all coalition forces in Iraq.

David Petraeus
4th Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
In office
September 6, 2011 – November 9, 2012
PresidentBarack Obama
DeputyMichael Morell
Preceded byLeon Panetta
Succeeded byJohn Brennan
Commander of the International Security Assistance Force
In office
June 23, 2010 – July 18, 2011
Preceded byStanley A. McChrystal
Succeeded byJohn R. Allen
Commander of United States Central Command
In office
October 31, 2008 – June 30, 2010
Preceded byMartin Dempsey (acting)
Succeeded byJohn R. Allen (acting)
Personal details
Born
David Howell Petraeus

(1952-11-07)November 7, 1952 (age 68)
Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (before 2002)
Independent (2002–present)
Spouse(s)
(m. 1974)​
EducationUnited States Military Academy (BS)
Princeton University (MPA, PhD)
Military service
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1974–2011
RankGeneral
CommandsInternational Security Assistance Force
United States Forces-Afghanistan
United States Central Command
Multinational Force-Iraq
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Fort Leavenworth
Multinational Security Transition Command-Iraq
101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)
1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division
3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment
Battles/warsStabilisation Force
Operation Uphold Democracy
Operation Desert Spring

Iraq War


War in Afghanistan
AwardsDefense Distinguished Service Medal (4)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Defense Superior Service Medal (2)
Legion of Merit (4)
Bronze Star Medal with Valor
NATO Meritorious Service Medal
Officer of the Order of Australia
(More)

Petraeus has a B.S. degree from the United States Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1974 as a distinguished cadet (top 5% of his class). In his class were three other future four-star generals, Martin Dempsey, Walter L. Sharp and Keith B. Alexander. He was the General George C. Marshall Award winner as the top graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College class of 1983. He subsequently earned an M.P.A. in 1985 and a Ph.D. degree in international relations in 1987 from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He later served as assistant professor of international relations at the United States Military Academy and also completed a fellowship at Georgetown University.

Petraeus has repeatedly stated that he has no plans to run for elected political office. On June 23, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Petraeus to succeed General Stanley McChrystal as commanding general of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, technically a step down from his position as Commander of United States Central Command, which oversees the military efforts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, and Egypt.

On June 30, 2011, Petraeus was unanimously confirmed as the Director of the CIA by the U.S. Senate 94–0. Petraeus relinquished command of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan on July 18, 2011, and retired from the U.S. Army on August 31, 2011. On November 9, 2012, he resigned from his position as director of the CIA, citing his extramarital affair with his biographer Paula Broadwell, which was reportedly discovered in the course of an FBI investigation. In January 2015, officials reported the FBI and Justice Department prosecutors had recommended bringing felony charges against Petraeus for allegedly providing classified information to Broadwell while serving as director of the CIA. Eventually, Petraeus pleaded guilty to one misdemeanor charge of mishandling classified information.

Contents

Petraeus was born in Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, the son of Miriam Sweet (née Howell; 1912–1991), a librarian, and Sixtus Petraeus (1915–2008), a sea captain. His father was Frisian, from Franeker, Netherlands, and his mother was American, a resident of Brooklyn, New York. His father had sailed to the United States from the Netherlands at the start of World War II. They met at the Seamen's Church Institute of New York and New Jersey and married. Sixtus Petraeus commanded a Liberty ship for the US for the duration of World War II. The family moved after the war, settling in Cornwall-on-Hudson, where David Petraeus grew up and graduated from Cornwall Central High School in 1970.

With his son Stephen, Afghanistan, 2010

Petraeus went on to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Petraeus was on the intercollegiate soccer and ski teams, was a cadet captain on the brigade staff, and was a "distinguished cadet" academically, graduating in the top 5% of the Class of 1974 (ranked 40th overall). In the class yearbook, Petraeus was remembered as "always going for it in sports, academics, leadership, and even his social life."

While a cadet, Petraeus started dating the daughter of Army General William A. Knowlton (the West Point superintendent at the time), Holly. Two months after Petraeus graduated, they married. Holly, who is multi-lingual, was a National Merit Scholar in high school, and graduated summa cum laude from Dickinson College. They have a daughter and son, Anne and Stephen. Petraeus administered the oath of office at his son's 2009 commissioning into the Army after his son's graduation from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His son went on to serve as an officer in Afghanistan as a member of 3rd Platoon, Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team.

Petraeus's official residence in the United States is a small property in the small town of Springfield, New Hampshire, which his wife inherited from her family. Petraeus once told a friend that he was a Rockefeller Republican.

Petraeus graduated from West Point in 1974. He earned the General George C. Marshall Award as the top graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Class of 1983 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in Military Science. He subsequently earned an M.P.A. in 1985 and a Ph.D. in international relations in 1987 from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, where he was mentored by Richard H. Ullman. At that time, he also served as an assistant professor of international relations at the U.S. Military Academy from 1985 to 1987. His doctoral dissertation was titled "The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam: A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post-Vietnam Era". He also completed a military fellowship at Georgetown University's Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service in 1994–1995, although he was called away early to serve in Haiti as the Chief of Operations for NATO there in early 1995.[citation needed]

From late 2005 through February 2007, Petraeus served as commanding general of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and the U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC) located there. As commander of CAC, Petraeus was responsible for oversight of the Command and General Staff College and seventeen other schools, centers, and training programs as well as for developing the Army's doctrinal manuals, training the Army's officers, and supervising the Army's center for the collection and dissemination of lessons learned. During his time at CAC, Petraeus and Marine Lt. Gen. James N. Mattis jointly oversaw the publication of Field Manual 3–24, Counterinsurgency, the body of which was written by an extraordinarily diverse group of military officers, academics, human rights advocates, and journalists who had been assembled by Petraeus and Mattis. Additionally, at both Fort Leavenworth and throughout the military's schools and training programs, Petraeus integrated the study of counterinsurgency into lesson plans and training exercises. In recognition of the fact that soldiers in Iraq often performed duties far different from those for which they trained, Petraeus also stressed the importance of teaching soldiers how to think and how to fight, and the need to foster flexibility and adaptability in leaders. Petraeus called this change the most significant part of The Surge, saying in 2016, "the surge that mattered most was the surge of ideas. It was the change of strategy, and in many respects, this represented quite a significant change to what it was we were doing before the surge." Petraeus has been called "the world's leading expert in counter-insurgency warfare". Later, having refined his ideas on counterinsurgency based on the implementation of the new counterinsurgency doctrine in Iraq, he published both in Iraq as well as in the Sep/Oct 2008 edition of Military Review his "Commander's Counterinsurgency Guidance" to help guide leaders and units in the Multi-National Force-Iraq.

U.S. Army Gen. David H. Petraeus, during his time in the Army

1970s

Upon his graduation from West Point in 1974, Petraeus was commissioned an infantry officer. After completing Ranger School (Distinguished Honor Graduate and other honors), Petraeus was assigned to the 509th Airborne Battalion Combat Team, a light infantry unit stationed in Vicenza, Italy. Ever since, light infantry has been at the core of his career, punctuated by assignments to mechanized units, unit commands, staff assignments, and educational institutions. After leaving the 509th as a first lieutenant, Petraeus began a brief association with mechanized units when he became assistant operations officer on the staff of the 2nd Brigade, 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Stewart, Georgia. In 1979, he assumed command of a company in the same division: A Company, 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment (Mechanized), and then served as that battalion's operations officer, a major's position that he held as a junior captain.

1980s

In 1981, Petraeus became aide-de-camp to General John Galvin, then commanding general of the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized). He spent the next few years furthering his military and civilian education, including spending 1982–83 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, attending the Command and General Staff College. At graduation in 1983, he was the General George C. Marshall Award winner as the top graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. From 1983 to 1985, he was at Princeton; and 1985–87 at West Point. After earning his Ph.D. and teaching at West Point, Petraeus continued up the rungs of the command ladder, serving as military assistant to Gen. John Galvin, the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. From there, he moved to the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized). During 1988–1989, he served as operations officer to the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized)'s 30th Infantry Regiment. He was then posted as an aide and assistant executive officer to the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, General Carl Vuono, in Washington, D.C.

1990s

Upon promotion to lieutenant colonel, Petraeus moved from the office of the chief of staff to Fort Campbell, Kentucky, where he commanded the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)'s 3rd Battalion 187th Infantry Regiment, known as the "Iron Rakkasans", from 1991 to 1993. During this period, he suffered one of the more dramatic incidents in his career; in 1991 he was accidentally shot in the chest with an M-16 rifle during a live-fire exercise when a soldier tripped and his rifle discharged. He was taken to Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, where he was operated on by future U.S. Senator Bill Frist. The hospital released him early after he did fifty push-ups without resting, just a few days after the accident.

During 1993–94, Petraeus continued his long association with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) as the division's assistant chief of staff, G-3 (plans, operations, and training) and installation director of plans, training, and mobilization (DPTM). In 1995, he was assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti Military Staff as its chief operations officer during Operation Uphold Democracy. His next command, from 1995 to 1997, was the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, centered on the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. At that post, his brigade's training cycle at Fort Polk's Joint Readiness Training Center for low-intensity warfare was chronicled by novelist and military enthusiast Tom Clancy in his book Airborne. From 1997 to 1999, Petraeus served in the Pentagon as executive assistant to the director of the Joint Staff and then to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Gen. Henry Shelton, who described Petraeus as "a high-energy individual who likes to lead from the front, in any field, he is going into." In 1999, as a brigadier general, Petraeus returned to the 82nd, serving as the assistant division commander for operations and then, briefly, as acting commanding general. During his time with the 82nd, he deployed to Kuwait as part of Operation Desert Spring, the continuous rotation of combat forces through Kuwait during the decade after the Gulf War.

2000s

From the 82nd, he moved on to serve as chief of staff of XVIII Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg during 2000–2001. In 2000, Petraeus suffered his second major injury, when, during a civilian skydiving jump, his parachute collapsed at low altitude due to a hook turn, resulting in a hard landing that broke his pelvis. He was selected for promotion to major general in 2001. During 2001–2002, as a brigadier general, Petraeus served a ten-month tour in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of Operation Joint Forge. In Bosnia, he was the NATO Stabilization Force assistant chief of staff for operations as well as the deputy commander of the U.S. Joint Interagency Counter-Terrorism Task Force, a command created after the September 11 attacks to add counterterrorism capability to the U.S. forces attached to the NATO command in Bosnia. In 2004, he was promoted to lieutenant general. In 2007, he was promoted to General. On April 23, 2008, Secretary of Defense Gates announced that President Bush was nominating General Petraeus to command U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM), headquartered in Tampa, Florida. In 2010, Petraeus was nominated to command the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, which required Senate confirmation. He was confirmed on June 30, 2010, and took over command from temporary commander Lieutenant-General Sir Nick Parker on July 4, 2010.

Involvement in the Iraq War

101st Airborne Division

Maj. Gen. David H. Petraeus (right), commanding general, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), looks on as Lt. Gen. William S. Wallace, V Corps commanding general speaks to soldiers, March 21, 2003, Kuwait.

In 2003, Petraeus, then a major general, saw combat for the first time when he commanded the 101st Airborne Division during V Corps's drive to Baghdad. In a campaign chronicled in detail by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Rick Atkinson of The Washington Post in the book In the Company of Soldiers, Petraeus led his division through fierce fighting south of Baghdad, in Karbala, Hilla and Najaf. Following the fall of Baghdad, the division conducted the longest heliborne assault on record in order to reach Nineveh Governorate, where it would spend much of 2003. The 1st Brigade was responsible for the area south of Mosul, the 2nd Brigade for the city itself, and the 3rd Brigade for the region stretching toward the Syrian border. An often-repeated story of Petraeus's time with the 101st is his asking of embedded The Washington Post reporter Rick Atkinson to "Tell me how this ends," an anecdote he and other journalists have used to portray Petraeus as an early recognizer of the difficulties that would follow the fall of Baghdad.

In Mosul, a city of nearly two million people, Petraeus and the 101st employed classic counterinsurgency methods to build security and stability, including conducting targeted kinetic operations and using force judiciously, jump-starting the economy, building local security forces, staging elections for the city council within weeks of their arrival, overseeing a program of public works, reinvigorating the political process, and launching 4,500 reconstruction projects in Iraq. This approach can be attributed to Petraeus, who had been steeped in nation-building during his previous tours in nations such as Bosnia and Haiti and thus approached nation-building as a central military mission and who was "prepared to act while the civilian authority in Baghdad was still getting organized", according to Michael Gordon of The New York Times. Some Iraqis gave Petraeus the nickname 'King David', which was later adopted by some of his colleagues. In 2004, Newsweek stated that "It's widely accepted that no force worked harder to win Iraqi hearts and minds than the 101st Airborne Division led by Petraeus."

Petraeus on patrol in Mosul with Gen. Peter J. Schoomaker, 2003

One of the General's major public works was the restoration and re-opening of the University of Mosul. Petraeus strongly supported the use of commanders' discretionary funds for public works, telling Coalition Provisional Authority director L. Paul Bremer "Money is ammunition" during the director's first visit to Mosul. Petraeus's often repeated catchphrase was later incorporated into official military briefings and was also eventually incorporated into the U.S. Army Counterinsurgency Field Manual drafted with Petraeus's oversight.

Petraeus's Bronze Star Medal with V Device for actions in combat leading the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division during Operation Iraqi Freedom, May 2003

In February 2004, the 101st was replaced in Mosul by a portion of I Corps headquarters, but operational forces consisted solely of a unit roughly one quarter its size—a Stryker brigade. The following summer, the governor of Nineveh Province was assassinated, and most of the Sunni Arab Provincial Council members walked out in the ensuing selection of the new governor, leaving Kurdish members in charge of a predominantly Sunni Arab province. Later that year, the local police commander defected to the Kurdish Minister of Interior in Irbil after repeated assassination attempts against him, attacks on his house, and the kidnapping of his sister. The largely Sunni Arab police collapsed under insurgent attacks launched at the same time Coalition Forces attacked Fallujah in November 2004.

Orders awarding the Combat Action Badge to then LTG David H. Petraeus for actions in combat during Iraqi Freedom

There are differing explanations for the apparent collapse of the police force in Mosul. The Guardian quoted an anonymous US diplomat saying, "Mosul basically collapsed after he [Petraeus] left." Former diplomat Peter Galbraith criticized Petraeus's command of the 101st, saying his achievements had been exaggerated and his reputation inflated. He wrote for The New York Review of Books that "Petraeus ignored warnings from America's Kurdish allies that he was appointing the wrong people to key positions in Mosul's local government and police." On the other hand, in the book Fiasco, The Washington Post reporter Tom Ricks wrote that "Mosul was quiet while he (Petraeus) was there, and likely would have remained so had his successor had as many troops as he had—and as much understanding of counterinsurgency techniques." Ricks went on to say that "the population-oriented approach Petraeus took in Mosul in 2003 would be the one the entire U.S. Army in Iraq was trying to adopt in 2006." Time columnist Joe Klein largely agreed with Ricks, writing that the Stryker brigade that replaced the 101st "didn't do any of the local governance that Petraeus had done." Moving away from counterinsurgency principles, "they were occupiers, not builders." The New York Times reporter Michael Gordon and retired General Bernard Trainor echoed Ricks and Klein, including in their book Cobra II a quote that Petraeus "did it right and won over Mosul."

Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq

In June 2004, less than six months after the 101st returned to the U.S., Petraeus was promoted to lieutenant general and became the first commander of the Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq. This newly created command had responsibility for training, equipping, and mentoring Iraq's growing army, police, and other security forces, as well as developing Iraq's security institutions and building associated infrastructure, such as training bases, police stations, and border forts. During Petraeus's fifteen months at the helm of MNSTC-I, he stood up a three-star command virtually from scratch and in the midst of serious fighting in places like Fallujah, Mosul, and Najaf. By the end of his command, some 100,000 Iraqi Security Forces had been trained; Iraqi Army and Police were being employed in combat; countless reconstruction projects had been executed; and hundreds of thousands of weapons, body armor, and other equipment had been distributed in what was described as the "largest military procurement and distribution effort since World War II," at a cost of over $11 billion.

In September 2004, Petraeus wrote an article for The Washington Post in which he described the tangible progress being made in building Iraq's security forces from the ground up while also noting the many challenges associated with doing so. "Although there have been reverses – not to mention horrific terrorist attacks," Petraeus wrote, "there has been progress in the effort to enable Iraqis to shoulder more of the load for their own security, something they are keen to do." Some of the challenges involved in building security forces had to do with accomplishing this task in the midst of a tough insurgency—or, as Petraeus wrote, "making the mission akin to repairing an aircraft while in flight—and while being shot at." Other challenges included allegations of corruption as well as efforts to improve Iraq's supply accountability procedures. For example, according to former Interim Iraq Governing Council member Ali A. Allawi in The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace, "under the very noses of the security transition command, officials both inside and outside the ministry of defense were planning to embezzle most, if not all, of the procurement budget of the army." The Washington Post stated in August 2007 that the Pentagon had lost track of approximately 30% of weapons supplied to the Iraqi security forces. The General Accounting Office said that the weapons distribution was haphazard, rushed, and did not follow established procedures—particularly from 2004 to 2005, when security training was led by Petraeus and Iraq's security forces began to see combat in places like Najaf and Samarra. Over a hundred thousand AK-47 assault rifles and pistols were delivered to Iraqi forces without full documentation, and some of the missing weapons may have been abducted by Iraqi insurgents. Thousands of body armour pieces have also been lost. The Independent has stated that the military believed "the situation on the ground was so urgent, and the agency responsible for recording the transfers of arms so short-staffed, that field commanders had little choice in the matter." The Pentagon conducted its own investigation, and accountability was subsequently regained for many of the weapons.

Following his second tour in Iraq, Petraeus authored a widely read article in Military Review, listing fourteen observations he had made during two tours in Iraq, including: do not do too much with your own hands, money is ammunition, increasing the number of stakeholders is critical to success, success in a counterinsurgency requires more than just military operations, ultimate success depends on local leaders, there is no substitute for flexible and adaptable leaders, and, finally, a leader's most important task is to set the right tone.

Multi-National Force – Iraq (spring 2007)

Petraeus walking through a market in Baghdad, March 2007

The intervening time between the Iraq commands was spent at Fort Leavenworth, where Petraeus further developed his military doctrine and pursued an important White House contact in Meghan O'Sullivan who was the principal adviser to the president on the war. In January 2007, as part of his overhauled Iraq strategy, President George W. Bush announced that Petraeus would succeed Gen. George Casey as commanding general of MNF-I to lead all U.S. troops in Iraq. In his memoirs, President Bush likened his selection of Petraeus to the elevations of other great generals of American history, writing, "Lincoln discovered Generals Grant and Sherman. Roosevelt had Eisenhower and Bradley. I found David Petraeus and Ray Odierno." On January 23, the Senate Armed Services Committee held Petraeus's nomination hearing, during which he testified on his ideas for Iraq, particularly the strategy underpinning the "surge" of forces. During his opening statement, Petraeus stated that "security of the population, especially in Baghdad, and in partnership with the Iraqi Security Forces, will be the focus of the military effort." He went on to state that security will require establishing a persistent presence, especially in Iraq's most threatened neighborhoods. He also noted the critical importance of helping Iraq increase its governmental capacity, develop employment programs, and improve daily life for its citizens.

Throughout Petraeus's tenure in Iraq, Multi-National Force-Iraq endeavored to work with the Government of Iraq to carry out this strategy that focuses on securing the population. Doing so required establishing—and maintaining—persistent presence by living among the population, separating reconcilable Iraqis from irreconcilable enemies, relentlessly pursuing the enemy, taking back sanctuaries and then holding areas that have been cleared, and continuing to develop Iraq's security forces and to support local security forces, often called Sons of Iraq, and to integrate them into the Iraqi Army and Police and other employment programs.

The strategy underpinning the "surge" of forces, as well as the ideas Petraeus included in US army Field Manual 3–24, Counterinsurgency, have been referred to by some journalists and politicians as the "Petraeus Doctrine", although the surge itself was proposed a few months before Petraeus took command. Despite the misgivings of most Democratic and a few Republican senators over the proposed implementation of the "Petraeus Doctrine" in Iraq, specifically regarding the troop surge, Petraeus was unanimously confirmed as a four-star general and MNF-I commander on January 27.

Before leaving for Iraq, Petraeus recruited a number of highly educated military officers, nicknamed "Petraeus guys" or "designated thinkers", to advise him as commander, including Col. Mike Meese, head of the Social Sciences Department at West Point and Col. H.R. McMaster, famous for his leadership at the Battle of 73 Easting in the Gulf War and in the pacification of Tal Afar more recently, as well as for his doctoral dissertation on Vietnam-era civil-military relations titled Dereliction of Duty. While most of Petraeus's closest advisers are American military officers, he also hired Lt. Col. David Kilcullen of the Australian Army, who was working for the US State Department. Kilcullen upon his return from Iraq published The Accidental Guerrilla, and has discussed the central front of the war and lessons learned in Iraq in The Washington Post.

U.S. Army Gen. David H. Petraeus, the commander of Multi-National Force – Iraq, briefs reporters at the Pentagon April 26, 2007, on his view of the current military situation in Iraq.

After taking command of MNF-I on February 10, 2007, Petraeus inspected U.S. and Iraqi units all over Iraq, visiting outposts in greater Baghdad, Tikrit, Baquba, Ramadi, Mosul, Kirkuk, Bayji, Samarra, Basrah and as far west as al-Hit and Al Qaim. In April 2007, Petraeus made his first visit to Washington as MNF-I Commander, reporting to President Bush and Congress on the progress of the "surge" and the overall situation in Iraq. During this visit he met privately with members of Congress and reportedly argued against setting a timetable for U.S. troop withdrawal from Iraq.

By late May 2007, Congress had not imposed any timetables in war funding legislation for troop withdrawal. The enacted legislation did mandate that Petraeus and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, Ryan Crocker, deliver a report to Congress by September 15, 2007, detailing their assessment of the military, economic and political situation of Iraq.

In June 2007, Petraeus stated in an interview that there were "astonishing signs of normalcy" in Baghdad, and this comment drew criticism from Senate majority leader Harry Reid. In the same interview, however, Petraeus stated that "many problems remain" and he noted the need to help the Iraqis "stitch back together the fabric of society that was torn during the height of sectarian violence" in late 2006. Petraeus also warned that he expected that the situation in Iraq would require the continued deployment of the elevated troop level of more than 150,000 beyond September 2007; he also stated that U.S. involvement in Iraq could last years afterward. These statements are representative of the fact that throughout their time in Iraq, Petraeus and Crocker remained circumspect and refused to classify themselves as optimists or pessimists, noting, instead, that they were realists and that the reality in Iraq was very hard. They also repeatedly emphasized the importance of forthright reports and an unvarnished approach. Indeed, Petraeus's realistic approach and assessments were lauded during the McLaughlin Group's 2008 Year-End Awards, when Monica Crowley nominated Petraeus for the most honest person of the year, stating, "...[H]e spoke about the great successes of the surge in Iraq, but he always tempered it, never sugar-coated it."

