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Foundation for Defense of Democracies

The Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit think tank and registered lobbying organization based in Washington, D.C., United States.

Foundation for Defense of Democracies
AbbreviationFDD
Formation2001; 20 years ago (2001)
Type501(c)(3) organization
13-4174402
Location
President
Clifford May
CEO
Mark Dubowitz
Websitewww.fdd.org

Its political leanings have been described as hawkish and neoconservative, though it is officially nonpartisan. FDD publishes research on foreign policy and security issues, focusing on subjects such as nuclear-non proliferation, cyber threats, sanctions, illicit finance, and policy surrounding North Korea, Iran, Russia, the war in Afghanistan, and other areas of study.

FDD has been identified as part of the Israel lobby in the United States.

Contents

FDD was founded shortly after the September 11 attacks in 2001. In the initial documents filed for tax-exempt status in Internal Revenue Service, the FDD stated its mission "was to provide education to enhance Israel's image in North America and the public's understanding of issues affecting Israeli-Arab relations". Later documents described the mission as "to conduct research and provide education on international terrorism and related issues".

On its website, FDD describes itself as a "a non-profit, non-partisan 501(c)3 policy institute", with focus "on foreign policy and national security that combines policy research, democracy and counterterrorism education, strategic communications and investigative journalism in support of its mission to promote pluralism, defend democratic values and fight the ideologies that drive terrorism".

FDD has been identified as part of the Israel lobby in the United States by several scholarly sources. Sima Vaknin-Gil, Director General of Israel's Ministry of Strategic Affairs, had stated that the FDD works in conjunction with the Israeli government, in particular the ministry she works for. Later documents described the mission as "to conduct research and provide education on international terrorism and related issues".

On 15 November 2019, FDD was officially registered as a lobby under Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995.

According to Dennis Jett, FDD "offers hardly any information on where its money comes from and where it goes".

2001–2004

Money contributed to the FDD during first decade of its activity, based on calculations made by Christopher Bail, expanded by 442%.

In 2011, news website ThinkProgress published FDD's Form 990 documents that revealed where FDD funding came from, from 2001 to 2004. Top donors included:

Other notable donors who gave lesser money during the same period were:

2008–2011

FDD's Schedule A documents filed by the end of the 2011 tax year, indicates that the organization from 2008 to 2011 was funded more than $20,000,000, and the top three donors were:

2017

In 2018, AP reported that the United Arab Emirates has wired $2,500,000 to the FDD through Elliott Broidy and George Nader, to host a conference amidst Qatar diplomatic crisis about the country's role as a state-sponsor of terrorism. FDD stated that it does not accept money from foreign governments, adding that "[a]s is our funding policy, we asked if his funding was connected to any foreign governments or if he had business contracts in the Gulf. He assured us that he did not".

Adam Hanieh states that the FDD high-profile conference of 23 May 2017 was in line with UAE's policy at the time, which officially alleged that Qatar finances Islamist groups, adding that emails leaked shortly after show that UAE's Ambassador Yousef Al Otaiba had a "cosy relationship" with the FDD, and had reviewed the remarks made by Robert Gates at the convention.

Others

Additionally, it is known that as of 2016, FDD has received donations from the following institutions:

  • Hochberg Family Foundation:39
  • Marcus Foundation:39
  • Bodman Foundation:39
  • Emerson Family Foundation:41
  • Eris & Larry Field Family Foundation:41
  • Rita & Irwin Hochberg Family Foundation:42
  • Anchorage Charitable Fund
  • William Rosenwald Family Fund
  • Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation

The Iran Project

FDD and its CEO, Mark Dubowitz, have been sanctioned by Iran for advocating sanctions against Iran and working to end the Iranian nuclear deal.

FDD's Iran Program is led by CEO Mark Dubowitz.[third-party source needed]

In 2008, FDD founded the Iran Energy Project which "conducts extensive research on ways to deny the Iranian regime the profits of its energy sector".[third-party source needed] The Wall Street Journal credited FDD with bringing "the idea of gasoline sanctions to political attention." The organization pushed for sanctions against the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its use of Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) to perform transactions.[citation needed]

The Syria Project

For years, Syria has been a focus of FDD's research because of its alignment with Iran and support for organizations such as Hezbollah. In 2012, as the Arab Spring spread to Syria, FDD launched "The Syria Project" to support dissident efforts in removing Syrian president Bashar al-Assad from power.[third-party source needed] In that effort, FDD facilitated a Skype call between dissidents and U.S. journalists in 2012.

Long War Journal

Main article: Long War Journal

Long War Journal is a FDD project dedicated to reporting the Global War on Terror launched by the United States and its allies following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Under the direction of FDD senior fellows Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn, this website covers stories about countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Iraq and follows the actions of al Qaeda and its affiliates.[third-party source needed] According to the Columbia Journalism Review, "Roggio's greatest service, then, may be the way he picks up where the mainstream press leaves off, giving readers a simultaneously more specific and holistic understanding of the battlefield", but says that "...there have been times when Roggio has done himself a disservice by aligning with bloggers who are more about pushing a conservative agenda."

European Foundation for Democracy

Clifford May, FDD's founder and current president

Executives

  • Clifford May, President
  • Mark Dubowitz, CEO
  • Toby Dershowitz, Senior Vice President for Government Relations and Strategy
  • Tyler Stapleton, Deputy for Congressional Relations
  • John Hannah, Senior Counselor
  • Bill McCarthy, COO
  • Lawrence Muscant, Senior Vice President
  • Jonathan Schanzer, Vice President for Research

Former staff include:

  • Nir Boms (President)

Board of directors

As of 2005, members of FDD's board of directors were:

Advisors

The following people served as advisors to FDD as