Multi-National Force – Iraq (summer and fall 2007)

In July 2007, the White House submitted to Congress the interim report on Iraq, which stated that coalition forces had made satisfactory progress on 6 of 18 benchmarks set by Congress. On September 7, 2007, in a letter addressed to the troops he was commanding, Petraeus wrote that much military progress had been made, but that the national level political progress that was hoped for had not been achieved. Petraeus's Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq was delivered to Congress on September 10, 2007.

On August 15, 2007, the Los Angeles Times stated that, according to unnamed administration officials, the report "would actually be written by the White House, with inputs from officials throughout the government". However, Petraeus declared in his testimony to Congress that "I wrote this testimony myself." He further elaborated that his testimony to Congress "has not been cleared by, nor shared with, anyone in the Pentagon, the White House, or Congress".

GEN Petraeus with LTG Odierno (left), President Bush (center), SecDef Gates, and SecState Rice (right) at Al Asad Airbase in September 2007

In his September Congressional testimony, Petraeus stated that "As a bottom line up front, the military objectives of the surge are, in large measure, being met." He cited numerous factors for this progress, to include the fact that Coalition and Iraqi Forces had dealt significant blows to Al-Qaeda Iraq and had disrupted Shia militias, that ethno-sectarian violence had been reduced, and that the tribal rejection of Al-Qaeda had spread from Anbar Province to numerous other locations across Iraq. Based on this progress and additional progress expected to be achieved, Petraeus recommended drawing down the surge forces from Iraq and gradually transitioning increased responsibilities to Iraqi Forces, as their capabilities and conditions on the ground permitted.

Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada argued Petraeus's "plan is just more of the same" and "is neither a drawdown or a change in mission that we need". Democratic Representative Robert Wexler of Florida accused Petraeus of "cherry-picking statistics" and "massaging information". Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee Tom Lantos of California called Petraeus and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker "Two of our nation's most capable public servants" and said Democrats feel "esteem for their professionalism". He also said that "We can no longer take their assertions on Iraq at face value"; concluding, "We need to get out of Iraq, for that country's sake as well as our own."

Republican Presidential candidate Duncan Hunter called the report "a candid, independent assessment given with integrity". Republican senator Jon Kyl of Arizona stated that "I commend General Petraeus for his honest and forthright assessment of the situation in Iraq." Anti-war Republican senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska criticized the report while praising Petraeus, saying "It's not your fault, general.... It's not Ambassador Crocker's fault. It's this administration's fault." A USA Today/Gallup poll taken after Petraeus's report to Congress showed virtually no change in public opinion toward the war. A Pew Research Center survey found that most Americans who have heard about the report approve of Petraeus's recommendations.

On September 20, the Senate passed an amendment by Republican John Cornyn III of Texas designed to "strongly condemn personal attacks on the honor and integrity of General Petraeus". Cornyn drafted the amendment in response to a controversial full-page ad by the liberal group Moveon.org in the September 10, 2007, edition of The New York Times. All forty-nine Republican senators and twenty-two Democratic senators voted in support. The House passed a similar resolution by a 341–79 vote on September 26.

In December 2007, The Washington Post's "Fact Checker" stated that "While some of Petraeus's statistics are open to challenge, his claims about a general reduction in violence have been borne out over subsequent months. It now looks as if Petraeus was broadly right on this issue at least".

Based on the conditions on the ground, in October 2007, Petraeus and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker revised their campaign plan for Iraq. In recognition of the progress made against Al Qaeda Iraq, one of the major points would be "shifting the U.S. military effort to focus more on countering Shiite militias".

Multi-National Force – Iraq (spring 2008)

On February 18, 2008, USA Today stated that "the U.S. effort has shown more success" and that, after the number of troops reached its peak in fall 2007, "U.S. deaths were at their lowest levels since the 2003 invasion, civilian casualties were down, and street life was resuming in Baghdad." In light of the significant reduction in violence and as the surge brigades began to redeploy without replacement, Petraeus characterized the progress as tenuous, fragile, and reversible and repeatedly reminded all involved that much work remains to be done. During an early February trip to Iraq, Defense Secretary Robert Gates endorsed the idea of a period of consolidation and evaluation upon completion of the withdrawal of surge brigades from Iraq.

Petraeus and Crocker continued these themes at their two full days of testimony before Congress on April 8 and 9. During his opening statement, Petraeus stated that "there has been significant but uneven security progress in Iraq," while also noting that "the situation in certain areas is still unsatisfactory and that innumerable challenges remain" and that "the progress made since last spring is fragile and reversible." He also recommended a continuation of the drawdown of surge forces as well as a 45-day period of consolidation and evaluation after the final surge brigade has redeployed in late July. Analysts for USA Today and The New York Times stated that the hearings "lacked the suspense of last September's debate", but they did include sharp questioning as well as both skepticism and praise from various Congressional leaders.

In late May 2008, the Senate Armed Services Committee held nomination hearings for Petraeus and Lieutenant General Ray Odierno to lead United States Central Command and Multi-National Force-Iraq, respectively. During the hearings, Committee Chairman Carl Levin praised these two men, stating that "we owe Gen. Petraeus and Gen. Odierno a debt of gratitude for the commitment, determination and strength that they brought to their areas of responsibility. And regardless of how long the administration may choose to remain engaged in the strife in that country, our troops are better off with the leadership these two distinguished soldiers provide." During his opening statement, Petraeus discussed four principles that would guide his efforts if confirmed as CENTCOM Commander: seeking to strengthen international partnerships; taking a "whole of government" approach; pursuing comprehensive efforts and solutions; and, finally, both supporting efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan and ensuring readiness for possible contingency operations in the future. Petraeus also noted that during the week before his testimony, the number of security incidents in Iraq was the lowest in over four years. After Petraeus's return to Baghdad, and despite the continued drawdown of surge forces as well as recent Iraqi-led operations in places like Basrah, Mosul, and Baghdad, the number of security incidents in Iraq remained at their lowest level in over four years.

Multi-National Force – Iraq (summer and fall 2008)

Petraeus explains security improvements in Sadr City while giving an aerial tour of Baghdad to Senator Barack Obama, July 2008

In September 2008, Petraeus gave an interview to BBC News stating that he did not think using the term "victory" in describing the Iraq war was appropriate, saying "This is not the sort of struggle where you take a hill, plant the flag and go home to a victory parade... it's not war with a simple slogan."

Petraeus had discussed the term 'victory' before in March 2008, saying to NPR News that "an Iraq that is at peace with itself, at peace with its neighbors, that has a government that is representative of—and responsive to—its citizenry and is a contributing member of the global community" could arguably be called 'victory'. On the eve of his change of command, in September 2008, Petraeus stated that "I don't use terms like victory or defeat... I'm a realist, not an optimist or a pessimist. And the reality is that there has been significant progress but there are still serious challenges."

Change of command

Iraq Defense Minister Abdul Qadir presents a gift to Petraeus during a farewell ceremony in Baghdad on September 15, 2008.

On September 16, 2008, Petraeus formally gave over his command in Iraq to General Raymond T. Odierno in a government ceremony presided by Defense Secretary Robert Gates. During the ceremony, Gates stated that Petraeus "played a historic role" and created the "translation of a great strategy into a great success in very difficult circumstances". Gates also told Petraeus he believed "history will regard you as one of our nation's greatest battle captains." He presented Petraeus with the Defense Distinguished Service Medal. At the event, Petraeus mentioned the difficulty in getting the Sons of Iraq absorbed in the central Government of Iraq and warned about future consequences if the effort stalls. Indeed, when speaking of these and other challenges, Petraeus is the first to note that "the gains [achieved in Iraq] are tenuous and unlikely to survive without an American effort that outlasts his tenure." Even so, as Petraeus departed Iraq, it was clear to all that he was leaving a much different Iraq than the one that existed when he took command in February 2007. As described by Dexter Filkins, "violence has plummeted from its apocalyptic peaks, Iraqi leaders are asserting themselves, and streets that once seemed dead are flourishing with life." the Iraq Trends charts also illustrate this that the MNF-I produces weekly. The January 3, 2009, Iraq Trends chart clearly depicts the increases in incidents followed by the sharp decline described by Dexter Filkens and others.

Petraeus' command of coalition forces during the Surge in Iraq has been widely lauded. In his book The Savior Generals historian Victor Davis Hanson wrote, "...that without David Petraeus, the American effort in Iraq—along with the reputation of the U.S. military in the Middle East—would have been lost long ago." In her introduction of Petraeus at the Baccalaureate ceremony for the Class of 2009, Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman described his accomplishments. While acknowledging that much remains to be accomplished in Iraq, Tilghman paid tribute to Petraeus's "leadership in rethinking American military strategy through his principles of counterinsurgency", which are, she said, "eliminating 'simplistic definitions of victory and defeat in favor of incremental and nuanced progress'".

U.S. Central Command (fall 2008 to summer 2010)

Gen. David H. Petraeus speaking at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College

On October 31, 2008, Petraeus assumed command of the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) headquartered in Tampa, Florida. Petraeus was responsible for U.S. operations in 20 countries spreading from Egypt to Pakistan—including Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. During his time at CENTCOM, Petraeus advocated that countering the terrorist threats in the CENTCOM region requires more than just counter-terrorism forces, demanding instead whole-of-governments, comprehensive approaches akin to those of counterinsurgency. One of his closest colleagues said that Petraeus knew that defeating an insurgency required living among the people, convincing them that we were better than the insurgents. "[Y]ou can't kill 'em all ... . [Y]ou can't kill your way out of an insurgency. ... You have to find other kinds of ammunition, and it's not always a bullet."

Petraeus reiterated this view in a 2009 interview published in Parade magazine. In a recent interview for Newsweek magazine's "Interview Issue: The View From People Who Make a Difference", Petraeus expressed his support for President Obama's announced Afghanistan strategy and discussed his view that reconciliation efforts in Afghanistan should for the time being occur "at the lower and midlevels".

In mid-August 2009, Petraeus established the Afghanistan-Pakistan Center of Excellence within the USCENTCOM Directorate of Intelligence to provide leadership to coordinate, integrate and focus analysis efforts in support of operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

During a February 2010 World Affairs Council event in Philadelphia, General Petraeus discussed the ways in which diplomacy, history, and culture impact overall military strategy, then explained how these issues informed the U.S. approach to counterinsurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan.

On March 16, 2010, testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee, Petraeus described the continuing Israeli–Palestinian conflict as a challenge to U.S. interests in the region. According to the testimony, the conflict was "fomenting anti-American sentiment" due to "a perception of U.S. favoritism for Israel". This was widely commented on in the media. When questioned by journalist Philip Klein, Petraeus said the original reporter "picked apart" and "spun" his speech. He believes there are many important factors standing in the way of peace, including "a whole bunch of extremist organizations, some of which by the way deny Israel's right to exist. There's a country that has a nuclear program who denies that the Holocaust took place. So again we have all these factors in there. This [Israel] is just one."

In March 2010, Petraeus visited the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College to speak about Iraq and Afghanistan. Petraeus spoke a few days after the seventh anniversary of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, noting the successful changes in Iraq since the U.S. troop surge. The visit to Saint Anselm created rumors that Petraeus was contemplating a run for the presidency; however, he denied the speculation, saying that he was not aware that the college has been the site of numerous presidential debates.

Toward the close of his tenure as CENTCOM Commander, including in his interview published in Vanity Fair, Petraeus discussed the effort to determine and send to Afghanistan the right "inputs" for success there; these inputs include several structures and organizations that proved important in Iraq, including "an engagement cell to support reconciliation ... a finance cell to go after financing of the enemy ... [a] really robust detainee-operations task force, a rule-of-law task force, an energy-fusion cell—all these other sort of nonstandard missions that are very important".

On May 5, 2010, The New York Times published an article that there was mounting evidence of a Taliban role in the Times Square bombing plot. On May 7, 2010, Petraeus announced that Times Square bombing suspect, Faisal Shahzad, is a "lone wolf" terrorist who did not work with others. On May 10, 2010, Attorney General Eric Holder said that the evidence shows the Pakistani Taliban directed this plot.

Health

General Petraeus was diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer in February 2009 and underwent two months of successful radiation treatment at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The diagnosis and treatment was not publicly disclosed until October 2009 because Petraeus and his family regarded his illness as a personal matter that did not interfere with the performance of his duties.

On June 15, 2010, Petraeus momentarily fainted while being questioned by the Senate Armed Services Committee. He quickly recovered and was able to walk and exit the room without assistance. He attributed the episode to possible dehydration.

Commander of U.S. and ISAF forces in Afghanistan

Petraeus having tea with the Afghan Border Police Commander at the border with Uzbekistan

On June 23, 2010, President Obama announced that he would nominate Petraeus to succeed General Stanley A. McChrystal as the commander of U.S. Forces in Afghanistan. The change of command was prompted by McChrystal's comments about the Obama administration and its policies in Afghanistan during an interview with Rolling Stone magazine. The nomination was technically a positional step down from his position as commander of Central Command; however, the President said that he believed that he was the best man for the job. After being confirmed by the Senate on June 30, Petraeus formally assumed command on July 4. During the assumption of command remarks, Petraeus provided his vision and goals to NATO, the members of his command, and his Afghan partners. As he was known to do while the commander in Iraq, Petraeus delivered his first Letter to the Troops on the same day he assumed command.

On August 1, 2010, shortly after the disclosure of the Afghan war logs on WikiLeaks, Petraeus issued his updated Tactical Directive for the prevention of civilian casualties, providing guidance and intent for the use of force by the U.S. military units operating in Afghanistan (replacing the July 1, 2009, version). This directive reinforced the concept of "disciplined use of force in partnership with Afghan Security Forces" in the fight against insurgent forces.

We must never forget that the center of gravity in this struggle is the Afghan people; it is they who will ultimately determine the future of Afghanistan ... Prior to the use of fires, the commander approving the strike must determine that no civilians are present. If unable to assess the risk of civilian presence, fires are prohibited, except under of the following two conditions (specific conditions deleted due to operational security; however, they have to do with the risk to ISAF and Afghan forces).

In the October 2010 issue of Army Magazine, Petraeus discussed changes that had taken place over the previous 18 months, including sections discussing "setting the conditions for progress", "capitalizing on the conditions for progress", "improving security", "supporting governance expansion", "promoting economic development", "reducing corruption", and "our troopers: carrying out a difficult mission".

Petraeus talks with U.S. soldiers at Combat Outpost Monti in eastern Afghanistan on August 5, 2010.
Petraeus visits Regional Command West in Afghanistan, May 16, 2011.

As commander in Afghanistan, Petraeus joined President Obama as a primary target for Osama bin Laden. After his death, documents recovered from bin Laden's compound unveiled a plot to assassinate the two men as they traveled by plane. Bin Laden's communications with a top deputy stated, "The reason for concentrating on them is that Obama is the head of infidelity and killing him automatically will make [Vice President] Biden take over the presidency. Biden is totally unprepared for that post, which will lead the U.S. into a crisis. As for Petraeus, he is the man of the hour... and killing him would alter the war's path" in Afghanistan.

In early March 2011, Petraeus made a "rare apology" following a NATO helicopter airstrike under his command that resulted in the deaths of nine Afghan boys and the wounding of a 10th, as they gathered firewood in Eastern Afghanistan. In a statement, Petraeus apologized to the members of the Afghan government, the people of Afghanistan and the surviving family members, and said: "These deaths should have never happened." Several journalists and observers noted the humanitarian candor in Petraeus's open regrets. Petraeus relinquished command of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan on July 18. He received the Defense Distinguished Service Medal and the NATO Meritorious Service Medal for his service.

Petraeus retired from the U.S. Army on August 31, 2011. His retirement ceremony was held at Joint Base Myer–Henderson Hall. During this ceremony, he was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal by Deputy Secretary of Defense William J. Lynn. During the ceremony, Lynn noted that Petraeus had played an important role as both a combat leader and strategist in the post-9/11 world. Lynn also cited General Petraeus's efforts in current counter insurgency strategy. Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in his remarks compared General Petraeus to Ulysses S. Grant, John J. Pershing, George Marshall and Dwight D. Eisenhower as one of the great battle captains of American history. With his four-star rank, Petraeus receives an annual pension of about $220,000.

Dates of rank

Promotions
Rank Date
Second lieutenant June 5, 1974
First lieutenant June 5, 1976
Captain August 8, 1978
Major August 1, 1985
Lieutenant colonel April 1, 1991
Colonel September 1, 1995
Brigadier general January 1, 2000
Major general January 1, 2003
Lieutenant general May 18, 2004
General February 10, 2007
Petraeus ceremonially sworn in at CIA Headquarters as his wife, Holly, looks on

On April 28, 2011, President Barack Obama announced that he had nominated Petraeus to become the new Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate 94–0 on June 30, 2011. Petraeus was sworn in at the White House on September 6 and then ceremonially sworn in by Vice President Joe Biden at CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia on October 11, 2011.

Petraeus's tenure at the CIA was more low profile than that of his predecessor, Leon Panetta, declining to give media interviews while director and speaking to Congress in closed sessions. He also differed from Panetta in management style, as an article in The New York Times published just days before his resignation said Panetta "wooed the work force and often did not question operational details, [while] Petraeus is a demanding boss who does not hesitate to order substandard work redone or details of plans adjusted". Petraeus's philosophy on leadership at the time was summarized in a twelve-point article published by Newsweek on November 5, 2012.

Although Petraeus was given good marks by most observers for his work heading the CIA, during October 2012 some critics took issue with the availability of accurate information from the CIA concerning a terrorist attack in Benghazi, Libya, the month prior. On September 11 four Americans had been killed, including the ambassador, and more than thirty evacuated. Only seven of those evacuated did not work for the CIA. According to a Wall Street Journal story, other government agencies complained about being left "largely in the dark about the CIA's role", with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton telephoning Petraeus directly the night of the attacks seeking assistance. Although the "State Department believed it had a formal agreement with the CIA to provide backup security", "the CIA didn't have the same understanding about its security responsibilities," said The Wall Street Journal.

Main article: Petraeus scandal
Petraeus with Paula Broadwell in July 2011

Petraeus reportedly began an affair with Paula Broadwell, principal author of his biography, All In: The Education of General David Petraeus, after Petraeus left his ISAF command on July 18, 2011, to become CIA director. Petraeus reportedly ended the affair in the summer of 2012, around the time that he learned that Broadwell had been sending harassing emails to a longstanding family friend of the Petraeuses, Jill Kelley.

Kelley, a Florida socialite who frequently entertained senior military personnel at her and her husband's Tampa mansion, had approached an acquaintance who worked for the FBI Tampa Field Office in the late spring with regard to anonymous emails she considered threatening. The Bureau traced the emails to Broadwell, and noted that Broadwell appeared to be exchanging intimate messages with an email account belonging to Petraeus, which instigated an investigation into whether that account had been hacked into or was someone posing as Petraeus. According to an Associated Press report, rather than transmit emails to each other's inbox, which would have left a more obvious email trail, Petraeus and Broadwell left messages in a draft folder and the draft messages were then read by the other person when they logged into the same account.

Although US Attorney General Eric Holder was aware that the FBI had discovered the affair, it was not until November 6, 2012, that Petraeus's nominal superior, Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper, was advised. That same evening Clapper called Petraeus and urged him to resign. Clapper notified the White House the next day, November 7. After being briefed on November 8, President Obama summoned Petraeus to the White House where Petraeus offered his resignation. Obama accepted his resignation on November 9, and Petraeus cited his affair when announcing that same day that he would resign as CIA Director. Eventually, Petraeus pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge of mishandling the classified information that he provided to his mistress and biographer.

Criticism after 2012 scandal

Petraeus had a strategy to influence military conditions by using press relations, both in theater and in Washington, according to critics of his military career.[citation needed] On November 13, 2012, Reagan administration Assistant Secretary of Defense Lawrence Korb, C.I.A. analyst and Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity co-founder Ray McGovern, and investigative journalist Gareth Porter appeared on Al Jazeera English. Together they assessed the general's extensive military-media strategy linking his writings on counterguerrilla operations and subsequent military media efforts, to his downfall with his female biographer. Critics said that the Petraeus media strategy would prove damaging for American policy in the future because of omissions and distorted interpretations that Washington policymakers, other experts, and the American public accepted from Petraeus's media contacts.

Military historians have noted the absence of field records for the Iraq and Afghanistan military campaigns, but have not personally been critical of the commanders in theater. One additional aspect of Petraeus's career that has come under increased scrutiny since his affair came to light has been his lack of a direct combat record in relation to the many awards he received. In particular, his Bronze Star Medal with Valor device has been mentioned in several media reports and questioned by several former Army officers. The citation for Petraeus's Bronze Star with "V" device also notes his "leadership under fire", as does award of the Combat Action Badge, but neither provides a detailed account of his actions.

Criminal charges and probation

In January 2015, The New York Times reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Justice Department had recommended bringing felony charges against Petraeus for providing classified information to Broadwell. Petraeus denied the allegations and was reported to have had no interest in a plea deal. However, on Tuesday, March 3, 2015, the U.S. Justice Department announced that Petraeus agreed to plead guilty in federal court in Charlotte, North Carolina to a charge of unauthorized removal and retention of classified information.

In the 15 page statement of facts filed by the government along with the plea agreement, the government stated that Petraeus had provided Broadwell access to documents containing Top Secret Sensitive Compartmented Information, had later moved those documents to his personal residence and stored them in an unsecured drawer, and had deliberately and intentionally lied to Federal investigators about both providing Broadwell access to the documents and their improper storage. These facts were acknowledged to be true by Petraeus as part of his plea agreement.

On April 23, 2015, a federal judge sentenced Petraeus to two years probation plus a fine of $100,000. The fine was more than double the amount the Justice Department had requested.

Press accounts in January 2016 indicated that Department of Defense staff were reviewing Department of Justice documents from the Petraeus prosecution and considering whether to recommend to the Secretary of Defense that Petraeus be demoted on the Army's retired list. Laws and regulations indicate that members of the military are retired at the last rank in which they are deemed to have served successfully; Petraeus's admission of an extramarital affair and guilty plea with regard to removing and retaining classified information while serving in the grade of general could be grounds for reduction in rank to lieutenant general. The matter was reviewed by then-Secretary of the Army John M. McHugh before he left office in October 2015; he recommended no further action. On January 29, press accounts indicated that Stephen C. Hedger, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Legislative Affairs, had written to the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee. In his letter, Hedger informed the committee that Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter had concurred with the Army's recommendation, and would not impose any further punishment on Petraeus.

In March 2013, Petraeus accepted the role of honorary chairman of the OSS Society.

Petraeus was named a visiting professor at Macaulay Honors College at the City University of New York in July 2013. According to a statement from Petraeus, "I look forward to leading a seminar at Macaulay that examines the developments that could position the United States—and our North American partners—to lead the world out of the current global economic slowdown." After his anticipated $200,000 salary for the academic year drew fire from critics, Petraeus agreed to take on the teaching position for just $1 in order to keep the focus on the students and away from any monetary controversy. In September 2013 Petraeus was harassed by students at CUNY while walking on campus.

On May 1, 2013, the University of Southern California named David Petraeus as a Judge Widney Professor, "a title reserved for eminent individuals from the arts, sciences, professions, business and community and national leadership". The president of the Currahee board of trustees announced May 6, 2013, that Petraeus agreed to serve on the board of trustees that preserves Camp Toccoa. During WWII, four of the main parachute infantry regiments of the Army trained at Camp Toccoa prior to their deployment.

Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., a New York investment firm, hired Petraeus as chairman of the firm's newly created KKR Global Institute in May 2013. Petraeus will support its investment teams and portfolio companies when studying new investments, especially in new locations. In December 2014, Petraeus was named a partner at KKR and remains chairman of the KKR Global Institute.

Petraeus joined the board of advisers of Team Rubicon on June 18, 2013.

Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) named Petraeus as a senior vice president of the organization in August 2013. According to RUSI, "The honorary role was created by RUSI's trustees and advisory council in recognition of General Petraeus's long association with the Institute and his distinguished contribution to the study and development of defence and international security concepts, as well as his implementation of those concepts in operations in the Balkans, Iraq, and Afghanistan."

In October 2013, Petraeus joined Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government as a non-resident senior fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. According to the school, Petraeus joined to lead a new project focusing on the technological, scientific and economic dynamics that are spurring renewed North American competitiveness. "The Coming North America Decades" project would analyze how potential policy choices could effect this ongoing transformation. In 2016, the center announced a new project involving Petraeus and focusing on strategic leadership.

On February 10, 2014, the University of Exeter in England named Petraeus as an honorary visiting professor of the Strategy and Security Institute. Alongside the other honorary faculty, the appointment will help inform the institute's key objectives of exploring policymaking, strategy, and security.

General Petraeus was one of the "11 legendary generals" profiled in the 2014 National Geographic Channel feature "American War Generals".

In 2015, Patraeus suggested the US should arm members of the terror group Al-Nusra Front (an offshot of Al-Qaeda) in Syria to fight ISIS.

On June 10, 2016, Petraeus and Mark Kelly, a retired NASA astronaut and later Senator from Arizona, announced the creation of the gun control group Veterans Coalition for Common Sense.

Petraeus delivered the inaugural lecture in a series dedicated to his mentor and the former Dean of The Fletcher School at Tufts University, General Jack Galvin. He also delivered the inaugural lecture in a series dedicated to Admiral Stansfield Turner at the U.S. Naval War College on August 7, 2018. The lecture series honors the achievements of Turner, who served as the college's president from 1972 to 1974.

As a member of panel discussion in October 2018 concerning a film documenting the Stars and Stripes newspaper, Petraeus shared his personal experiences with the newspaper with the audience.

On June 12, 2019, Petraeus accepted the invitation of a three-year honorary professorship in the Institute of Conflict, Cooperation and Security (ICSS) at the University of Birmingham in England. The university's announcement of the appointment stated that Petraeus "will share insights from his career with students and researchers through a variety of interactions in Birmingham and virtually."

General Petraeus was the guest speaker at the 500th Night celebration for the US Military Academy's Class of 2020 at West Point, held on January 26, 2019.

On November 18, 2016, an article by The Guardian cited "diplomatic sources" as having said that Petraeus had entered the race for US Secretary of State in the Trump administration. Petraeus confirmed his interest in the position during a BBC Radio 4 interview, stating that he would serve if asked.

Petraeus met with then President-elect Donald Trump at Trump Tower on November 28 to discuss the position and world affairs. Both Petraeus and Trump expressed favorable views of the meeting, with Trump taking to Twitter to announce, "Just met with General Petraeus—was very impressed!" Petraeus joined a short list of potential candidates for the position, including Mitt Romney and Rudy Giuliani.

There was public speculation that his nomination could hurt Trump's administration, but Republican senators John McCain and Lindsey Graham advocated for Petraeus, calling him "an extraordinary pick." Petraeus also received support from Democratic senator Dianne Feinstein, suggesting that Democrats would keep an open mind concerning his confirmation.

On December 13, 2016, Trump officially selected Rex Tillerson for the role of Secretary of State. Petraeus expressed his gratitude for Trump's consideration and deferred to former secretary of defense Robert Gates' endorsement when asked his opinion of Tillerson.

According to Petraeus, he does not vote in elections, having stopped following his promotion to major general in 2002 as part of a desire to be seen as apolitical. He has confirmed that he did not vote in the 2016 election.

  • Co-chairman, Task Force on North America, Council on Foreign Relations (June 2013 – December 2015)
  • Member, board of directors, Atlantic Council (April 2016 – present)
  • Washington Speakers Bureau (June 2013 – present)
  • Member, board of advisors, Team Rubicon (April 2013 – present)
  • Member, board of directors, Optiv Inc (March 2017 – present)
  • Co-chairman, global advisory council, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (August 2015 – present)
  • Member, advisory council, Veterans Coalition for Common Sense (June 2016 – present)
  • Member, conservation council, Panthera (February 2016 – present)
  • Senior vice president, Royal United Services Institute (June 2013 – present)
  • Member, board of directors, Institute for the Study of War (November 2013 – present)
  • Member, advisory council, American Corporate Partners (April 2013 – present)
  • Faculty advisor, USC Student Veterans Association (September 2013 – August 2019)
  • Chairman, KKR Vets at Work (May 2014 – present)
  • Member, board of directors, Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America (IAVA) (October 2015 – present)
  • Member, Concordia Leadership Council, The Concordia Summit (September 2015 – present)
  • Member, board of trustees, The McCain Institute for International Leadership (December 2015 – present)
  • Member, academic advisory board, Warrior-Scholar Project (February 2016 – present)
  • Advisor, Global War on Terror Memorial Foundation (February 2016 – June 2019)
  • Member, national security advisory council, U.S. Global Leadership Coalition (April 2016 – present)
  • Trustee, Arthur F. Burns Fellowship (April 2016 – present)
  • Member, board of directors, Fort Campbell Historical Foundation (September 2015 – present)
  • Member, board of advisors, The Alexander Hamilton Society (October 2016 – present)
  • Member, board of advisors, Partnership for a Secure America (March 2017 – present)
  • Churchill Fellow of Westminster College, Westminster College (Fulton, MO) (April 2017 – present)
  • Member, council of advisors, Army Heritage Center Foundation (June 2017 – present)
  • Member, Golden Plate Award Council, Academy of Achievement (October 2012 – present)
  • Advisory trustee, The Camp Tocca At Currahee (June 2013 – present)
  • Honorary chairman, The OSS Society (January 2013 – present)
  • Honorary fellow, Ivy Club, Princeton University (May 2012 – present)
  • Member, board of advisors, National Council on U.S. – Arab Relations (October 2016 – Present)
  • Advisor to the board, United States-India Strategic Partnership Forum (January 2018 – present)
  • Member, network experts (August 2018 – present)
  • Member, board of advisors, Third Option Foundation (March 2019 – present)
  • Member, The Trilateral Commission (August 2019 – present)
  • 2016: Mark43 Software
  • 2016: Indegy
  • 2016: VNTANA
  • 2017: AeroFarms
  • 2017: OneConcern
  • 2019: Ethena Inc. Software
  • 2019: Tyfone Digital Security Company
  • 2020: Helm.ai Technology
  • 2021: Carbyne
  • 2021: Praava Health

Decorations and badges

Petraeus's decorations and badges include the following:

U.S. military decorations
Defense Distinguished Service Medal (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Distinguished Service Medal (with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Defense Superior Service Medal (with Oak Leaf Cluster)
Legion of Merit (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Bronze Star (with V Device)
Defense Meritorious Service Medal
Meritorious Service Medal (with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Joint Service Commendation Medal
Army Commendation Medal (with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Joint Service Achievement Medal
Army Achievement Medal
U.S. unit awards
Joint Meritorious Unit Award (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Army Meritorious Unit Commendation
Army Superior Unit Award
U.S. non-military decorations
State Department Secretary's Distinguished Service Award
State Department Distinguished Honor Award
State Department Superior Honor Award
U.S. service (campaign) medals and service and training ribbons
National Defense Service Medal (with 2 Service Stars)
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (with 2 Service Stars)
Afghanistan Campaign Medal (with 3 Service Stars)
Iraq Campaign Medal (with 4 Service Stars)
Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
Armed Forces Service Medal
Humanitarian Service Medal
Army Service Ribbon
Army Overseas Service Ribbon (with award numeral 8)
International decorations
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) Medal
NATO Meritorious Service Medal Iraq & Afghanistan with bronze service star
NATO Medal for Yugoslavia, NTM-I, Afghanistan with 2 bronze service stars
Foreign state decorations
Honorary Officer of the Order of Australia, Military Division
Meritorious Service Cross, Military Division (Canada)
Cross of Merit of the Minister of Defence of the Czech Republic, 1st Class
Commander of the Legion of Honour (France)
French Military Campaign Medal
Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Gold Award of the Iraqi Order of the Date Palm
Gold Cross of Merit of the Carabinieri (Italy)
Order of National Security Merit, Tong-il Medal (Korea)
Knight Grand Cross with Swords of the Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands)
Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Polish Army Medal, Gold
Polish Iraq Star
Romanian Chief of Defense Honor Emblem
Military Merit Order, First Class (United Arab Emirates)
Vakhtang Gorgasali Order, 1st Rank (Government of Georgia)

Honorary degrees

Civilian awards and honors

Petraeus's civilian awards and honors include:

2007–2010

2011–2020

Additional recognitions

In 2005, Petraeus was identified as one of America's top leaders by U.S. News & World Report.

In 2007, Time named Petraeus one of the 100 most influential leaders and revolutionaries of the year as well as one of its four runners up for Time Person of the Year. He was also named the second most influential American conservative by The Daily Telegraph as well as The Daily Telegraph's 2007 Man of the Year. His Ph.D. dissertation, The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam: A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post-Vietnam Era, published by Princeton University in 1987, was number two on the list of best-selling dissertations in 2007.

In 2008, a poll conducted by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines selected Petraeus as one of the world's top 100 public intellectuals. Also in 2008, the Static Line Association named Petraeus as its 2008 Airborne Man of the Year, and Der Spiegel named him "America's most respected soldier". As 2008 came to a close, Newsweek named him the 16th most powerful person in the world in its December 20, 2008, edition, and Prospect magazine named him the "Public Intellectual of the Year". He was also named as one of the "75 Best People in the World" in the October 2009 issue of Esquire.

On March 7, 2009, Petraeus received the Distinguished Citizen Award from the Congressional Medal of Honor Society at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

On December 9, 2010, Barbara Walters picked Petraeus for the Most Fascinating Person of 2010. Walters called the top commander in Afghanistan "an American hero". Petraeus was chosen as "one of Time magazine's 50 "People Who Mattered" in December 2010. The same year he was named number 12 of 50 people who mattered in 2010 by the New Statesmen magazine, and Petraeus was listed as number 8 of 100 Foreign Policy Top 100 Global Thinkers for 2011.

The New Statesman annual survey presents the most influential people from pop stars and dissident activists to tech gurus and heads of state, the people doing most to shape our world keep changing. September 26, 2011, Petraeus was listed as number 2 of the 50 for 2011. The Association of Special Operations Professionals named Petraeus as its 2011 Man of the Year for 2011, and was presented the award at Ft. Bragg on November 2, 2011, at its annual Special Operations Exposition.

Early January 2012, Petraeus was named one of "The 50 Most Powerful People in Washington" by GQ magazine. Petraeus was inducted January 29, 2012, into the Reserve Officers Association's (ROA) Minuteman Hall of Fame as the 2011 Inductee during the 2012 ROA National Security Symposium. The German Order of Merit was presented to Petraeus February 14, by the German Secretary of Defense Thomas de Maizière. According to de Maizière, he is an "outstanding strategist and a true friend of the German people". On March 16, 2012, the Dutch Minister of Defense Hans Hillen knighted Petraeus at the Hague with the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau with swords. The Minister thanked Petraeus in his speech for his, "unconditional support to the Dutch troops and for being a driving force behind a successful mission. Through his personal efforts for cooperation between the Netherlands and America, the Netherlands could achieve significant operational successes with the Task Force Uruzgan." In 2012, Petraeus received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. The following year, in 2013, the New-York Historical Society established the Petraeus-Hertog Lecture Leadership Library series.

Captured correspondence from Osama Bin Laden "Letters from Abbottabad" revealed that in May 2010, Bin Laden wanted to target President Barack Obama and General Petraeus, "The reason for concentrating on them is that Obama is the head of infidelity and killing him automatically will make Biden take over the presidency for the remainder of the term, as it is the norm over there. Biden is totally unprepared for that post, which will lead the U.S. into a crisis." It further went on to say, "As for Petraeus, he is the man of the hour in this last year of the war, and killing him would alter the war's path."

Petraeus and Dr. Henry Kissinger were the inaugural recipients of the Recanati-Kaplan Award for Civic Excellence and Cultural Engagement, presented by the 92nd Street Y on May 19, 2019. 92Y later established an Online Master Class in Leadership featuring a library series of lectures by Petraeus.

On December 7, 2020, the Institute for the Study of War launched "The General David H. Petraeus Center for Emerging Leaders" to offer new educational and professional development programs to its students. Petraeus has been on the board of ISW since November 2013.

Speeches, public remarks, interviews, and op-eds

Academic and other works

  1. "The General's Dilemma". The New Yorker. September 8, 2008. Petraeus is registered to vote as a Republican in New Hampshire—he once described himself to a friend as a northeastern Republican, in the tradition of Nelson Rockefeller—but he said that around 2002 after he became a two-star general, he stopped voting.
  2. "Lunch with the FT: David Petraeus". Financial Times. May 6, 2016. RetrievedOctober 15, 2016. 'I'm completely non-partisan,' Petraeus continues.
  3. "Petraeus sworn in as CIA director". CNN. RetrievedSeptember 7, 2011.
  4. Johnson, Kevin (November 9, 2012). "David Petraeus resigns from CIA". USA Today. RetrievedNovember 9, 2012.
  5. "Gates Notes Shift in Mission as Iraq Command Changes Hands". Defenselink.mil. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  6. Holusha, John (January 23, 2007). "General Calls Iraq Situation Dire". The New York Times.
  7. Gordon, Michael (January 5, 2007). "Bush to Name a New General to Oversee Iraq". The New York Times.
  8. "Profile: Gen. David Petraeus". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008.
  9. "David H. Petraeus – Central Intelligence Agency". CIA. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. RetrievedMay 21, 2012.
  10. Hames, Tim (February 11, 2008). "McCain and Petraeus the dream ticket". The Times. London. RetrievedMarch 31, 2010.
  11. "Generally Speaking". The New York Times. April 6, 2008. RetrievedMarch 31, 2010.
  12. "Petraeus says he's not interested in presidency". NBC News. December 23, 2007. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  13. "Obama replaces McChrystal with Petraeus". Houston Chronicle. June 23, 2010. RetrievedJune 23, 2010.[dead link]
  14. Cooper, Helene; Shanker, Thom; Filkins, Dexter (June 23, 2010). "Gen. McChrystal Is Relieved of Command". The New York Times. RetrievedJune 23, 2010.
  15. Peter Grier (June 23, 2010). "Gen. David Petraeus takes over in Afghanistan: Will it make a difference?". The Christian Science Monitor. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  16. Kathleen Hennessey (June 30, 2011). "Senate confirms David Petraeus as CIA director". Los Angeles Times. RetrievedJune 30, 2011.
  17. Karen Parrish (July 1, 2011). "Petraeus Confirmed as CIA Director". U.S. Department of Defense. American Forces Press Service. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. RetrievedJuly 1, 2011.
  18. Whitlock, Craig (February 3, 2015). "In e-mails, glimpses of a striving Tampa socialite and smitten military brass at U.S. Central Command" – via washingtonpost.com.
  19. Johnson, Kevin (November 9, 2012). "NBC: David Petraeus resigns from CIA". USA Today. RetrievedNovember 9, 2012.
  20. Schmidt, Michael; Apuzzo, Matt. "F.B.I. and Justice Dept. Said to Seek Charges for Petraeus". The New York Times.
  21. Pierre Thomas; Mike Levine; Jack Cloherty; Jack Date (March 3, 2015). "Former CIA Head David Petraeus to Plead Guilty". ABC News.
  22. "Miriam Sweet Howell". geni.com.
  23. "Sixtus Petraeus". geni.com.
  24. Editorial. "37-jarige 'familievriendin' ontving intimiderende mails minnares Petraeus". De Volkskrant.
  25. "David Petraeus' Winning Streak". Vanity Fair. March 30, 2010. RetrievedJuly 9, 2010.
  26. Rick Atkinson (March 7, 2004). "Unexpected Challenges Tested Petraeus in Iraq". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. RetrievedNovember 18, 2012.
  27. Carol Rock (June 21, 2008). "General David Petraeus' Father Dies In Santa Clarita Home". KHTS Radio. RetrievedNovember 18, 2012.
  28. Bruno, Greg; January 11, 2007; New Iraq commander is Cornwall's favorite son; Times-Herald Record. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
  29. "What About the Petraeus-Broadwell Spouses?". ABC News. November 15, 2012. RetrievedMarch 15, 2015.
  30. Thompson, Mark (November 14, 2012). "The Rise and Fall of 'General Peaches'". Time.
  31. "Hollister Knowlton Betrothed To David H. Petraeus, a Cadet". The New York Times. May 12, 1974. p. GN57.
  32. "General Petraeus Inducts ROTC Graduates". MIT Alumni Association. June 11, 2009. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. RetrievedJune 3, 2010.
  33. "Gen. Petraeus Commissions His Son and 11 Other '09 Graduates". MIT Alumni Association. June 6, 2009. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. RetrievedJune 3, 2010.
  34. "Petraeus reveals that son served in Afghanistan". Army Times. RetrievedNovember 9, 2011.
  35. "Gen. Petraeus owns property in New Hampshire". The Portsmouth Herald. Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Associated Press. October 7, 2008. RetrievedDecember 7, 2010.
  36. "Princeton University – Diplomatic historian and foreign policy scholar Richard Ullman dies". Princeton University.
  37. Petraeus, David H. (1987). "The American military and the lessons of Vietnam: A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post-Vietnam Era". Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University. OCLC 20673428.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  38. Jaffe, Greg; Cloud, David (2009).The Fourth Star: Four Generals and the Epic Struggle for the Future of the United States Army. New York: Crown Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-0307409072. petraeus georgetown fellowship 1995.
  39. Denn, William J. (October 7, 2016). "Strategic Command: General David Petraeus". armyupress.army.mil.
  40. "FM 3–24 text – Counterinsurgency – December 2006"(PDF). Usacac.army.mil. August 31, 2009. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 28, 2011. RetrievedMay 3, 2011.
  41. Nutt, Cullen; March 2, 2008; The Star-Ledger Section 2-page 1 and 4.
  42. Ricks, Thomas Fiasco New York: Penguin Press, 2006, page 419.
  43. Barnes, Julian E.; October 31, 2005; "An Open Mind for a New Army" Archived August 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine; U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
  44. "General David Petraeus Reflects on His Command in Iraq". Conversations with Bill Kristol.
  45. "Michael Gove: Triumph of freedom over evil". The Scotsman. RetrievedJuly 4, 2010.
  46. Petraeus, D. (September–October 2008) Multi-national Force-Iraq Commander's Counterinsurgency Guidance. Military Review English Edition. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
  47. Fred Kaplan, "The Insurgents: David Petraeus and the Plot to Change the American Way of War," Simon & Schuster, 2013, pages 14-20.
  48. Gal Perl Finkel, "How to win a modern war", The Jerusalem Post, September 7, 2016.
  49. "Petraeus Set for Another Shot at Iraq". NPR. January 23, 2007. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  50. John Pike (May 7, 2011). "3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regimen". globalsecurity.org.
  51. Inskeep, Steve (February 6, 2007). "Lasting Ties Mark Gen. Petraeus's Career". NPR. RetrievedJune 22, 2010.
  52. Atkinson, Rick (January 7, 2007). "Iraq Will be Petraeus' Knot to Untie". The Washington Post. p. A15.
  53. Atkinson, Rick, In the Company of Soldiers: A Chronicle of Combat (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2004, ISBN 0641788037), p. 38.
  54. Barnes, Julian "An Open Mind for a New Army" Archived February 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine May 31, 2005. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
  55. "General Officer Announcements". DefenseLink. June 19, 2001. RetrievedOctober 29, 2007.
  56. "Army General Officer Announcement". DefenseLink. May 5, 2004. RetrievedOctober 29, 2007.
  57. "General Officer Announcements". DefenseLink. January 17, 2007. RetrievedOctober 29, 2007.
  58. Shanker, Thom (April 24, 2008). "2 Commanders Picked to Lead War Efforts Beyond 2008". The New York Times. RetrievedApril 25, 2008.
  59. "Petraeus confirmed as commander". The Irish Times. June 30, 2010. RetrievedJune 30, 2010.
  60. "Gen. Petraeus to Assume Command of ISAF". ISAF Public Affairs Office. July 2, 2010. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010. RetrievedJuly 3, 2010.
  61. Dickey, Christopher (April 4, 2004). "The Story of O". The New York Times. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  62. Buncombe, Andrew (April 11, 2007). "US general who acknowledges that the way ahead is not easy". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  63. Atkinson, Rick (January 7, 2007). "Iraq Will Be Petraeus' Knot to Untie". The Washington Post. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  64. Jennifer Hoar (March 18, 2007). "Iraq: Tell Me How This Ends, David Martin: It's Not Worth Arguing About Who Made Mistakes, Just How To End The War". CBS News. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  65. Mark Hemingway (September 10, 2007). "General's Media Playbook". National Review. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  66. Badkhen, Anna (April 15, 2007). "Can Petraeus lead U.S. to victory? / General may be military's best – and last – hope in Iraq". San Francisco Chronicle. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  67. "Iraq's Repairman". Newsweek. July 4, 2004. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  68. "CaseWeb: 1834.0 The Accidental Statesman: General Petraeus and the City of Mosul, Iraq". Harvard Kennedy School. October 4, 2006. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  69. Ricks, Thomas. Fiasco (New York: Penguin Press, 2006) page 228-232.
  70. "Frontline: Beyond Baghdad: Interviews: Maj. Gen. David Petraeus". PBS. February 12, 2004. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  71. Gordon, Michael (September 4, 2003). "The Struggle For Iraq: Reconstruction; 101st Airborne Scores Success In Northern Iraq". The New York Times.
  72. "Biggest challenge for 'pied piper of N. Iraq'". The Daily Telegraph. London. January 6, 2007. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. RetrievedMay 3, 2011.
  73. "Petraeus, Our Old New Man in Iraq". Military.com. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  74. "Leader of the Fabled 101st to Command in Iraq". NPR. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  75. Atkinson, Rick (January 9, 2007). "New Iraq commander tough and driven". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  76. "Newsweek Cover: 'Can This Man Save Iraq?'". PR Newswire. June 27, 2004. RetrievedNovember 13, 2012.
  77. "Welcome support from Petraeus, Crocker for the Assyrian Christians of Iraq". Assistnews.net. September 13, 2007. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  78. David Petraeus (January–February 2006). "Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldiering in Iraq"(PDF). Military Review. pp. 45–56. RetrievedMay 4, 2011.
  79. Dennis Steele (November 2003). "The race to win the peace"(PDF). Army. pp. 8–13. Archived from the original(PDF) on November 30, 2016. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  80. Major Robert S. Widmann USAF. "The Commander's Emergency Response Program Part II". U.S. Cavalry. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  81. "MSN | Outlook, Office, Skype, Bing, Breaking News, and Latest Videos". msn.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2004.
  82. Gordon, Michael R. (September 4, 2003). "101st Airborne Scores Success in Reconstruction of Northern Iraq". The New York Times. RetrievedMay 3, 2011.
  83. "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on November 27, 2007. RetrievedOctober 17, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  84. "Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Operations from the U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual". University of Chicago. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  85. More by Peter W. Galbraith. "The Surge". The New York Review of Books. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  86. Fiasco by Thomas Ricks (New York: Penguin Press, 2006) page 232.
  87. Klein, Joe. "When Bad Missions Happen to Good Generals" Time January 22, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  88. Gordon, Michael, and Bernard Trainor. Cobra II New York: Panetheon Books, 2006, pp. 455–56.
  89. Ajami, Faoud. The Foreigner's Gift (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) pp. 295–98.
  90. Petraeus, David H. (September 26, 2004). "Battling for Iraq". The Washington Post. RetrievedMay 22, 2012.
  91. Allawi, Ali A. (2008).The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace. Yale University Press. p. 361. ISBN 978-0300110159. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  92. Kessler, Glenn (August 6, 2007). "Weapons Given to Iraq Are Missing on August 7, 2007". The Washington Post. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  93. "The Daily Beast". The Daily Beast.
  94. "U.S. shoots self in foot with lost weapons in Iraq". The Oakland Tribune. August 14, 2007.
  95. "US 'loses track' of Iraq weapons". BBC News. August 6, 2007. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  96. Cornwell, Rupert (August 7, 2007). "Pentagon admits 190,000 weapons missing in Iraq". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  97. Kessler, Glenn. "Weapons Given to Iraq Are Missing". The Washington Post. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  98. "Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldiering in Iraq" in Military Review.
  99. "Book Discussion Insurgents"(Video). C-SPAN.org.
  100. Bush, George W. (2010). Decision Points. New York: Crown Publishing. p. 389. ISBN 978-0307888242. General Petraeus compared to other famous historical military Generals
  101. Mattingly, Matthew. (2019). "Purely Military Advice: Military Translation of Strategic Policy in Wars of Limited Aims"(PDF). Kansas: US Army Command and General Staff College: 17. Bush's comparison of General Petraeus with other historical U.S. military GeneralsCite journal requires |journal= ()
  102. "General Petraeus' Opening Statement". The New York Times. January 23, 2007. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  103. Klein, Joe. "Operation Last Chance" TimeJune 28, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  104. Peters, Ralph. "Iraq's Reliberation" New York Post August 22, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  105. Robinson, Linda. "Petraeus Tries to Make Headway in Iraq Archived April 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine U.S. News & World Report May 28, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  106. Baker, Peter. "General Is Front Man For Bush's Iraq Plan", The Washington Post, February 7, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  107. Sennott, Charles M. "The Petraeus doctrine", The Boston Globe, January 28, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
  108. Ricks, Thomas E. "Petraeus selects team of warrior-intellectuals", NBC News, February 5, 2007. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
  109. Jung, Alex (March 11, 2009). "Meet the accidental guerrillas – Laura Miller". Salon. RetrievedJuly 4, 2010.
  110. Lozada, Carlos (March 22, 2009). "A Conversation With David Kilcullen". The Washington Post. RetrievedMarch 31, 2010.
  111. "Senate passes Iraq withdrawal bill; veto threat looms". CNN. April 26, 2007. RetrievedMay 12, 2007.
  112. "Congress surrenders to Bush, FinalCall". Final Call. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  113. "Reid Blasts Generals on Iraq (June 15, 2007), Capital Hill Blue". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  114. DeYoung, Karen (June 18, 2007). "Petraeus: Iraq 'Challenges' to Last for Years". The Washington Post. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  115. Burns, John F. "For Top General in Iraq, Role is a Mixed Blessing" The New York Times August 18, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  116. "Petraeus lauds Iraq violence fall". BBC News. December 21, 2007. RetrievedMay 22, 2012.
  117. "The McLaughlin Group". Mclaughlin.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. RetrievedJuly 4, 2010.
  118. "The Official Web Site | United States Forces – Iraq"(PDF). Mnf-iraq.com. Archived from the original(PDF) on August 9, 2009. RetrievedJuly 4, 2010.
  119. Barnes, Julian E.; Spiegel, Peter (August 15, 2007). "Top general may propose pullbacks". Los Angeles Times. RetrievedMay 22, 2012.
  120. "U.S. Department of Defense". U.S. Department of Defense.
  121. "Testimony to Congress on the Situation in Iraq"(PDF). The New York Times. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  122. Cloud, David S.; Shanker, Thom (September 11, 2007). "Petraeus Warns Against Quick Pullback in Iraq". The New York Times. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  123. "Democratic response to president's address". MarketWatch. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  124. Cloud, David S. (September 11, 2007). "Petraeus Warns Against Quick Pullback in Iraq". The New York Times. Iraq. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  125. "Senator Jon Kyl Press Office". Kyl.senate.gov. September 10, 2007. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  126. Eric Weiner; Scott Neuman. "Political Junkie: The Impact of the Iraq Reports". NPR. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  127. Page, Susan (September 19, 2007). "Poll: Public not swayed by Petraeus". USA Today. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  128. "Summary of Findings: Petraeus' Proposals Favored, But No Lift in War Support". People-press.org. September 18, 2007. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  129. "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home – Votes – Roll Call Vote". U.S. Senate. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  130. "Most Revealing Fibs: Hillary Clinton". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. RetrievedMay 1, 2010.
  131. Scott, Ann (October 23, 2007). "Finding a way forward in Iraq". The Seattle Times. RetrievedJuly 5, 2010.
  132. Dilanian, Ken (February 18, 2008). "Progress in Iraq reshapes debate over war". USA Today. RetrievedMay 22, 2012.
  133. Robinson, Linda. "Why David Petraeus Wants to Go Slowly on Troop Drawdowns", U.S. News & World Report January 17, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  134. Duffy, Michael. "The Surge At Year One" Time January 31, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  135. "Gates: US may slow Iraq drawdown". NBC News. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  136. Myers, Stephen Lee and Thom Shanker. "Petraeus Urges Halt in Weighing Troop New Cut in Force" The New York Times April 9, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  137. Michaels, Jim and David Jackson "Petraeus' Testimony Met with Praise, Skepticism" USA Today April 9, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
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  139. ""US Central Command Opening Statement" May 22, 2008". Archived from the original on April 14, 2016.
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  141. "No victory in Iraq, says Petraeus". BBC News. September 11, 2008. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  142. Gen. Petraeus Defines Victory in Iraq. NPR. Published March 18, 2008.
  143. Shanker, Thom; Farrell, Stephen (September 16, 2008). "Gates Praises Petraeus on Eve of Duty Transfer". The New York Times.
  144. Filkins, Dexter (August 20, 2008). "Exiting Iraq, Petraeus Says Gains Are Fragile". The New York Times. Iraq. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  145. Hanson, Victor (2013). The Savior Generals: How Five Great Commanders Saved Wars That Were Lost – From Ancient Greece to Iraq. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1608191635.
  146. MacPherson, K. (May 31, 2009). Petraeus challenges seniors to pursue life of public service. Princeton University: News at Princeton. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  147. Petraeus, Gen. David H. (May 28, 2009). "Commander's speech: NCAFP George F. Kennan Award, Union League Club, NYC, May 28". U.S. Central Command. RetrievedApril 18, 2010.
  148. Depaulo, Lisa (October 31, 2008). "Leader of the Year: Right Man, Right Time". GQ. RetrievedFebruary 19, 2017.
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  151. "US CentCom establishes center for Afghanistan, Pakistan analysts". Arab News. August 25, 2009. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  152. "General David Petraeus on Military Operations". C-Span. February 12, 2010. RetrievedJune 8, 2020.
  153. "US General: Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Affects US Interests". Voice of America News. March 16, 2010. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. RetrievedMarch 22, 2010.
  154. "Statement of General David H. Petraeus, U.S. Army Commander U.S. Central Command before the Senate Armed Services Committee on the Posture of U.S. Central Command Mar 16, 2010"(PDF). U.S. Senate. March 16, 2010. Archived from the original(PDF) on March 31, 2010. RetrievedMarch 22, 2010.
  155. Kampeas, Ron (March 18, 2010). "ADL: Petraeus testimony 'counterproductive'". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. RetrievedMarch 22, 2010.
  156. "US General: Perceived Israel bias 'hurts us'". Aljazeera. March 17, 2010. RetrievedApril 4, 2010.
  157. Klein, Philip (March 25, 2010). "Petraeus Sets the Record Straight on Israel". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. RetrievedApril 29, 2010.
  158. Boot, Max (March 25, 2010). "From the Horse's Mouth: Petraeus on Israel". Commentary. Commentary. RetrievedApril 29, 2010.
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  161. "Professor of War". Vanity Fair. May 2010.
  162. Mazzetti, Mark; Shane, Scott (May 5, 2010). "Evidence Mounts for Taliban Role in Bomb Plot". The New York Times.
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  164. "Holder: Pakistani Taliban helped direct Times Square plot". CNN. May 9, 2010. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
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  166. Schmitt, Eric (October 6, 2009). "General Petraeus Has Prostate Cancer". The New York Times. RetrievedMarch 31, 2010.
  167. Fritze, John (June 15, 2010). "Gen. David Petraeus passes out on Capitol Hill – On Politics: Covering the US Congress, Governors, and the 2010 Election". USA Today. RetrievedJuly 4, 2010.
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  173. "Setting – and Capitalizing on – Conditions for Progress in Afghanistan"(PDF). RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
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  175. "Usama bin Laden wanted to kill Obama so 'totally unprepared' Biden would be president, declassified docs show". FOX News. April 22, 2020.
  176. "Nine Afghan Boys Collecting Firewood Killed by NATO Helicopters", The New York Times
  177. Nissenbaum, Dion; Habib Khan Totakhil (March 3, 2011). "Coalition Apologizes for Deaths of Afghan Children". The Wall Street Journal. RetrievedOctober 1, 2011.
  178. "Petraeus hands over command in Afghanistan". CNN. July 18, 2011.
  179. Jim Garamone (August 31, 2011). "Petraeus Garners Praise at Retirement Ceremony". American Forces Press Service. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2011.
  180. Kimberly Dozier; Robert Burns (August 31, 2011). "Petraeus: Budget cuts must not impair military". Army Times. Associated Press. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2011.
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  182. "Armed forces farewell tribute and retirement ceremony in honor of Gen. David H. Petraeus". Joint Chiefs of Staff. August 31, 2011. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2011.
  183. Tom Vanden Brook (January 30, 2016). "Pentagon won't demote Petraeus for sharing classified information". USA Today. RetrievedJuly 29, 2016.
  184. "Nominations Before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 110th Congress"(PDF).
  185. Shear, Michael D. (April 28, 2011). "Obama Announces Changes to National Security Team". The New York Times.
  186. Kathleen Hennessey (June 30, 2011). "Senate confirms David Petraeus as CIA director". Los Angeles Times. RetrievedJune 30, 2011. For the three Democrats and three Republicans who did not cast a vote on this confirmation, see Obama confirmations, 2010.
  187. David H. Petraeus Takes Helm as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency cia.gov September 6, 2011
  188. Vice President Biden Visits CIA Headquarters for Ceremony with Director Petraeus cia.gov October 12, 2011
  189. Scott Shane, Petraeus's Quieter Style at C.I.A. Leaves Void on Libya Furor The New York Times November 2, 2012
  190. Broadwell, Paula (November 5, 2012). "General David Petraeus's Rules for Living". Newsweek.
  191. Adam Entous, Siobhan Gorman, and Margaret Coker CIA Takes Heat for Role in Libya The Wall Street Journal November 1, 2012
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David Petraeus Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from David H Petraeus Petraeus redirects here For other uses see Petraeus disambiguation David Howell Petraeus p ɪ ˈ t r eɪ e s born November 7 1952 is a retired United States Army general and public official He served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency from September 6 2011 3 until his resignation on November 9 2012 4 Prior to his assuming the directorship of the CIA Petraeus served 37 years in the United States Army His last assignments in the Army were as commander of the International Security Assistance Force ISAF and commander U S Forces Afghanistan USFOR A from July 4 2010 to July 18 2011 His other four star assignments include serving as the 10th commander U S Central Command USCENTCOM from October 13 2008 to June 30 2010 and as commanding general Multi National Force Iraq MNF I from February 10 2007 to September 16 2008 5 As commander of MNF I Petraeus oversaw all coalition forces in Iraq 6 7 David Petraeus4th Director of the Central Intelligence AgencyIn office September 6 2011 November 9 2012PresidentBarack ObamaDeputyMichael MorellPreceded byLeon PanettaSucceeded byJohn BrennanCommander of the International Security Assistance ForceIn office June 23 2010 July 18 2011Preceded byStanley A McChrystalSucceeded byJohn R AllenCommander of United States Central CommandIn office October 31 2008 June 30 2010Preceded byMartin Dempsey acting Succeeded byJohn R Allen acting Personal detailsBornDavid Howell Petraeus 1952 11 07 November 7 1952 age 68 Cornwall on Hudson New York U S Political partyRepublican before 2002 1 Independent 2002 present 2 Spouse s Holly Knowlton m 1974 wbr EducationUnited States Military Academy BS Princeton University MPA PhD Military serviceAllegianceUnited StatesBranch serviceUnited States ArmyYears of service1974 2011RankGeneralCommandsInternational Security Assistance Force United States Forces Afghanistan United States Central Command Multinational Force Iraq United States Army Combined Arms Center Fort Leavenworth Multinational Security Transition Command Iraq 101st Airborne Division Air Assault 1st Brigade 82nd Airborne Division 3rd Battalion 187th Infantry RegimentBattles warsStabilisation Force Operation Uphold Democracy Operation Desert Spring Iraq War Anbar campaign 2003 2011 Battle of Karbala 2003 Battle of the Karbala Gap 2003 Battle of Mosul 2004 Operation Shurta Nasir Operation Phantom Thunder Operation Phantom Strike Operation Phantom Phoenix 2008 Nineveh campaign Battle of Basra 2008 2008 al Qaeda offensive in Iraq Battle of Wanat War in AfghanistanAwardsDefense Distinguished Service Medal 4 Army Distinguished Service Medal 3 Defense Superior Service Medal 2 Legion of Merit 4 Bronze Star Medal with Valor NATO Meritorious Service Medal Officer of the Order of Australia More Petraeus has a B S degree from the United States Military Academy from which he graduated in 1974 as a distinguished cadet top 5 of his class In his class were three other future four star generals Martin Dempsey Walter L Sharp and Keith B Alexander He was the General George C Marshall Award winner as the top graduate of the U S Army Command and General Staff College class of 1983 8 He subsequently earned an M P A in 1985 and a Ph D degree in international relations in 1987 from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University He later served as assistant professor of international relations at the United States Military Academy and also completed a fellowship at Georgetown University 9 Petraeus has repeatedly stated that he has no plans to run for elected political office 10 11 12 On June 23 2010 President Barack Obama nominated Petraeus to succeed General Stanley McChrystal as commanding general of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan technically a step down from his position as Commander of United States Central Command which oversees the military efforts in Afghanistan Pakistan Central Asia the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt 13 14 15 On June 30 2011 Petraeus was unanimously confirmed as the Director of the CIA by the U S Senate 94 0 16 Petraeus relinquished command of U S and NATO forces in Afghanistan on July 18 2011 and retired from the U S Army on August 31 2011 17 On November 9 2012 he resigned from his position as director of the CIA citing his extramarital affair with his biographer Paula Broadwell which was reportedly discovered in the course of an FBI investigation 18 19 In January 2015 officials reported the FBI and Justice Department prosecutors had recommended bringing felony charges against Petraeus for allegedly providing classified information to Broadwell while serving as director of the CIA 20 Eventually Petraeus pleaded guilty to one misdemeanor charge of mishandling classified information 21 Contents 1 Early life and family 2 Education and academia 3 Military operations 3 1 1970s 3 2 1980s 3 3 1990s 3 4 2000s 3 5 Involvement in the Iraq War 3 5 1 101st Airborne Division 3 5 2 Multi National Security Transition Command Iraq 3 5 3 Multi National Force Iraq spring 2007 3 5 4 Multi National Force Iraq summer and fall 2007 3 5 5 Multi National Force Iraq spring 2008 3 5 6 Multi National Force Iraq summer and fall 2008 3 5 7 Change of command 3 6 U S Central Command fall 2008 to summer 2010 3 6 1 Health 3 7 Commander of U S and ISAF forces in Afghanistan 4 Retirement from the U S Army 4 1 Dates of rank 5 CIA Director 6 Extramarital affair resignation and criticism 6 1 Criticism after 2012 scandal 6 2 Criminal charges and probation 7 Activities in retirement 8 Secretary of State consideration 9 Personal life 10 Organizational memberships 11 Venture capital investments 12 Recognitions and honors 12 1 Decorations and badges 12 2 Honorary degrees 12 3 Civilian awards and honors 12 3 1 2007 2010 12 3 2 2011 2020 12 4 Additional recognitions 13 Works by David Petraeus 13 1 Speeches public remarks interviews and op eds 13 2 Academic and other works 14 See also 15 Notes and references 16 Further reading 17 External linksEarly life and family EditPetraeus was born in Cornwall on Hudson New York the son of Miriam Sweet nee Howell 1912 1991 22 a librarian and Sixtus Petraeus 1915 2008 23 a sea captain His father was Frisian 24 from Franeker Netherlands 25 and his mother was American a resident of Brooklyn New York 26 His father had sailed to the United States from the Netherlands at the start of World War II 27 They met at the Seamen s Church Institute of New York and New Jersey and married Sixtus Petraeus commanded a Liberty ship for the US for the duration of World War II 26 The family moved after the war settling in Cornwall on Hudson where David Petraeus grew up and graduated from Cornwall Central High School in 1970 With his son Stephen Afghanistan 2010 Petraeus went on to the United States Military Academy at West Point Petraeus was on the intercollegiate soccer and ski teams was a cadet captain on the brigade staff and was a distinguished cadet academically graduating in the top 5 of the Class of 1974 ranked 40th overall In the class yearbook Petraeus was remembered as always going for it in sports academics leadership and even his social life 28 While a cadet Petraeus started dating the daughter of Army General William A Knowlton the West Point superintendent at the time Holly 29 30 Two months after Petraeus graduated they married 31 Holly who is multi lingual was a National Merit Scholar in high school and graduated summa cum laude from Dickinson College They have a daughter and son Anne and Stephen Petraeus administered the oath of office at his son s 2009 commissioning into the Army after his son s graduation from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 32 33 His son went on to serve as an officer in Afghanistan as a member of 3rd Platoon Alpha Company 1st Battalion 503rd Infantry Regiment 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team 34 Petraeus s official residence in the United States is a small property in the small town of Springfield New Hampshire which his wife inherited from her family 35 Petraeus once told a friend that he was a Rockefeller Republican 1 Education and academia EditPetraeus graduated from West Point in 1974 He earned the General George C Marshall Award as the top graduate of the U S Army Command and General Staff College Class of 1983 at Fort Leavenworth Kansas receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in Military Science He subsequently earned an M P A in 1985 and a Ph D in international relations in 1987 from Princeton University s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs where he was mentored by Richard H Ullman 36 At that time he also served as an assistant professor of international relations at the U S Military Academy from 1985 to 1987 His doctoral dissertation was titled The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post Vietnam Era 37 He also completed a military fellowship at Georgetown University s Edmund A Walsh School of Foreign Service in 1994 1995 38 although he was called away early to serve in Haiti as the Chief of Operations for NATO there in early 1995 citation needed From late 2005 through February 2007 39 Petraeus served as commanding general of Fort Leavenworth Kansas and the U S Army Combined Arms Center CAC located there As commander of CAC Petraeus was responsible for oversight of the Command and General Staff College and seventeen other schools centers and training programs as well as for developing the Army s doctrinal manuals training the Army s officers and supervising the Army s center for the collection and dissemination of lessons learned During his time at CAC Petraeus and Marine Lt Gen James N Mattis jointly oversaw the publication of Field Manual 3 24 Counterinsurgency the body of which was written by an extraordinarily diverse group of military officers academics human rights advocates and journalists who had been assembled by Petraeus and Mattis 40 41 Additionally at both Fort Leavenworth and throughout the military s schools and training programs Petraeus integrated the study of counterinsurgency into lesson plans and training exercises In recognition of the fact that soldiers in Iraq often performed duties far different from those for which they trained Petraeus also stressed the importance of teaching soldiers how to think and how to fight and the need to foster flexibility and adaptability in leaders 42 43 Petraeus called this change the most significant part of The Surge saying in 2016 the surge that mattered most was the surge of ideas It was the change of strategy and in many respects this represented quite a significant change to what it was we were doing before the surge 44 Petraeus has been called the world s leading expert in counter insurgency warfare 45 Later having refined his ideas on counterinsurgency based on the implementation of the new counterinsurgency doctrine in Iraq he published both in Iraq as well as in the Sep Oct 2008 edition of Military Review his Commander s Counterinsurgency Guidance to help guide leaders and units in the Multi National Force Iraq 46 Military operations Edit U S Army Gen David H Petraeus during his time in the Army 1970s Edit Upon his graduation from West Point in 1974 Petraeus was commissioned an infantry officer After completing Ranger School Distinguished Honor Graduate and other honors Petraeus was assigned to the 509th Airborne Battalion Combat Team a light infantry unit stationed in Vicenza Italy 47 Ever since light infantry has been at the core of his career punctuated by assignments to mechanized units unit commands staff assignments and educational institutions After leaving the 509th as a first lieutenant 48 Petraeus began a brief association with mechanized units when he became assistant operations officer on the staff of the 2nd Brigade 24th Infantry Division Mechanized at Fort Stewart Georgia In 1979 he assumed command of a company in the same division A Company 2nd Battalion 19th Infantry Regiment Mechanized and then served as that battalion s operations officer a major s position that he held as a junior captain 1980s Edit In 1981 Petraeus became aide de camp to General John Galvin then commanding general of the 24th Infantry Division Mechanized 49 He spent the next few years furthering his military and civilian education including spending 1982 83 at Fort Leavenworth Kansas attending the Command and General Staff College At graduation in 1983 he was the General George C Marshall Award winner as the top graduate of the U S Army Command and General Staff College From 1983 to 1985 he was at Princeton and 1985 87 at West Point After earning his Ph D and teaching at West Point Petraeus continued up the rungs of the command ladder serving as military assistant to Gen John Galvin the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe From there he moved to the 3rd Infantry Division Mechanized During 1988 1989 he served as operations officer to the 3rd Infantry Division Mechanized s 30th Infantry Regiment He was then posted as an aide and assistant executive officer to the U S Army Chief of Staff General Carl Vuono in Washington D C 1990s Edit Upon promotion to lieutenant colonel Petraeus moved from the office of the chief of staff to Fort Campbell Kentucky where he commanded the 101st Airborne Division Air Assault s 3rd Battalion 187th Infantry Regiment known as the Iron Rakkasans 50 from 1991 to 1993 During this period he suffered one of the more dramatic incidents in his career in 1991 he was accidentally shot in the chest with an M 16 rifle during a live fire exercise when a soldier tripped and his rifle discharged 51 He was taken to Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville Tennessee where he was operated on by future U S Senator Bill Frist The hospital released him early after he did fifty push ups without resting just a few days after the accident 52 53 During 1993 94 Petraeus continued his long association with the 101st Airborne Division Air Assault as the division s assistant chief of staff G 3 plans operations and training and installation director of plans training and mobilization DPTM In 1995 he was assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti Military Staff as its chief operations officer during Operation Uphold Democracy His next command from 1995 to 1997 was the 1st Brigade 82nd Airborne Division centered on the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment At that post his brigade s training cycle at Fort Polk s Joint Readiness Training Center for low intensity warfare was chronicled by novelist and military enthusiast Tom Clancy in his book Airborne From 1997 to 1999 Petraeus served in the Pentagon as executive assistant to the director of the Joint Staff and then to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Gen Henry Shelton who described Petraeus as a high energy individual who likes to lead from the front in any field he is going into 54 In 1999 as a brigadier general Petraeus returned to the 82nd serving as the assistant division commander for operations and then briefly as acting commanding general During his time with the 82nd he deployed to Kuwait as part of Operation Desert Spring the continuous rotation of combat forces through Kuwait during the decade after the Gulf War 2000s Edit From the 82nd he moved on to serve as chief of staff of XVIII Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg during 2000 2001 In 2000 Petraeus suffered his second major injury when during a civilian skydiving jump his parachute collapsed at low altitude due to a hook turn resulting in a hard landing that broke his pelvis He was selected for promotion to major general in 2001 55 During 2001 2002 as a brigadier general Petraeus served a ten month tour in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of Operation Joint Forge In Bosnia he was the NATO Stabilization Force assistant chief of staff for operations as well as the deputy commander of the U S Joint Interagency Counter Terrorism Task Force a command created after the September 11 attacks to add counterterrorism capability to the U S forces attached to the NATO command in Bosnia In 2004 he was promoted to lieutenant general 56 In 2007 he was promoted to General 57 On April 23 2008 Secretary of Defense Gates announced that President Bush was nominating General Petraeus to command U S Central Command USCENTCOM headquartered in Tampa Florida In 2010 Petraeus was nominated to command the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan which required Senate confirmation 58 He was confirmed on June 30 2010 59 and took over command from temporary commander Lieutenant General Sir Nick Parker on July 4 2010 60 Involvement in the Iraq War Edit 101st Airborne Division Edit Maj Gen David H Petraeus right commanding general 101st Airborne Division Air Assault looks on as Lt Gen William S Wallace V Corps commanding general speaks to soldiers March 21 2003 Kuwait In 2003 Petraeus then a major general saw combat for the first time when he commanded the 101st Airborne Division during V Corps s drive to Baghdad In a campaign chronicled in detail by Pulitzer Prize winning author Rick Atkinson of The Washington Post in the book In the Company of Soldiers Petraeus led his division through fierce fighting south of Baghdad in Karbala Hilla and Najaf Following the fall of Baghdad the division conducted the longest heliborne assault on record in order to reach Nineveh Governorate where it would spend much of 2003 The 1st Brigade was responsible for the area south of Mosul the 2nd Brigade for the city itself and the 3rd Brigade for the region stretching toward the Syrian border An often repeated story of Petraeus s time with the 101st is his asking of embedded The Washington Post reporter Rick Atkinson to Tell me how this ends 61 an anecdote he and other journalists have used to portray Petraeus as an early recognizer of the difficulties that would follow the fall of Baghdad 49 62 63 64 65 66 In Mosul a city of nearly two million people Petraeus and the 101st employed classic counterinsurgency methods to build security and stability including conducting targeted kinetic operations and using force judiciously jump starting the economy building local security forces staging elections for the city council within weeks of their arrival overseeing a program of public works reinvigorating the political process 67 68 69 and launching 4 500 reconstruction projects in Iraq 70 This approach can be attributed to Petraeus who had been steeped in nation building during his previous tours in nations such as Bosnia and Haiti and thus approached nation building as a central military mission and who was prepared to act while the civilian authority in Baghdad was still getting organized according to Michael Gordon of The New York Times 71 Some Iraqis gave Petraeus the nickname King David 67 72 which was later adopted by some of his colleagues 73 74 75 In 2004 Newsweek stated that It s widely accepted that no force worked harder to win Iraqi hearts and minds than the 101st Airborne Division led by Petraeus 76 Petraeus on patrol in Mosul with Gen Peter J Schoomaker 2003 One of the General s major public works was the restoration and re opening of the University of Mosul 77 78 Petraeus strongly supported the use of commanders discretionary funds for public works telling Coalition Provisional Authority director L Paul Bremer Money is ammunition during the director s first visit to Mosul 79 80 Petraeus s often repeated 81 catchphrase was later incorporated into official military briefings 82 83 and was also eventually incorporated into the U S Army Counterinsurgency Field Manual drafted with Petraeus s oversight 84 Petraeus s Bronze Star Medal with V Device for actions in combat leading the 101st Airborne Air Assault Division during Operation Iraqi Freedom May 2003 In February 2004 the 101st was replaced in Mosul by a portion of I Corps headquarters but operational forces consisted solely of a unit roughly one quarter its size a Stryker brigade The following summer the governor of Nineveh Province was assassinated and most of the Sunni Arab Provincial Council members walked out in the ensuing selection of the new governor leaving Kurdish members in charge of a predominantly Sunni Arab province Later that year the local police commander defected to the Kurdish Minister of Interior in Irbil after repeated assassination attempts against him attacks on his house and the kidnapping of his sister The largely Sunni Arab police collapsed under insurgent attacks launched at the same time Coalition Forces attacked Fallujah in November 2004 Orders awarding the Combat Action Badge to then LTG David H Petraeus for actions in combat during Iraqi Freedom There are differing explanations for the apparent collapse of the police force in Mosul The Guardian quoted an anonymous US diplomat saying Mosul basically collapsed after he Petraeus left Former diplomat Peter Galbraith criticized Petraeus s command of the 101st saying his achievements had been exaggerated and his reputation inflated He wrote for The New York Review of Books that Petraeus ignored warnings from America s Kurdish allies that he was appointing the wrong people to key positions in Mosul s local government and police 85 On the other hand in the book Fiasco The Washington Post reporter Tom Ricks wrote that Mosul was quiet while he Petraeus was there and likely would have remained so had his successor had as many troops as he had and as much understanding of counterinsurgency techniques Ricks went on to say that the population oriented approach Petraeus took in Mosul in 2003 would be the one the entire U S Army in Iraq was trying to adopt in 2006 86 Time columnist Joe Klein largely agreed with Ricks writing that the Stryker brigade that replaced the 101st didn t do any of the local governance that Petraeus had done Moving away from counterinsurgency principles they were occupiers not builders 87 The New York Times reporter Michael Gordon and retired General Bernard Trainor echoed Ricks and Klein including in their book Cobra II a quote that Petraeus did it right and won over Mosul 88 Multi National Security Transition Command Iraq Edit In June 2004 less than six months after the 101st returned to the U S Petraeus was promoted to lieutenant general and became the first commander of the Multi National Security Transition Command Iraq This newly created command had responsibility for training equipping and mentoring Iraq s growing army police and other security forces as well as developing Iraq s security institutions and building associated infrastructure such as training bases police stations and border forts During Petraeus s fifteen months at the helm of MNSTC I he stood up a three star command virtually from scratch and in the midst of serious fighting in places like Fallujah Mosul and Najaf By the end of his command some 100 000 Iraqi Security Forces had been trained Iraqi Army and Police were being employed in combat countless reconstruction projects had been executed and hundreds of thousands of weapons body armor and other equipment had been distributed in what was described as the largest military procurement and distribution effort since World War II at a cost of over 11 billion 89 In September 2004 Petraeus wrote an article for The Washington Post in which he described the tangible progress being made in building Iraq s security forces from the ground up while also noting the many challenges associated with doing so Although there have been reverses not to mention horrific terrorist attacks Petraeus wrote there has been progress in the effort to enable Iraqis to shoulder more of the load for their own security something they are keen to do 90 Some of the challenges involved in building security forces had to do with accomplishing this task in the midst of a tough insurgency or as Petraeus wrote making the mission akin to repairing an aircraft while in flight and while being shot at Other challenges included allegations of corruption as well as efforts to improve Iraq s supply accountability procedures For example according to former Interim Iraq Governing Council member Ali A Allawi in The Occupation of Iraq Winning the War Losing the Peace under the very noses of the security transition command officials both inside and outside the ministry of defense were planning to embezzle most if not all of the procurement budget of the army 91 The Washington Post stated in August 2007 that the Pentagon had lost track of approximately 30 of weapons supplied to the Iraqi security forces The General Accounting Office said that the weapons distribution was haphazard rushed and did not follow established procedures particularly from 2004 to 2005 when security training was led by Petraeus and Iraq s security forces began to see combat in places like Najaf and Samarra 92 Over a hundred thousand AK 47 assault rifles and pistols were delivered to Iraqi forces without full documentation and some of the missing weapons may have been abducted by Iraqi insurgents 93 94 Thousands of body armour pieces have also been lost 95 The Independent has stated that the military believed the situation on the ground was so urgent and the agency responsible for recording the transfers of arms so short staffed that field commanders had little choice in the matter 96 The Pentagon conducted its own investigation and accountability was subsequently regained for many of the weapons 97 Following his second tour in Iraq Petraeus authored a widely read article in Military Review listing fourteen observations he had made during two tours in Iraq including do not do too much with your own hands money is ammunition increasing the number of stakeholders is critical to success success in a counterinsurgency requires more than just military operations ultimate success depends on local leaders there is no substitute for flexible and adaptable leaders and finally a leader s most important task is to set the right tone 98 Multi National Force Iraq spring 2007 Edit Petraeus walking through a market in Baghdad March 2007 The intervening time between the Iraq commands was spent at Fort Leavenworth where Petraeus further developed his military doctrine and pursued an important White House contact in Meghan O Sullivan who was the principal adviser to the president on the war 99 In January 2007 as part of his overhauled Iraq strategy President George W Bush announced that Petraeus would succeed Gen George Casey as commanding general of MNF I to lead all U S troops in Iraq In his memoirs President Bush likened his selection of Petraeus to the elevations of other great generals of American history writing Lincoln discovered Generals Grant and Sherman Roosevelt had Eisenhower and Bradley I found David Petraeus and Ray Odierno 100 101 On January 23 the Senate Armed Services Committee held Petraeus s nomination hearing during which he testified on his ideas for Iraq particularly the strategy underpinning the surge of forces During his opening statement Petraeus stated that security of the population especially in Baghdad and in partnership with the Iraqi Security Forces will be the focus of the military effort He went on to state that security will require establishing a persistent presence especially in Iraq s most threatened neighborhoods He also noted the critical importance of helping Iraq increase its governmental capacity develop employment programs and improve daily life for its citizens 102 Throughout Petraeus s tenure in Iraq Multi National Force Iraq endeavored to work with the Government of Iraq to carry out this strategy that focuses on securing the population Doing so required establishing and maintaining persistent presence by living among the population separating reconcilable Iraqis from irreconcilable enemies relentlessly pursuing the enemy taking back sanctuaries and then holding areas that have been cleared and continuing to develop Iraq s security forces and to support local security forces often called Sons of Iraq and to integrate them into the Iraqi Army and Police and other employment programs 103 104 105 The strategy underpinning the surge of forces as well as the ideas Petraeus included in US army Field Manual 3 24 Counterinsurgency have been referred to by some journalists and politicians as the Petraeus Doctrine although the surge itself was proposed a few months before Petraeus took command Despite the misgivings of most Democratic and a few Republican senators over the proposed implementation of the Petraeus Doctrine in Iraq specifically regarding the troop surge Petraeus was unanimously confirmed as a four star general and MNF I commander on January 27 106 107 Before leaving for Iraq Petraeus recruited a number of highly educated military officers nicknamed Petraeus guys or designated thinkers to advise him as commander including Col Mike Meese head of the Social Sciences Department at West Point and Col H R McMaster famous for his leadership at the Battle of 73 Easting in the Gulf War and in the pacification of Tal Afar more recently as well as for his doctoral dissertation on Vietnam era civil military relations titled Dereliction of Duty While most of Petraeus s closest advisers are American military officers he also hired Lt Col David Kilcullen of the Australian Army who was working for the US State Department 108 Kilcullen upon his return from Iraq published The Accidental Guerrilla 109 and has discussed the central front of the war and lessons learned in Iraq in The Washington Post 110 U S Army Gen David H Petraeus the commander of Multi National Force Iraq briefs reporters at the Pentagon April 26 2007 on his view of the current military situation in Iraq After taking command of MNF I on February 10 2007 Petraeus inspected U S and Iraqi units all over Iraq visiting outposts in greater Baghdad Tikrit Baquba Ramadi Mosul Kirkuk Bayji Samarra Basrah and as far west as al Hit and Al Qaim In April 2007 Petraeus made his first visit to Washington as MNF I Commander reporting to President Bush and Congress on the progress of the surge and the overall situation in Iraq During this visit he met privately with members of Congress and reportedly argued against setting a timetable for U S troop withdrawal from Iraq 111 By late May 2007 Congress had not imposed any timetables in war funding legislation for troop withdrawal 112 The enacted legislation did mandate that Petraeus and U S Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker deliver a report to Congress by September 15 2007 detailing their assessment of the military economic and political situation of Iraq In June 2007 Petraeus stated in an interview that there were astonishing signs of normalcy in Baghdad and this comment drew criticism from Senate majority leader Harry Reid In the same interview however Petraeus stated that many problems remain and he noted the need to help the Iraqis stitch back together the fabric of society that was torn during the height of sectarian violence in late 2006 113 Petraeus also warned that he expected that the situation in Iraq would require the continued deployment of the elevated troop level of more than 150 000 beyond September 2007 he also stated that U S involvement in Iraq could last years afterward 114 These statements are representative of the fact that throughout their time in Iraq Petraeus and Crocker remained circumspect and refused to classify themselves as optimists or pessimists noting instead that they were realists and that the reality in Iraq was very hard They also repeatedly emphasized the importance of forthright reports and an unvarnished approach 115 116 Indeed Petraeus s realistic approach and assessments were lauded during the McLaughlin Group s 2008 Year End Awards when Monica Crowley nominated Petraeus for the most honest person of the year stating H e spoke about the great successes of the surge in Iraq but he always tempered it never sugar coated it 117 Multi National Force Iraq summer and fall 2007 Edit In July 2007 the White House submitted to Congress the interim report on Iraq which stated that coalition forces had made satisfactory progress on 6 of 18 benchmarks set by Congress On September 7 2007 in a letter addressed to the troops he was commanding Petraeus wrote that much military progress had been made but that the national level political progress that was hoped for had not been achieved 118 Petraeus s Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq was delivered to Congress on September 10 2007 On August 15 2007 the Los Angeles Times stated that according to unnamed administration officials the report would actually be written by the White House with inputs from officials throughout the government 119 However Petraeus declared in his testimony to Congress that I wrote this testimony myself He further elaborated that his testimony to Congress has not been cleared by nor shared with anyone in the Pentagon the White House or Congress 120 GEN Petraeus with LTG Odierno left President Bush center SecDef Gates and SecState Rice right at Al Asad Airbase in September 2007 In his September Congressional testimony Petraeus stated that As a bottom line up front the military objectives of the surge are in large measure being met He cited numerous factors for this progress to include the fact that Coalition and Iraqi Forces had dealt significant blows to Al Qaeda Iraq and had disrupted Shia militias that ethno sectarian violence had been reduced and that the tribal rejection of Al Qaeda had spread from Anbar Province to numerous other locations across Iraq Based on this progress and additional progress expected to be achieved Petraeus recommended drawing down the surge forces from Iraq and gradually transitioning increased responsibilities to Iraqi Forces as their capabilities and conditions on the ground permitted 121 Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada argued Petraeus s plan is just more of the same and is neither a drawdown or a change in mission that we need Democratic Representative Robert Wexler of Florida accused Petraeus of cherry picking statistics and massaging information 122 Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee Tom Lantos of California called Petraeus and U S Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker Two of our nation s most capable public servants and said Democrats feel esteem for their professionalism He also said that We can no longer take their assertions on Iraq at face value concluding We need to get out of Iraq for that country s sake as well as our own 123 Republican Presidential candidate Duncan Hunter called the report a candid independent assessment given with integrity 124 Republican senator Jon Kyl of Arizona stated that I commend General Petraeus for his honest and forthright assessment of the situation in Iraq 125 Anti war Republican senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska criticized the report while praising Petraeus saying It s not your fault general It s not Ambassador Crocker s fault It s this administration s fault 126 A USA Today Gallup poll taken after Petraeus s report to Congress showed virtually no change in public opinion toward the war 127 A Pew Research Center survey found that most Americans who have heard about the report approve of Petraeus s recommendations 128 On September 20 the Senate passed an amendment by Republican John Cornyn III of Texas designed to strongly condemn personal attacks on the honor and integrity of General Petraeus Cornyn drafted the amendment in response to a controversial full page ad by the liberal group Moveon org in the September 10 2007 edition of The New York Times All forty nine Republican senators and twenty two Democratic senators voted in support 129 The House passed a similar resolution by a 341 79 vote on September 26 In December 2007 The Washington Post s Fact Checker stated that While some of Petraeus s statistics are open to challenge his claims about a general reduction in violence have been borne out over subsequent months It now looks as if Petraeus was broadly right on this issue at least 130 Based on the conditions on the ground in October 2007 Petraeus and U S Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker revised their campaign plan for Iraq In recognition of the progress made against Al Qaeda Iraq one of the major points would be shifting the U S military effort to focus more on countering Shiite militias 131 Multi National Force Iraq spring 2008 Edit On February 18 2008 USA Today stated that the U S effort has shown more success and that after the number of troops reached its peak in fall 2007 U S deaths were at their lowest levels since the 2003 invasion civilian casualties were down and street life was resuming in Baghdad 132 In light of the significant reduction in violence and as the surge brigades began to redeploy without replacement Petraeus characterized the progress as tenuous fragile and reversible and repeatedly reminded all involved that much work remains to be done 133 134 During an early February trip to Iraq Defense Secretary Robert Gates endorsed the idea of a period of consolidation and evaluation upon completion of the withdrawal of surge brigades from Iraq 135 Petraeus and Crocker continued these themes at their two full days of testimony before Congress on April 8 and 9 During his opening statement Petraeus stated that there has been significant but uneven security progress in Iraq while also noting that the situation in certain areas is still unsatisfactory and that innumerable challenges remain and that the progress made since last spring is fragile and reversible He also recommended a continuation of the drawdown of surge forces as well as a 45 day period of consolidation and evaluation after the final surge brigade has redeployed in late July 120 Analysts for USA Today and The New York Times stated that the hearings lacked the suspense of last September s debate but they did include sharp questioning as well as both skepticism and praise from various Congressional leaders 136 137 In late May 2008 the Senate Armed Services Committee held nomination hearings for Petraeus and Lieutenant General Ray Odierno to lead United States Central Command and Multi National Force Iraq respectively During the hearings Committee Chairman Carl Levin praised these two men stating that we owe Gen Petraeus and Gen Odierno a debt of gratitude for the commitment determination and strength that they brought to their areas of responsibility And regardless of how long the administration may choose to remain engaged in the strife in that country our troops are better off with the leadership these two distinguished soldiers provide 138 During his opening statement Petraeus discussed four principles that would guide his efforts if confirmed as CENTCOM Commander seeking to strengthen international partnerships taking a whole of government approach pursuing comprehensive efforts and solutions and finally both supporting efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan and ensuring readiness for possible contingency operations in the future Petraeus also noted that during the week before his testimony the number of security incidents in Iraq was the lowest in over four years 139 After Petraeus s return to Baghdad and despite the continued drawdown of surge forces as well as recent Iraqi led operations in places like Basrah Mosul and Baghdad the number of security incidents in Iraq remained at their lowest level in over four years 140 Multi National Force Iraq summer and fall 2008 Edit Petraeus explains security improvements in Sadr City while giving an aerial tour of Baghdad to Senator Barack Obama July 2008 In September 2008 Petraeus gave an interview to BBC News stating that he did not think using the term victory in describing the Iraq war was appropriate saying This is not the sort of struggle where you take a hill plant the flag and go home to a victory parade it s not war with a simple slogan 141 Petraeus had discussed the term victory before in March 2008 saying to NPR News that an Iraq that is at peace with itself at peace with its neighbors that has a government that is representative of and responsive to its citizenry and is a contributing member of the global community could arguably be called victory 142 On the eve of his change of command in September 2008 Petraeus stated that I don t use terms like victory or defeat I m a realist not an optimist or a pessimist And the reality is that there has been significant progress but there are still serious challenges 143 Change of command Edit Iraq Defense Minister Abdul Qadir presents a gift to Petraeus during a farewell ceremony in Baghdad on September 15 2008 On September 16 2008 Petraeus formally gave over his command in Iraq to General Raymond T Odierno in a government ceremony presided by Defense Secretary Robert Gates 143 During the ceremony Gates stated that Petraeus played a historic role and created the translation of a great strategy into a great success in very difficult circumstances Gates also told Petraeus he believed history will regard you as one of our nation s greatest battle captains 143 He presented Petraeus with the Defense Distinguished Service Medal 143 At the event Petraeus mentioned the difficulty in getting the Sons of Iraq absorbed in the central Government of Iraq and warned about future consequences if the effort stalls 143 Indeed when speaking of these and other challenges Petraeus is the first to note that the gains achieved in Iraq are tenuous and unlikely to survive without an American effort that outlasts his tenure Even so as Petraeus departed Iraq it was clear to all that he was leaving a much different Iraq than the one that existed when he took command in February 2007 As described by Dexter Filkins violence has plummeted from its apocalyptic peaks Iraqi leaders are asserting themselves and streets that once seemed dead are flourishing with life 144 the Iraq Trends charts also illustrate this that the MNF I produces weekly The January 3 2009 Iraq Trends chart clearly depicts the increases in incidents followed by the sharp decline described by Dexter Filkens and others Petraeus command of coalition forces during the Surge in Iraq has been widely lauded In his book The Savior Generals historian Victor Davis Hanson wrote that without David Petraeus the American effort in Iraq along with the reputation of the U S military in the Middle East would have been lost long ago 145 In her introduction of Petraeus at the Baccalaureate ceremony for the Class of 2009 Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman described his accomplishments While acknowledging that much remains to be accomplished in Iraq Tilghman paid tribute to Petraeus s leadership in rethinking American military strategy through his principles of counterinsurgency which are she said eliminating simplistic definitions of victory and defeat in favor of incremental and nuanced progress 146 U S Central Command fall 2008 to summer 2010 Edit Gen David H Petraeus speaking at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College On October 31 2008 Petraeus assumed command of the United States Central Command USCENTCOM headquartered in Tampa Florida Petraeus was responsible for U S operations in 20 countries spreading from Egypt to Pakistan including Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom During his time at CENTCOM Petraeus advocated that countering the terrorist threats in the CENTCOM region requires more than just counter terrorism forces demanding instead whole of governments comprehensive approaches akin to those of counterinsurgency 147 One of his closest colleagues said that Petraeus knew that defeating an insurgency required living among the people convincing them that we were better than the insurgents Y ou can t kill em all Y ou can t kill your way out of an insurgency You have to find other kinds of ammunition and it s not always a bullet 148 Petraeus reiterated this view in a 2009 interview published in Parade magazine 149 In a recent interview for Newsweek magazine s Interview Issue The View From People Who Make a Difference Petraeus expressed his support for President Obama s announced Afghanistan strategy and discussed his view that reconciliation efforts in Afghanistan should for the time being occur at the lower and midlevels 150 In mid August 2009 Petraeus established the Afghanistan Pakistan Center of Excellence within the USCENTCOM Directorate of Intelligence to provide leadership to coordinate integrate and focus analysis efforts in support of operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan 151 During a February 2010 World Affairs Council event in Philadelphia General Petraeus discussed the ways in which diplomacy history and culture impact overall military strategy then explained how these issues informed the U S approach to counterinsurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan 152 On March 16 2010 testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee Petraeus described the continuing Israeli Palestinian conflict as a challenge to U S interests in the region According to the testimony the conflict was fomenting anti American sentiment due to a perception of U S favoritism for Israel This was widely commented on in the media 153 154 155 156 When questioned by journalist Philip Klein Petraeus said the original reporter picked apart and spun his speech He believes there are many important factors standing in the way of peace including a whole bunch of extremist organizations some of which by the way deny Israel s right to exist There s a country that has a nuclear program who denies that the Holocaust took place So again we have all these factors in there This Israel is just one 157 158 In March 2010 Petraeus visited the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College to speak about Iraq and Afghanistan 159 Petraeus spoke a few days after the seventh anniversary of the U S invasion of Iraq noting the successful changes in Iraq since the U S troop surge The visit to Saint Anselm created rumors that Petraeus was contemplating a run for the presidency however he denied the speculation saying that he was not aware that the college has been the site of numerous presidential debates 160 Toward the close of his tenure as CENTCOM Commander including in his interview published in Vanity Fair Petraeus discussed the effort to determine and send to Afghanistan the right inputs for success there these inputs include several structures and organizations that proved important in Iraq including an engagement cell to support reconciliation a finance cell to go after financing of the enemy a really robust detainee operations task force a rule of law task force an energy fusion cell all these other sort of nonstandard missions that are very important 161 On May 5 2010 The New York Times published an article that there was mounting evidence of a Taliban role in the Times Square bombing plot 162 On May 7 2010 Petraeus announced that Times Square bombing suspect Faisal Shahzad is a lone wolf terrorist who did not work with others 163 On May 10 2010 Attorney General Eric Holder said that the evidence shows the Pakistani Taliban directed this plot 164 Health Edit General Petraeus was diagnosed with early stage prostate cancer in February 2009 and underwent two months of successful radiation treatment at Walter Reed Army Medical Center 165 The diagnosis and treatment was not publicly disclosed until October 2009 because Petraeus and his family regarded his illness as a personal matter that did not interfere with the performance of his duties 166 On June 15 2010 Petraeus momentarily fainted while being questioned by the Senate Armed Services Committee He quickly recovered and was able to walk and exit the room without assistance 167 He attributed the episode to possible dehydration Commander of U S and ISAF forces in Afghanistan Edit Petraeus having tea with the Afghan Border Police Commander at the border with Uzbekistan On June 23 2010 President Obama announced that he would nominate Petraeus to succeed General Stanley A McChrystal as the commander of U S Forces in Afghanistan The change of command was prompted by McChrystal s comments about the Obama administration and its policies in Afghanistan during an interview with Rolling Stone magazine 14 The nomination was technically a positional step down from his position as commander of Central Command however the President said that he believed that he was the best man for the job After being confirmed by the Senate on June 30 59 Petraeus formally assumed command on July 4 168 During the assumption of command remarks 169 Petraeus provided his vision and goals to NATO the members of his command and his Afghan partners As he was known to do while the commander in Iraq Petraeus delivered his first Letter to the Troops 170 on the same day he assumed command 171 On August 1 2010 shortly after the disclosure of the Afghan war logs on WikiLeaks Petraeus issued his updated Tactical Directive for the prevention of civilian casualties providing guidance and intent for the use of force by the U S military units operating in Afghanistan replacing the July 1 2009 version This directive reinforced the concept of disciplined use of force in partnership with Afghan Security Forces in the fight against insurgent forces We must never forget that the center of gravity in this struggle is the Afghan people it is they who will ultimately determine the future of Afghanistan Prior to the use of fires the commander approving the strike must determine that no civilians are present If unable to assess the risk of civilian presence fires are prohibited except under of the following two conditions specific conditions deleted due to operational security however they have to do with the risk to ISAF and Afghan forces 172 In the October 2010 issue of Army Magazine Petraeus discussed changes that had taken place over the previous 18 months including sections discussing setting the conditions for progress capitalizing on the conditions for progress improving security supporting governance expansion promoting economic development reducing corruption and our troopers carrying out a difficult mission 173 Petraeus talks with U S soldiers at Combat Outpost Monti in eastern Afghanistan on August 5 2010 Petraeus visits Regional Command West in Afghanistan May 16 2011 As commander in Afghanistan Petraeus joined President Obama as a primary target for Osama bin Laden After his death documents recovered from bin Laden s compound unveiled a plot to assassinate the two men as they traveled by plane Bin Laden s communications with a top deputy stated The reason for concentrating on them is that Obama is the head of infidelity and killing him automatically will make Vice President Biden take over the presidency Biden is totally unprepared for that post which will lead the U S into a crisis As for Petraeus he is the man of the hour and killing him would alter the war s path in Afghanistan 174 175 In early March 2011 Petraeus made a rare apology following a NATO helicopter airstrike under his command that resulted in the deaths of nine Afghan boys and the wounding of a 10th as they gathered firewood in Eastern Afghanistan In a statement Petraeus apologized to the members of the Afghan government the people of Afghanistan and the surviving family members and said These deaths should have never happened Several journalists and observers noted the humanitarian candor in Petraeus s open regrets 176 177 Petraeus relinquished command of U S and NATO forces in Afghanistan on July 18 178 He received the Defense Distinguished Service Medal and the NATO Meritorious Service Medal for his service Retirement from the U S Army EditPetraeus retired from the U S Army on August 31 2011 His retirement ceremony was held at Joint Base Myer Henderson Hall 179 During this ceremony he was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal by Deputy Secretary of Defense William J Lynn 180 During the ceremony Lynn noted that Petraeus had played an important role as both a combat leader and strategist in the post 9 11 world Lynn also cited General Petraeus s efforts in current counter insurgency strategy 181 Admiral Michael Mullen Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in his remarks compared General Petraeus to Ulysses S Grant John J Pershing George Marshall and Dwight D Eisenhower as one of the great battle captains of American history 182 With his four star rank Petraeus receives an annual pension of about 220 000 183 Dates of rank Edit Promotions Rank Date Second lieutenant June 5 1974 184 First lieutenant June 5 1976 184 Captain August 8 1978 184 Major August 1 1985 184 Lieutenant colonel April 1 1991 184 Colonel September 1 1995 184 Brigadier general January 1 2000 184 Major general January 1 2003 184 Lieutenant general May 18 2004 184 General February 10 2007 184 CIA Director Edit Petraeus ceremonially sworn in at CIA Headquarters as his wife Holly looks on On April 28 2011 President Barack Obama announced that he had nominated Petraeus to become the new Director of the Central Intelligence Agency 185 The nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate 94 0 on June 30 2011 186 Petraeus was sworn in at the White House on September 6 187 and then ceremonially sworn in by Vice President Joe Biden at CIA Headquarters in Langley Virginia on October 11 2011 188 Petraeus s tenure at the CIA was more low profile than that of his predecessor Leon Panetta declining to give media interviews while director and speaking to Congress in closed sessions He also differed from Panetta in management style as an article in The New York Times published just days before his resignation said Panetta wooed the work force and often did not question operational details while Petraeus is a demanding boss who does not hesitate to order substandard work redone or details of plans adjusted 189 Petraeus s philosophy on leadership at the time was summarized in a twelve point article published by Newsweek on November 5 2012 190 Although Petraeus was given good marks by most observers for his work heading the CIA 189 during October 2012 some critics took issue with the availability of accurate information from the CIA concerning a terrorist attack in Benghazi Libya the month prior On September 11 four Americans had been killed including the ambassador and more than thirty evacuated Only seven of those evacuated did not work for the CIA According to a Wall Street Journal story other government agencies complained about being left largely in the dark about the CIA s role with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton telephoning Petraeus directly the night of the attacks seeking assistance Although the State Department believed it had a formal agreement with the CIA to provide backup security the CIA didn t have the same understanding about its security responsibilities said The Wall Street Journal 191 Extramarital affair resignation and criticism EditMain article Petraeus scandal Petraeus with Paula Broadwell in July 2011 Petraeus reportedly began an affair with Paula Broadwell principal author of his biography All In The Education of General David Petraeus after Petraeus left his ISAF command on July 18 2011 to become CIA director Petraeus reportedly ended the affair in the summer of 2012 around the time that he learned that Broadwell had been sending harassing emails to a longstanding family friend of the Petraeuses Jill Kelley 192 Kelley a Florida socialite who frequently entertained senior military personnel at her and her husband s Tampa mansion 193 had approached an acquaintance who worked for the FBI Tampa Field Office in the late spring with regard to anonymous emails she considered threatening 192 The Bureau traced the emails to Broadwell and noted that Broadwell appeared to be exchanging intimate messages with an email account belonging to Petraeus which instigated an investigation into whether that account had been hacked into or was someone posing as Petraeus 194 195 196 According to an Associated Press report rather than transmit emails to each other s inbox which would have left a more obvious email trail Petraeus and Broadwell left messages in a draft folder and the draft messages were then read by the other person when they logged into the same account 197 Although US Attorney General Eric Holder was aware that the FBI had discovered the affair 198 it was not until November 6 2012 that Petraeus s nominal superior Director of National Intelligence James R Clapper was advised That same evening Clapper called Petraeus and urged him to resign Clapper notified the White House the next day November 7 After being briefed on November 8 President Obama summoned Petraeus to the White House where Petraeus offered his resignation 199 Obama accepted his resignation on November 9 200 and Petraeus cited his affair when announcing that same day that he would resign as CIA Director 201 Eventually Petraeus pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge of mishandling the classified information that he provided to his mistress and biographer 21 Criticism after 2012 scandal Edit Petraeus had a strategy to influence military conditions by using press relations both in theater and in Washington according to critics of his military career citation needed On November 13 2012 Reagan administration Assistant Secretary of Defense Lawrence Korb C I A analyst and Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity co founder Ray McGovern and investigative journalist Gareth Porter appeared on Al Jazeera English Together they assessed the general s extensive military media strategy linking his writings on counterguerrilla operations and subsequent military media efforts to his downfall with his female biographer Critics said that the Petraeus media strategy would prove damaging for American policy in the future because of omissions and distorted interpretations that Washington policymakers other experts and the American public accepted from Petraeus s media contacts 202 Military historians have noted the absence of field records for the Iraq and Afghanistan military campaigns but have not personally been critical of the commanders in theater 203 One additional aspect of Petraeus s career that has come under increased scrutiny since his affair came to light has been his lack of a direct combat record in relation to the many awards he received In particular his Bronze Star Medal with Valor device has been mentioned in several media reports and questioned by several former Army officers 204 The citation for Petraeus s Bronze Star with V device also notes his leadership under fire as does award of the Combat Action Badge but neither provides a detailed account of his actions Criminal charges and probation Edit In January 2015 The New York Times reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Justice Department had recommended bringing felony charges against Petraeus for providing classified information to Broadwell Petraeus denied the allegations and was reported to have had no interest in a plea deal 20 However on Tuesday March 3 2015 the U S Justice Department announced that Petraeus agreed to plead guilty in federal court in Charlotte North Carolina to a charge of unauthorized removal and retention of classified information 205 In the 15 page statement of facts filed by the government along with the plea agreement the government stated that Petraeus had provided Broadwell access to documents containing Top Secret Sensitive Compartmented Information had later moved those documents to his personal residence and stored them in an unsecured drawer and had deliberately and intentionally lied to Federal investigators about both providing Broadwell access to the documents and their improper storage These facts were acknowledged to be true by Petraeus as part of his plea agreement 206 On April 23 2015 a federal judge sentenced Petraeus to two years probation plus a fine of 100 000 The fine was more than double the amount the Justice Department had requested 207 Press accounts in January 2016 indicated that Department of Defense staff were reviewing Department of Justice documents from the Petraeus prosecution and considering whether to recommend to the Secretary of Defense that Petraeus be demoted on the Army s retired list Laws and regulations indicate that members of the military are retired at the last rank in which they are deemed to have served successfully Petraeus s admission of an extramarital affair and guilty plea with regard to removing and retaining classified information while serving in the grade of general could be grounds for reduction in rank to lieutenant general The matter was reviewed by then Secretary of the Army John M McHugh before he left office in October 2015 he recommended no further action 208 On January 29 press accounts indicated that Stephen C Hedger Assistant Secretary of Defense for Legislative Affairs had written to the U S Senate Armed Services Committee In his letter Hedger informed the committee that Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter had concurred with the Army s recommendation and would not impose any further punishment on Petraeus 209 Activities in retirement EditIn March 2013 Petraeus accepted the role of honorary chairman of the OSS Society 210 Petraeus was named a visiting professor at Macaulay Honors College at the City University of New York in July 2013 According to a statement from Petraeus I look forward to leading a seminar at Macaulay that examines the developments that could position the United States and our North American partners to lead the world out of the current global economic slowdown 211 After his anticipated 200 000 salary for the academic year drew fire from critics Petraeus agreed to take on the teaching position for just 1 in order to keep the focus on the students and away from any monetary controversy 212 In September 2013 Petraeus was harassed by students at CUNY while walking on campus 213 On May 1 2013 the University of Southern California named David Petraeus as a Judge Widney Professor a title reserved for eminent individuals from the arts sciences professions business and community and national leadership 214 The president of the Currahee board of trustees announced May 6 2013 that Petraeus agreed to serve on the board of trustees that preserves Camp Toccoa During WWII four of the main parachute infantry regiments of the Army trained at Camp Toccoa prior to their deployment 215 Kohlberg Kravis Roberts amp Co L P a New York investment firm hired Petraeus as chairman of the firm s newly created KKR Global Institute in May 2013 Petraeus will support its investment teams and portfolio companies when studying new investments especially in new locations 216 In December 2014 Petraeus was named a partner at KKR and remains chairman of the KKR Global Institute 217 Petraeus joined the board of advisers of Team Rubicon on June 18 2013 218 Royal United Services Institute RUSI named Petraeus as a senior vice president of the organization in August 2013 According to RUSI The honorary role was created by RUSI s trustees and advisory council in recognition of General Petraeus s long association with the Institute and his distinguished contribution to the study and development of defence and international security concepts as well as his implementation of those concepts in operations in the Balkans Iraq and Afghanistan 219 In October 2013 Petraeus joined Harvard s John F Kennedy School of Government as a non resident senior fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs According to the school Petraeus joined to lead a new project focusing on the technological scientific and economic dynamics that are spurring renewed North American competitiveness The Coming North America Decades project would analyze how potential policy choices could effect this ongoing transformation 220 In 2016 the center announced a new project involving Petraeus and focusing on strategic leadership 221 On February 10 2014 the University of Exeter in England named Petraeus as an honorary visiting professor of the Strategy and Security Institute Alongside the other honorary faculty the appointment will help inform the institute s key objectives of exploring policymaking strategy and security 222 General Petraeus was one of the 11 legendary generals profiled in the 2014 National Geographic Channel feature American War Generals 223 In 2015 Patraeus suggested the US should arm members of the terror group Al Nusra Front an offshot of Al Qaeda in Syria to fight ISIS 224 On June 10 2016 Petraeus and Mark Kelly a retired NASA astronaut and later Senator from Arizona announced the creation of the gun control group Veterans Coalition for Common Sense 225 Petraeus delivered the inaugural lecture in a series dedicated to his mentor and the former Dean of The Fletcher School at Tufts University General Jack Galvin 226 He also delivered the inaugural lecture in a series dedicated to Admiral Stansfield Turner at the U S Naval War College on August 7 2018 The lecture series honors the achievements of Turner who served as the college s president from 1972 to 1974 227 As a member of panel discussion in October 2018 concerning a film documenting the Stars and Stripes newspaper Petraeus shared his personal experiences with the newspaper with the audience 228 On June 12 2019 Petraeus accepted the invitation of a three year honorary professorship in the Institute of Conflict Cooperation and Security ICSS at the University of Birmingham in England The university s announcement of the appointment stated that Petraeus will share insights from his career with students and researchers through a variety of interactions in Birmingham and virtually 229 General Petraeus was the guest speaker at the 500th Night celebration for the US Military Academy s Class of 2020 at West Point held on January 26 2019 230 Secretary of State consideration EditOn November 18 2016 an article by The Guardian cited diplomatic sources as having said that Petraeus had entered the race for US Secretary of State in the Trump administration 231 Petraeus confirmed his interest in the position during a BBC Radio 4 interview stating that he would serve if asked 232 Petraeus met with then President elect Donald Trump at Trump Tower on November 28 to discuss the position and world affairs Both Petraeus and Trump expressed favorable views of the meeting with Trump taking to Twitter to announce Just met with General Petraeus was very impressed Petraeus joined a short list of potential candidates for the position including Mitt Romney and Rudy Giuliani 233 There was public speculation that his nomination could hurt Trump s administration but Republican senators John McCain and Lindsey Graham advocated for Petraeus calling him an extraordinary pick Petraeus also received support from Democratic senator Dianne Feinstein suggesting that Democrats would keep an open mind concerning his confirmation 234 On December 13 2016 Trump officially selected Rex Tillerson for the role of Secretary of State Petraeus expressed his gratitude for Trump s consideration and deferred to former secretary of defense Robert Gates endorsement when asked his opinion of Tillerson 235 Personal life EditAccording to Petraeus he does not vote in elections having stopped following his promotion to major general in 2002 as part of a desire to be seen as apolitical He has confirmed that he did not vote in the 2016 election 236 237 Organizational memberships EditCo chairman Task Force on North America Council on Foreign Relations June 2013 December 2015 238 Member board of directors Atlantic Council April 2016 present 239 Washington Speakers Bureau June 2013 present 240 Member board of advisors Team Rubicon April 2013 present 241 Member board of directors Optiv Inc March 2017 present 242 Co chairman global advisory council Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars August 2015 present 243 Member advisory council Veterans Coalition for Common Sense June 2016 present 244 Member conservation council Panthera February 2016 present 245 Senior vice president Royal United Services Institute June 2013 present 246 Member board of directors Institute for the Study of War November 2013 present 247 Member advisory council American Corporate Partners April 2013 present 248 Faculty advisor USC Student Veterans Association September 2013 August 2019 249 Chairman KKR Vets at Work May 2014 present 250 251 Member board of directors Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America IAVA October 2015 present 252 Member Concordia Leadership Council The Concordia Summit September 2015 present 253 Member board of trustees The McCain Institute for International Leadership December 2015 present 254 Member academic advisory board Warrior Scholar Project February 2016 present 255 Advisor Global War on Terror Memorial Foundation February 2016 June 2019 256 Member national security advisory council U S Global Leadership Coalition April 2016 present 257 Trustee Arthur F Burns Fellowship April 2016 present 258 Member board of directors Fort Campbell Historical Foundation September 2015 present 259 Member board of advisors The Alexander Hamilton Society October 2016 present 260 Member board of advisors Partnership for a Secure America March 2017 present 261 Churchill Fellow of Westminster College Westminster College Fulton MO April 2017 present 262 Member council of advisors Army Heritage Center Foundation June 2017 present 263 Member Golden Plate Award Council Academy of Achievement October 2012 present 264 Advisory trustee The Camp Tocca At Currahee June 2013 present 265 Honorary chairman The OSS Society January 2013 present 266 Honorary fellow Ivy Club Princeton University May 2012 present 267 Member board of advisors National Council on U S Arab Relations October 2016 Present 268 Advisor to the board United States India Strategic Partnership Forum January 2018 present 269 Member network experts August 2018 present 270 Member board of advisors Third Option Foundation March 2019 present 271 Member The Trilateral Commission August 2019 present 272 Venture capital investments Edit2016 Mark43 Software 273 2016 Indegy 274 2016 VNTANA 275 2017 AeroFarms 276 2017 OneConcern 277 2019 Ethena Inc Software 278 2019 Tyfone Digital Security Company 279 2020 Helm ai Technology 280 2021 Carbyne 281 2021 Praava Health 282 Recognitions and honors EditDecorations and badges Edit Petraeus s decorations and badges include the following 283 U S military decorations Defense Distinguished Service Medal with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters Distinguished Service Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters Defense Superior Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster Legion of Merit with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters Bronze Star with V Device Defense Meritorious Service Medal Meritorious Service Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters Joint Service Commendation Medal Army Commendation Medal with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters Joint Service Achievement Medal Army Achievement MedalU S unit awards Joint Meritorious Unit Award with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters Army Meritorious Unit Commendation Army Superior Unit AwardU S non military decorations State Department Secretary s Distinguished Service Award State Department Distinguished Honor Award State Department Superior Honor AwardU S service campaign medals and service and training ribbons National Defense Service Medal with 2 Service Stars Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal with 2 Service Stars Afghanistan Campaign Medal with 3 Service Stars Iraq Campaign Medal with 4 Service Stars Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal Global War on Terrorism Service Medal Armed Forces Service Medal Humanitarian Service Medal Army Service Ribbon Army Overseas Service Ribbon with award numeral 8 International decorations United Nations Mission in Haiti UNMIH Medal 284 NATO Meritorious Service Medal Iraq amp Afghanistan with bronze service star NATO Medal for Yugoslavia NTM I Afghanistan with 2 bronze service starsForeign state decorations Honorary Officer of the Order of Australia Military Division 285 286 Meritorious Service Cross Military Division Canada 287 Cross of Merit of the Minister of Defence of the Czech Republic 1st Class Commander of the Legion of Honour France French Military Campaign Medal Knight Commander s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Gold Award of the Iraqi Order of the Date Palm Gold Cross of Merit of the Carabinieri Italy 288 Order of National Security Merit Tong il Medal Korea Knight Grand Cross with Swords of the Order of Orange Nassau Netherlands Commander s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland Polish Army Medal Gold Polish Iraq Star Romanian Chief of Defense Honor Emblem 289 Military Merit Order First Class United Arab Emirates Vakhtang Gorgasali Order 1st Rank Government of Georgia 290 U S badges patches and tabs Expert Infantryman Badge Combat Action Badge Master Parachutist Badge United States Air Assault Badge Army Staff Identification Badge Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge Ranger tab 101st Airborne Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia worn as his Combat Service Identification Badge 101st Airborne Division Distinctive Unit Insignia 11 Overseas Service BarsForeign badges British Army Parachutist Badge Basic French Parachutist Badge French Brevet de Parachutisme militaire German Parachutist Badge in bronze German Fallschirmspringerabzeichen German Armed Forces Badge for Military Proficiency BronzeHonorary degrees Edit Eckerd College May 23 2010 honorary doctorate in laws 291 University of Pennsylvania May 14 2012 honorary doctorate of laws 292 Dickinson College May 20 2012 honorary doctorate of public service 293 American University of Afghanistan June 17 2019 honorary doctorate of humane letters 294 Civilian awards and honors Edit Petraeus s civilian awards and honors include 2007 2010 Edit 2007 100 Most Influential Leaders and Revolutionaries of the Year Time Magazine 295 2007 Second Most Influential American Conservative The Daily Telegraph 296 2007 Person of the Year 2007 Runner Up Time Magazine 297 2007 Man of the Year The Daily Telegraph 298 2008 Leader of the Year GQ Magazine 299 2008 One of World s Top 100 Public Intellectuals Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines 300 2008 16th Most Powerful Person in the World Newsweek 301 2009 George R Kennan Award National Committee on American Foreign Policy 302 2009 Distinguished Service Medal The American Legion 303 2009 Military Leadership Award The Atlantic Council 304 2009 Abraham Lincoln Award Union League of Philadelphia 305 2009 Father of the Year Award National Father s Day Committee 306 2009 Eisenhower Award National Defense Industrial Association 307 2009 William Donovan Award Office of Strategic Services 308 2009 Freedom Award No Greater Sacrifice 309 2009 Distinguished Citizen Award Congressional Medal of Honor Society 310 2010 Sam Gibbons Lifetime Achievement Award The World Trade Center Tampa Bay 311 2010 James Madison Medal The Woodrow Wilson School 312 2010 Leader of Principle Award The Citadel at Baker School of Business 313 2010 Irvine Kristol Award American Enterprise Institute 314 2010 Intrepid Freedom Award Intrepid Sea Air amp Space Museum 315 2010 Named 12 of 50 People Who Mattered in 2010 New Statesman 316 2010 Top 100 Global Thinkers Foreign Policy Magazine 317 2010 Dwight D Eisenhower Veterans of Foreign Wars 318 2011 2020 Edit 2011 100 Most Influential People in the World Time Magazine 319 2012 Golden Plate Award American Academy of Achievement 320 2012 Gold Eagle Award Society of American Military Engineers 321 2013 35th Chesney Gold Metal Royal United Services Institute 322 323 2013 History Makers Award New York Historical Society 324 2013 Gold Medal for Distinguished Achievement The Holland Society of New York 325 2015 Luminary Award WashingtonExec Leadership Council 326 2016 C3 Global Solutions Award C3 US Arab Business and Healthcare 327 2016 American Spirited Award The Common Good 328 2017 Winston S Churchill National Leadership Award The International Churchill Society 329 2018 Soldier Citizen Award American College of Financial Services 330 2019 Recanati Kaplan Award for Civic Excellence and Cultural Engagement 92nd Street Y 331 2020 Currahee Crest Award 506th Infantry RegimentAdditional recognitions Edit In 2005 Petraeus was identified as one of America s top leaders by U S News amp World Report 332 In 2007 Time named Petraeus one of the 100 most influential leaders and revolutionaries of the year as well as one of its four runners up for Time Person of the Year 333 334 He was also named the second most influential American conservative by The Daily Telegraph 335 as well as The Daily Telegraph s 2007 Man of the Year 336 337 His Ph D dissertation The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post Vietnam Era published by Princeton University in 1987 was number two on the list of best selling dissertations in 2007 338 In 2008 a poll conducted by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines selected Petraeus as one of the world s top 100 public intellectuals 339 Also in 2008 the Static Line Association named Petraeus as its 2008 Airborne Man of the Year and Der Spiegel named him America s most respected soldier 340 As 2008 came to a close Newsweek named him the 16th most powerful person in the world in its December 20 2008 edition 341 and Prospect magazine named him the Public Intellectual of the Year 342 He was also named as one of the 75 Best People in the World in the October 2009 issue of Esquire 343 On March 7 2009 Petraeus received the Distinguished Citizen Award from the Congressional Medal of Honor Society at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library 344 345 On December 9 2010 Barbara Walters picked Petraeus for the Most Fascinating Person of 2010 Walters called the top commander in Afghanistan an American hero 346 Petraeus was chosen as one of Time magazine s 50 People Who Mattered in December 2010 347 The same year he was named number 12 of 50 people who mattered in 2010 by the New Statesmen magazine 348 and Petraeus was listed as number 8 of 100 Foreign Policy Top 100 Global Thinkers for 2011 349 The New Statesman annual survey presents the most influential people from pop stars and dissident activists to tech gurus and heads of state the people doing most to shape our world keep changing September 26 2011 Petraeus was listed as number 2 of the 50 for 2011 350 The Association of Special Operations Professionals named Petraeus as its 2011 Man of the Year for 2011 and was presented the award at Ft Bragg on November 2 2011 at its annual Special Operations Exposition 351 Early January 2012 Petraeus was named one of The 50 Most Powerful People in Washington by GQ magazine 352 Petraeus was inducted January 29 2012 into the Reserve Officers Association s ROA Minuteman Hall of Fame as the 2011 Inductee during the 2012 ROA National Security Symposium 353 The German Order of Merit was presented to Petraeus February 14 by the German Secretary of Defense Thomas de Maiziere According to de Maiziere he is an outstanding strategist and a true friend of the German people 354 On March 16 2012 the Dutch Minister of Defense Hans Hillen knighted Petraeus at the Hague with the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange Nassau with swords The Minister thanked Petraeus in his speech for his unconditional support to the Dutch troops and for being a driving force behind a successful mission Through his personal efforts for cooperation between the Netherlands and America the Netherlands could achieve significant operational successes with the Task Force Uruzgan 355 In 2012 Petraeus received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement 356 The following year in 2013 the New York Historical Society established the Petraeus Hertog Lecture Leadership Library series 357 358 Captured correspondence from Osama Bin Laden Letters from Abbottabad 359 revealed that in May 2010 Bin Laden wanted to target President Barack Obama and General Petraeus The reason for concentrating on them is that Obama is the head of infidelity and killing him automatically will make Biden take over the presidency for the remainder of the term as it is the norm over there Biden is totally unprepared for that post which will lead the U S into a crisis It further went on to say As for Petraeus he is the man of the hour in this last year of the war and killing him would alter the war s path 360 Petraeus and Dr Henry Kissinger were the inaugural recipients of the Recanati Kaplan Award for Civic Excellence and Cultural Engagement presented by the 92nd Street Y on May 19 2019 361 362 92Y later established an Online Master Class in Leadership featuring a library series of lectures by Petraeus 363 364 On December 7 2020 the Institute for the Study of War launched The General David H Petraeus Center for Emerging Leaders to offer new educational and professional development programs to its students Petraeus has been on the board of ISW since November 2013 365 366 Works by David Petraeus EditSpeeches public remarks interviews and op eds Edit National Committee on American Foreign Policy George F Kennan Award Acceptance Remarks American Foreign Policy Interests 31 4 July August 2009 The Foreign Policy Interview with Gen David H Petraeus Foreign Policy January February 2009 367 Petraeus David H 2009 2009 Baccalaureate Remarks Princeton University published May 31 2009 Institutionalizing Change Transformation in the US Army 2005 2007 at the May 2010 American Enterprise Institute annual dinner 368 Petraeus David H Goodfriend Sydney E 2013 Training Veterans for Their Next Mission The Wall Street Journal published March 26 2013 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2013 An American future filled with promise The Washington Post published April 7 2013 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2013 Fund don t cut U S soft power Politico Arlington Va published April 30 2013 Bremmer Ian Petraeus David 2013 Abe s electoral win is great news for Japan Financial Times published July 22 2013 Petraeus David O Hanlon Michael 2013 Petraeus and O Hanlon Compromise on budget USA Today published August 4 2013 Petraeus David H 2013 Reflections on the Counter Insurgency Era RUSI Journal published August 14 2013 doi 10 1080 03071847 2013 826514 Small Wars Journal Interview with General David H Petraeus Small Wars Journal September 2013 369 Petraeus David O Hanlon Michael 2013 The success story next door Politico published September 24 2013 Petraeus David H 2013 How we won in Iraq And why all the hard won gains of the surge are in grave danger of being lost today Foreign Policy published October 29 2013 Archived from the original on July 1 2014 Petraeus David H Zoellick Robert 2014 Perfect Partners Foreign Affairs published February 18 2014 Petraeus David H Bremmer Ian 2014 The changing geopolitics of energy Financial Times published February 20 2014 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2014 Democracy Dividends from the Afghanistan Investment The Wall Street Journal published April 8 2014 Archived from the original on March 15 2016 Retrieved March 13 2017 Petraeus David H Serchuk Vance 2014 U S needs to plan for the day after an Iran deal The Washington Post published April 9 2014 O Hanlon Michael Petraeus David H 2014 The Great American Comeback Politico published April 27 2014 Fletcher Security Review Sits Down with Former ISAF Commander and CIA Director May 2014 370 Petraeus David H 2014 Point of View Success of TPP negotiations is a national security necessity The Asahi Shimbun published July 3 2014 Archived from the original on July 26 2014 Petraeus David H Brown Neil R 2014 Mexico s miracle Political productivity Houston Chronicle published July 11 2014 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2014 Petraeus and O Hanlon Export Import Bank an easy call USA Today published September 5 2014 Report Launch of the CFR Sponsored Independent Task Force on North America October 2 2014 371 Petraeus and Zoellick urge U S to pay attention to North America October 22 2014 372 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2015 America on the way up The Washington Post published January 30 2015 Petraeus The Islamic State isn t our biggest problem in Iraq The Washington Post March 20 2015 373 Serchuk Vance Petraeus David H Okun Steven 2015 The Case for the Trans Pacific Partnership Institutional Investor published April 21 2015 Archived from the original on April 25 2015 Retrieved April 22 2015 Q amp A David Petraeus GS 85 GS 87 The Daily Princetonian June 2015 374 Open Letter 2015 Public Statement on U S Policy Toward the Iran Nuclear Negotiations Washington Institute published June 24 2015 Petraeus David H Bhayani Paras 2015 An agenda of prosperity for America CNN published June 25 2015 Petraeus David H Bhayani Paras D 2015 North America the Next Great Emerging Market Foreign Policy published June 25 2015 Petraeus David H Bhayani Paras D 2015 The Next Great Emerging Market Belfer Center published June 25 2015 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2015 The U S needs to keep troops in Afghanistan The Washington Post published July 7 2015 Petraeus explains how jihadists could be peeled away to fight ISIS and Assad Jake Tapper of CNN September 1 2015 A Grand Strategy for Greater Asia the Lowy Lecture September 2015 375 Petraeus David H 2016 Brexit would weaken the West s war on terror The Telegraph published March 26 2016 Petraeus David H 2016 David Petraeus Anti Muslim bigotry aids Islamist terrorists The Washington Post published May 13 2016 Petraeus David 2016 Native son John Galvin laid to rest Boston Web Group published May 25 2016 Patel Deep K 2016 A Paperboy s Fable The 11 Principles of Success New York Post Hill Press p 13 ISBN 978 1682610046 Retrieved May 7 2021 Petraeus David 2016 Breaking Bread David H Petraeus and Ulysses S Grant The New York Times published June 9 2016 Petraeus David H O Hanlon Michael 2016 The Myth of a U S Military Readiness Crisis The Wall Street Journal published August 9 2016 Petraeus David H 2016 The challenge in Mosul won t be to defeat the Islamic State It will be what comes after The Washington Post published August 12 2016 O Hanlon Michael E Petraeus David H 2016 America s awesome military Brookings Institution published August 16 2016 O Hanlon Michael E Petraeus David H 2016 America s awesome military Foreign Affairs published September 2016 Petraeus David H 2016 Gen David Petraeus Why I salute John McCain a steadfast supporter of our military Fox News published October 14 2016 Petraeus David 2016 David Petraeus On The Complexities Of Re Taking And Stabilizing Mosul NPR published October 19 2016 Petraeus David 2016 Petraeus says there s a bigger challenge to come once Iraq retakes Mosul from ISIS PBS published October 20 2016 Petraeus David H 2017 The State of the World PDF House Armed Services Committee published February 1 2017 Petraeus David H 2017 As Machines Wage War Human Nature Endures Berggruen Institute published March 29 2017 Petraeus David H 2017 Around the World in 60 Minutes Aspen Ideas published June 29 2017 Babich Jennifer 2018 Gen David Petraeus recalls being shot while commanding at Fort Campbell Leaf Chronicle published October 2 2018 Reiss Robert 2018 The Leadership Issue PDF The CEO Forum published October 2018 Petraeus David Whitehouse Sheldon March 8 2019 Putin and other authoritarians corruption is a weapon and a weakness The Washington Post David Petraeus Offers Big Ideas for Leadership Foreign Policy Intelligence Matters CBS News Radio March 19 2019 Guy Raz May 21 2019 General David Petraeus Wisdom From the Top Podcast Built It Productions General David Petraeus The Perils of Victory What It Takes Podcast Academy of Achievement June 3 2019 Petraeus David Serchuk Vance April 1 2020 Can America Trust the Taliban to Prevent Another 9 11 Foreign Affairs Rubenstein David 2020 How to Lead Wisdom from the World s Greatest CEOs Founders and Game Changers Simon and Schuster published September 1 2020 pp 223 41 Petraeus David 2020 General David Petraeus Why fortune favours the prepared mind how to surge your ideas ChangeMakers published September 25 2020 Petraeus David Shulkin David Butler Jeremy 2021 A Memorial Day appeal to Congress Help service members with toxic burn pit exposure NBC News published May 30 2021 Petraeus David 2021 Gen David Petraeus says the Taliban has the momentum in Afghanistan Fox News published July 24 2021 Academic and other works Edit Lorenz G C Willbanks James H Petraeus David H Stuart Paul A Crittenden Burr L George Dewey P 1983 Operation Junction City Vietnam 1967 battle book Ft Leavenworth KS United States Army Command and General Staff College Combat Studies Institute OCLC 15637627 DTIC ADA139612 Cite journal requires journal help Petraeus David H 1983 What is Wrong with a Nuclear Freeze Military Review v 63 49 64 November 1983 Petraeus David H 1984 Light Infantry in Europe Strategic Flexibility and Conventional Deterrence Military Review v 64 33 55 December 1984 Petraeus David H 1985 Review of Richard A Gabriel s The Antagonists A Comparative Combat Assessment of the Soviet and American Soldier Military Affairs Lexington Va Society for Military History published January 1985 49 1 17 22 doi 10 2307 1988272 JSTOR 1988272 OCLC 37032240 Petraeus David H 1986 Lessons of history and lessons of Vietnam Parameters Carlisle PA US Army War College 16 3 43 53 Autumn 1986 Petraeus David H 1987 The American military and the lessons of Vietnam a study of military influence and the use of force in the post Vietnam era Princeton NJ Princeton University OCLC 20673428 Cite journal requires journal help Petraeus on Vietnam s Legacy Rachel Dry The Washington Post January 14 2007 excerpts from Petraeus s doctoral dissertation The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam Clark Asa A Kaufman Daniel J and Petraeus David H 1987 Why an Army Army Magazine v38 2 26 34 February 1987 Petraeus David H 1987 El Salvador and the Vietnam Analogy Armed Force Journal International February 1987 Taylor William J Jr Petraeus David H 1987 The legacy of Vietnam for the U S military In Osborn George K ed Democracy strategy and Vietnam implications for American policy making Lexington MA Lexington Books ISBN 978 0669163407 OCLC 15518468 Petraeus David H 1987 Korea the Never Again Club and Indochina Parameters 17 4 Carlisle PA U S Army War College published December 1987 pp 59 70 ISSN 0031 1723 OCLC 1039883 SuDoc No D 101 72 17 4 GPO Item No 0325 K PURL LPS1511 Golden James R Kaufman Daniel J Clark Asa A Petraeus David H Eds 1989 NATO at Forty Change Continuity amp Prospects Westview Press Petraeus David H 1989 Military Influence And the Post Vietnam Use of Force Armed Forces amp Society Piscataway NJ published Summer 1989 15 4 489 505 doi 10 1177 0095327X8901500402 OCLC 49621350 S2CID 145680799 Check date values in publication date help Petraeus David H Brennan Robert A 1997 Walk and Shoot Training Infantry Magazine 87 1 Ft Benning GA U S Army Infantry School published January February 1997 pp 36 40 Archived from the original on March 4 2016 Retrieved August 10 2011 376 Petraeus David H Carr Damian P Abercrombie John C 1997 Why We Need FISTs Never Send a Man When You Can Send a Bullet PDF Field Artillery 1997 3 Fort Sill OK US Army Field Artillery School published May June 1997 pp 3 5 ISSN 0899 2525 OCLC 16516511 HQDA PB6 97 3 USPS 309 010 PURL SuDoc No D 101 77 2 1997 3 Archived from the original PDF on September 27 2007 Retrieved August 26 2007 Lessons of the Iraq War and Its Aftermath Washington Institute for Near East Policy 2004 Archived from the original on April 14 2013 2006 Learning Counterinsurgency Observations from Soldiering in Iraq Military Review 78 Petraeus David H 2006 A Conversation with Lieutenant General David H Petraeus PDF Insights 3 1 Suffolk Va Lockheed Martin published March 2006 pp 2 5 28 29 Archived from the original PDF on January 6 2009 2007 The US Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual Foreword FM 3 24 377 2007 Beyond the Cloister The American Interest Magazine 378 Petraeus David H 2007 Iraq Progress in the Face of Challenge PDF Army Magazine 57 10 Arlington Va Association of the US Army published October 2007 pp 115 23 Archived from the original PDF on October 26 2007 Petraeus David H 2010 Counterinsurgency Concepts What We Learned in Iraq Global Policy 1 1 116 17 doi 10 1111 j 1758 5899 2009 00003 x Petraeus David H 2010 Shoulder to shoulder in Afghanistan Policy Options April 2010 Petraeus David H 2011 Ryan C Crocker Diplomat and Partner Extraordinaire PDF Army Magazine 61 4 Arlington Va Association of the US Army published April 2011 pp 16 18 Archived from the original PDF on April 30 2011 Petraeus David H 2012 CIA s Directorate of Science and Technology In Q Tel and the Private Sector Intelligencer Journal of U S Intelligence Studies Falls Church Va Association of Former Intelligence Officers published Summer Fall pp 7 10 Check date values in publication date help Petraeus David Caruso Philip March 2019 Coherence and Comprehensiveness An American Foreign Policy Imperative Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs Petraeus David Serchuk Vance June 2019 A Return to Pointe du Hoc The Ideas that Defined President Reagan s Approach to the World and Why They Still Matter Today PDF Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation amp Institute Petraeus David September 2019 The Cyber Defense Review A Conversation with General Ret David H Petraeus PDF The Army Cyber Institute pp 15 19 Petraeus David October 28 2020 Tell Me How This Ends PDF Domestic amp International Dis Order A Strategic Response PDF Aspen Strategy Group pp 109 14 Pires Nuno L Petraeus David 2021 Holistic Command of War Wellington Spinola and Petraeus Independently published ISBN 979 8581778630 Petraeus David Woodson Chuck April 2021 The CTX Interview General David Petraeus US Army retired CTX 2 2 36 47 Retrieved July 27 2021 See also Edit Biography portal United States portal Politics portal War portal Hood event Iraq War troop surge of 2007 List of American federal politicians convicted of crimes 379 MoveOn org ad controversyNotes and references Edit a b The General s Dilemma The New Yorker September 8 2008 Petraeus is registered to vote as a Republican in New Hampshire he once described himself to a friend as a northeastern Republican in the tradition of Nelson Rockefeller but he said that around 2002 after he became a two star general he stopped voting Lunch with the FT David Petraeus Financial Times May 6 2016 Retrieved October 15 2016 I m completely non partisan Petraeus continues Petraeus sworn in as CIA director CNN Retrieved September 7 2011 Johnson Kevin November 9 2012 David Petraeus resigns from CIA USA Today Retrieved November 9 2012 Gates Notes Shift in Mission as Iraq Command Changes Hands Defenselink mil Retrieved July 5 2010 Holusha John January 23 2007 General Calls Iraq Situation Dire The New York Times Gordon Michael January 5 2007 Bush to Name a New General to Oversee Iraq The New York Times Profile Gen David Petraeus Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on December 1 2008 David H Petraeus Central Intelligence Agency CIA Archived from the original on October 19 2011 Retrieved May 21 2012 Hames Tim February 11 2008 McCain and Petraeus the dream ticket The Times London Retrieved March 31 2010 Generally Speaking The New York Times April 6 2008 Retrieved March 31 2010 Petraeus says he s not interested in presidency NBC News December 23 2007 Retrieved July 5 2010 Obama replaces McChrystal with Petraeus Houston Chronicle June 23 2010 Retrieved June 23 2010 dead link a b Cooper Helene Shanker Thom Filkins Dexter June 23 2010 Gen McChrystal Is Relieved of Command The New York Times Retrieved June 23 2010 Peter Grier June 23 2010 Gen David Petraeus takes over in Afghanistan Will it make a difference The Christian Science Monitor Retrieved October 1 2011 Kathleen Hennessey June 30 2011 Senate confirms David Petraeus as CIA director Los Angeles Times Retrieved June 30 2011 Karen Parrish July 1 2011 Petraeus Confirmed as CIA Director U S Department of Defense American Forces Press Service Archived from the original on January 21 2012 Retrieved July 1 2011 Whitlock Craig February 3 2015 In e mails glimpses of a striving Tampa socialite and smitten military brass at U S Central Command via washingtonpost com Johnson Kevin November 9 2012 NBC David Petraeus resigns from CIA USA Today Retrieved November 9 2012 a b Schmidt Michael Apuzzo Matt F B I and Justice Dept Said to Seek Charges for Petraeus The New York Times a b Pierre Thomas Mike Levine Jack Cloherty Jack Date March 3 2015 Former CIA Head David Petraeus to Plead Guilty ABC News Miriam Sweet Howell geni com Sixtus Petraeus geni com Editorial 37 jarige familievriendin ontving intimiderende mails minnares Petraeus De Volkskrant David Petraeus Winning Streak Vanity Fair March 30 2010 Retrieved July 9 2010 a b Rick Atkinson March 7 2004 Unexpected Challenges Tested Petraeus in Iraq The Washington Post Archived from the original on July 18 2011 Retrieved November 18 2012 Carol Rock June 21 2008 General David Petraeus Father Dies In Santa Clarita Home KHTS Radio Retrieved November 18 2012 Bruno Greg January 11 2007 New Iraq commander is Cornwall s favorite son Times Herald Record Retrieved January 13 2007 What About the Petraeus Broadwell Spouses ABC News November 15 2012 Retrieved March 15 2015 Thompson Mark November 14 2012 The Rise and Fall of General Peaches Time Hollister Knowlton Betrothed To David H Petraeus a Cadet The New York Times May 12 1974 p GN57 General Petraeus Inducts ROTC Graduates MIT Alumni Association June 11 2009 Archived from the original on June 9 2010 Retrieved June 3 2010 Gen Petraeus Commissions His Son and 11 Other 09 Graduates MIT Alumni Association June 6 2009 Archived from the original on June 3 2010 Retrieved June 3 2010 Petraeus reveals that son served in Afghanistan Army Times Retrieved November 9 2011 Gen Petraeus owns property in New Hampshire The Portsmouth Herald Portsmouth New Hampshire Associated Press October 7 2008 Retrieved December 7 2010 Princeton University Diplomatic historian and foreign policy scholar Richard Ullman dies Princeton University Petraeus David H 1987 The American military and the lessons of Vietnam A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post Vietnam Era Princeton N J Princeton University OCLC 20673428 Cite journal requires journal help Jaffe Greg Cloud David 2009 The Fourth Star Four Generals and the Epic Struggle for the Future of the United States Army New York Crown Publishing p 97 ISBN 978 0307409072 petraeus georgetown fellowship 1995 Denn William J October 7 2016 Strategic Command General David Petraeus armyupress army mil FM 3 24 text Counterinsurgency December 2006 PDF Usacac army mil August 31 2009 Archived from the original PDF on September 28 2011 Retrieved May 3 2011 Nutt Cullen March 2 2008 The Star Ledger Section 2 page 1 and 4 Ricks Thomas Fiasco New York Penguin Press 2006 page 419 Barnes Julian E October 31 2005 An Open Mind for a New Army Archived August 11 2010 at the Wayback Machine U S News amp World Report Retrieved April 2 2008 General David Petraeus Reflects on His Command in Iraq Conversations with Bill Kristol Michael Gove Triumph of freedom over evil The Scotsman Retrieved July 4 2010 Petraeus D September October 2008 Multi national Force Iraq Commander s Counterinsurgency Guidance Military Review English Edition Retrieved May 17 2010 Fred Kaplan The Insurgents David Petraeus and the Plot to Change the American Way of War Simon amp Schuster 2013 pages 14 20 Gal Perl Finkel How to win a modern war The Jerusalem Post September 7 2016 a b Petraeus Set for Another Shot at Iraq NPR January 23 2007 Retrieved July 5 2010 John Pike May 7 2011 3rd Battalion 187th Infantry Regimen globalsecurity org Inskeep Steve February 6 2007 Lasting Ties Mark Gen Petraeus s Career NPR Retrieved June 22 2010 Atkinson Rick January 7 2007 Iraq Will be Petraeus Knot to Untie The Washington Post p A15 Atkinson Rick In the Company of Soldiers A Chronicle of Combat New York Henry Holt amp Co 2004 ISBN 0641788037 p 38 Barnes Julian An Open Mind for a New Army Archived February 6 2008 at the Wayback Machine May 31 2005 Retrieved April 2 2008 General Officer Announcements DefenseLink June 19 2001 Retrieved October 29 2007 Army General Officer Announcement DefenseLink May 5 2004 Retrieved October 29 2007 General Officer Announcements DefenseLink January 17 2007 Retrieved October 29 2007 Shanker Thom April 24 2008 2 Commanders Picked to Lead War Efforts Beyond 2008 The New York Times Retrieved April 25 2008 a b Petraeus confirmed as commander The Irish Times June 30 2010 Retrieved June 30 2010 Gen Petraeus to Assume Command of ISAF ISAF Public Affairs Office July 2 2010 Archived from the original on July 20 2010 Retrieved July 3 2010 Dickey Christopher April 4 2004 The Story of O The New York Times Retrieved May 1 2010 Buncombe Andrew April 11 2007 US general who acknowledges that the way ahead is not easy The Independent London Archived from the original on November 23 2007 Retrieved May 1 2010 Atkinson Rick January 7 2007 Iraq Will Be Petraeus Knot to Untie The Washington Post Retrieved May 1 2010 Jennifer Hoar March 18 2007 Iraq Tell Me How This Ends David Martin It s Not Worth Arguing About Who Made Mistakes Just How To End The War CBS News Retrieved July 5 2010 Mark Hemingway September 10 2007 General s Media Playbook National Review Retrieved July 5 2010 Badkhen Anna April 15 2007 Can Petraeus lead U S to victory General may be military s best and last hope in Iraq San Francisco Chronicle Retrieved July 5 2010 a b Iraq s Repairman Newsweek July 4 2004 Retrieved October 1 2011 CaseWeb 1834 0 The Accidental Statesman General Petraeus and the City of Mosul Iraq Harvard Kennedy School October 4 2006 Retrieved July 5 2010 Ricks Thomas Fiasco New York Penguin Press 2006 page 228 232 Frontline Beyond Baghdad Interviews Maj Gen David Petraeus PBS February 12 2004 Retrieved July 5 2010 Gordon Michael September 4 2003 The Struggle For Iraq Reconstruction 101st Airborne Scores Success In Northern Iraq The New York Times Biggest challenge for pied piper of N Iraq The Daily Telegraph London January 6 2007 Archived from the original on November 23 2007 Retrieved May 3 2011 Petraeus Our Old New Man in Iraq Military com Retrieved July 5 2010 Leader of the Fabled 101st to Command in Iraq NPR Retrieved July 5 2010 Atkinson Rick January 9 2007 New Iraq commander tough and driven The Seattle Times Archived from the original on May 24 2011 Retrieved July 5 2010 Newsweek Cover Can This Man Save Iraq PR Newswire June 27 2004 Retrieved November 13 2012 Welcome support from Petraeus Crocker for the Assyrian Christians of Iraq Assistnews net September 13 2007 Archived from the original on June 27 2009 Retrieved July 5 2010 a b David Petraeus January February 2006 Learning Counterinsurgency Observations from Soldiering in Iraq PDF Military Review pp 45 56 Retrieved May 4 2011 Dennis Steele November 2003 The race to win the peace PDF Army pp 8 13 Archived from the original PDF on November 30 2016 Retrieved July 5 2010 Major Robert S Widmann USAF The Commander s Emergency Response Program Part II U S Cavalry Archived from the original on December 1 2008 Retrieved July 5 2010 MSN Outlook Office Skype Bing Breaking News and Latest Videos msn com Archived from the original on January 13 2004 Gordon Michael R September 4 2003 101st Airborne Scores Success in Reconstruction of Northern Iraq The New York Times Retrieved May 3 2011 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on November 27 2007 Retrieved October 17 2007 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Operations from the U S Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual University of Chicago Retrieved July 5 2010 More by Peter W Galbraith The Surge The New York Review of Books Retrieved July 5 2010 Fiasco by Thomas Ricks New York Penguin Press 2006 page 232 Klein Joe When Bad Missions Happen to Good Generals Time January 22 2007 Retrieved April 16 2008 Gordon Michael and Bernard Trainor Cobra II New York Panetheon Books 2006 pp 455 56 Ajami Faoud The Foreigner s Gift New York Simon and Schuster 2006 pp 295 98 Petraeus David H September 26 2004 Battling for Iraq The Washington Post Retrieved May 22 2012 Allawi Ali A 2008 The Occupation of Iraq Winning the War Losing the Peace Yale University Press p 361 ISBN 978 0300110159 Retrieved July 5 2010 Kessler Glenn August 6 2007 Weapons Given to Iraq Are Missing on August 7 2007 The Washington Post Retrieved July 5 2010 The Daily Beast The Daily Beast U S shoots self in foot with lost weapons in Iraq The Oakland Tribune August 14 2007 US loses track of Iraq weapons BBC News August 6 2007 Retrieved July 5 2010 Cornwell Rupert August 7 2007 Pentagon admits 190 000 weapons missing in Iraq The Independent London Archived from the original on July 24 2008 Retrieved May 1 2010 Kessler Glenn Weapons Given to Iraq Are Missing The Washington Post Retrieved May 1 2010 Learning Counterinsurgency Observations from Soldiering in Iraq in Military Review Book Discussion Insurgents Video C SPAN org Bush George W 2010 Decision Points New York Crown Publishing p 389 ISBN 978 0307888242 General Petraeus compared to other famous historical military Generals Mattingly Matthew 2019 Purely Military Advice Military Translation of Strategic Policy in Wars of Limited Aims PDF Kansas US Army Command and General Staff College 17 Bush s comparison of General Petraeus with other historical U S military Generals Cite journal requires journal help General Petraeus Opening Statement The New York Times January 23 2007 Retrieved October 1 2011 Klein Joe Operation Last Chance TimeJune 28 2007 Retrieved April 16 2008 Peters Ralph Iraq s Reliberation New York Post August 22 2007 Retrieved April 16 2008 Robinson Linda Petraeus Tries to Make Headway in Iraq Archived April 1 2008 at the Wayback Machine U S News amp World Report May 28 2007 Retrieved April 16 2008 Baker Peter General Is Front Man For Bush s Iraq Plan The Washington Post February 7 2007 Retrieved February 8 2007 Sennott Charles M The Petraeus doctrine The Boston Globe January 28 2007 Retrieved February 8 2007 Ricks Thomas E Petraeus selects team of warrior intellectuals NBC News February 5 2007 Retrieved February 7 2007 Jung Alex March 11 2009 Meet the accidental guerrillas Laura Miller Salon Retrieved July 4 2010 Lozada Carlos March 22 2009 A Conversation With David Kilcullen The Washington Post Retrieved March 31 2010 Senate passes Iraq withdrawal bill veto threat looms CNN April 26 2007 Retrieved May 12 2007 Congress surrenders to Bush FinalCall Final Call Retrieved July 5 2010 Reid Blasts Generals on Iraq June 15 2007 Capital Hill Blue Archived from the original on September 27 2007 DeYoung Karen June 18 2007 Petraeus Iraq Challenges to Last for Years The Washington Post Retrieved July 5 2010 Burns John F For Top General in Iraq Role is a Mixed Blessing The New York Times August 18 2007 Retrieved April 16 2008 Petraeus lauds Iraq violence fall BBC News December 21 2007 Retrieved May 22 2012 The McLaughlin Group Mclaughlin com Archived from the original on June 13 2011 Retrieved July 4 2010 The Official Web Site United States Forces Iraq PDF Mnf iraq com Archived from the original PDF on August 9 2009 Retrieved July 4 2010 Barnes Julian E Spiegel Peter August 15 2007 Top general may propose pullbacks Los Angeles Times Retrieved May 22 2012 a b U S Department of Defense U S Department of Defense Testimony to Congress on the Situation in Iraq PDF The New York Times Retrieved October 1 2011 Cloud David S Shanker Thom September 11 2007 Petraeus Warns Against Quick Pullback in Iraq The New York Times Retrieved May 1 2010 Democratic response to president s address MarketWatch Retrieved July 5 2010 Cloud David S September 11 2007 Petraeus Warns Against Quick Pullback in Iraq The New York Times Iraq Retrieved October 1 2011 Senator Jon Kyl Press Office Kyl senate gov September 10 2007 Archived from the original on July 27 2010 Retrieved July 5 2010 Eric Weiner Scott Neuman Political Junkie The Impact of the Iraq Reports NPR Retrieved July 5 2010 Page Susan September 19 2007 Poll Public not swayed by Petraeus USA Today Retrieved May 1 2010 Summary of Findings Petraeus Proposals Favored But No Lift in War Support People press org September 18 2007 Retrieved July 5 2010 U S Senate Legislation amp Records Home Votes Roll Call Vote U S Senate Retrieved July 5 2010 Most Revealing Fibs Hillary Clinton The Washington Post Archived from the original on May 23 2011 Retrieved May 1 2010 Scott Ann October 23 2007 Finding a way forward in Iraq The Seattle Times Retrieved July 5 2010 Dilanian Ken February 18 2008 Progress in Iraq reshapes debate over war USA Today Retrieved May 22 2012 Robinson Linda Why David Petraeus Wants to Go Slowly on Troop Drawdowns U S News amp World Report January 17 2008 Retrieved April 16 2008 Duffy Michael The Surge At Year One Time January 31 2008 Retrieved April 16 2008 Gates US may slow Iraq drawdown NBC News Retrieved October 1 2011 Myers Stephen Lee and Thom Shanker Petraeus Urges Halt in Weighing Troop New Cut in Force The New York Times April 9 2008 Retrieved April 16 2008 Michaels Jim and David Jackson Petraeus Testimony Met with Praise Skepticism USA Today April 9 2008 Retrieved April 16 2008 Brown Angela K May 22 2008 A Top Senate Democrat Signals Support for Petraeus Flaherty Anne Salon Retrieved May 22 2012 dead link US Central Command Opening Statement May 22 2008 Archived from the original on April 14 2016 Operational Update by MG Kevin Bergner spokesman for Multi National Force Iraq and MajGen Qassim Atta spokesman for Operation Fardh Al Qanoon Baghdad Iraq June 4 2008 Mnf iraq com Archived from the original on February 14 2012 Retrieved May 22 2012 No victory in Iraq says Petraeus BBC News September 11 2008 Retrieved October 1 2011 Gen Petraeus Defines Victory in Iraq NPR Published March 18 2008 a b c d e Shanker Thom Farrell Stephen September 16 2008 Gates Praises Petraeus on Eve of Duty Transfer The New York Times Filkins Dexter August 20 2008 Exiting Iraq Petraeus Says Gains Are Fragile The New York Times Iraq Retrieved October 1 2011 Hanson Victor 2013 The Savior Generals How Five Great Commanders Saved Wars That Were Lost From Ancient Greece to Iraq New York Bloomsbury Publishing ISBN 978 1608191635 MacPherson K May 31 2009 Petraeus challenges seniors to pursue life of public service Princeton University News at Princeton Retrieved August 13 2011 Petraeus Gen David H May 28 2009 Commander s speech NCAFP George F Kennan Award Union League Club NYC May 28 U S Central Command Retrieved April 18 2010 Depaulo Lisa October 31 2008 Leader of the Year Right Man Right Time GQ Retrieved February 19 2017 Jacobs Col Jack November 29 2009 General Petraeus Gives A War Briefing Parade Retrieved April 18 2010 Zakaria Fareed January 4 2009 The General Newsweek Retrieved April 18 2010 US CentCom establishes center for Afghanistan Pakistan analysts Arab News August 25 2009 Archived from the original on December 13 2011 Retrieved October 1 2011 General David Petraeus on Military Operations C Span February 12 2010 Retrieved June 8 2020 US General Israeli Palestinian Conflict Affects US Interests Voice of America News March 16 2010 Archived from the original on August 28 2010 Retrieved March 22 2010 Statement of General David H Petraeus U S Army Commander U S Central Command before the Senate Armed Services Committee on the Posture of U S Central Command Mar 16 2010 PDF U S Senate March 16 2010 Archived from the original PDF on March 31 2010 Retrieved March 22 2010 Kampeas Ron March 18 2010 ADL Petraeus testimony counterproductive Jewish Telegraphic Agency Retrieved March 22 2010 US General Perceived Israel bias hurts us Aljazeera March 17 2010 Retrieved April 4 2010 Klein Philip March 25 2010 Petraeus Sets the Record Straight on Israel The American Spectator Archived from the original on March 30 2010 Retrieved April 29 2010 Boot Max March 25 2010 From the Horse s Mouth Petraeus on Israel Commentary Commentary Retrieved April 29 2010 Collins Lauren March 24 2010 General David Petraeus speaks at St Anselm College New England Cable News Archived from the original on August 26 2013 Retrieved April 18 2010 Petraeus Denies Presidential Primary Town Trip Is Linked to Politics Fox News March 24 2010 Retrieved April 18 2010 Cite journal requires journal help Professor of War Vanity Fair May 2010 Mazzetti Mark Shane Scott May 5 2010 Evidence Mounts for Taliban Role in Bomb Plot The New York Times Gen Petraeus Shahzad Acted Alone CBS News May 7 2010 Retrieved October 1 2011 Holder Pakistani Taliban helped direct Times Square plot CNN May 9 2010 Retrieved October 1 2011 David Petraeus Collapses During Senate Hearing Politically Illustrated June 15 2010 Archived from the original on July 15 2011 Retrieved July 20 2010 Schmitt Eric October 6 2009 General Petraeus Has Prostate Cancer The New York Times Retrieved March 31 2010 Fritze John June 15 2010 Gen David Petraeus passes out on Capitol Hill On Politics Covering the US Congress Governors and the 2010 Election USA Today Retrieved July 4 2010 Petraeus takes command in Afghanistan CBC News July 4 2010 Retrieved July 4 2010 Remarks by Gen David H Petraeus upon Assumption of Command International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan July 4 2010 Archived from the original on July 15 2010 Retrieved July 9 2010 Letter to the Troops from Gen David H Petraeus International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan July 4 2010 Archived from the original on July 8 2010 Retrieved July 9 2010 Al Pessin August 2 2010 Petraeus Issues First Guidance to Allied Troops in Afghanistan VOA News Archived from the original on September 26 2011 Retrieved October 1 2011 Gen Petraeus updates guidance on use of force Centcom mil Retrieved May 21 2012 Setting and Capitalizing on Conditions for Progress in Afghanistan PDF Retrieved October 1 2011 The bin Laden plot to kill President Obama The Washington Post March 16 2012 Usama bin Laden wanted to kill Obama so totally unprepared Biden would be president declassified docs show FOX News April 22 2020 Nine Afghan Boys Collecting Firewood Killed by NATO Helicopters The New York Times Nissenbaum Dion Habib Khan Totakhil March 3 2011 Coalition Apologizes for Deaths of Afghan Children The Wall Street Journal Retrieved October 1 2011 Petraeus hands over command in Afghanistan CNN July 18 2011 Jim Garamone August 31 2011 Petraeus Garners Praise at Retirement Ceremony American Forces Press Service Archived from the original on July 14 2012 Retrieved September 1 2011 Kimberly Dozier Robert Burns August 31 2011 Petraeus Budget cuts must not impair military Army Times Associated Press Retrieved September 1 2011 Remarks at the Retirement Ceremony for General David H Petraeus U S Department of Defense August 31 2011 Archived from the original on October 18 2011 Retrieved September 1 2011 Armed forces farewell tribute and retirement ceremony in honor of Gen David H Petraeus Joint Chiefs of Staff August 31 2011 Archived from the original on November 3 2011 Retrieved September 1 2011 Tom Vanden Brook January 30 2016 Pentagon won t demote Petraeus for sharing classified information USA Today Retrieved July 29 2016 a b c d e f g h i j Nominations Before the Senate Armed Services Committee Second Session 110th Congress PDF Shear Michael D April 28 2011 Obama Announces Changes to National Security Team The New York Times Kathleen Hennessey June 30 2011 Senate confirms David Petraeus as CIA director Los Angeles Times Retrieved June 30 2011 For the three Democrats and three Republicans who did not cast a vote on this confirmation see Obama confirmations 2010 David H Petraeus Takes Helm as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency cia gov September 6 2011 Vice President Biden Visits CIA Headquarters for Ceremony with Director Petraeus cia gov October 12 2011 a b Scott Shane Petraeus s Quieter Style at C I A Leaves Void on Libya Furor The New York Times November 2 2012 Broadwell Paula November 5 2012 General David Petraeus s Rules for Living Newsweek Adam Entous Siobhan Gorman and Margaret Coker CIA Takes Heat for Role in Libya The Wall Street Journal November 1 2012 a b a, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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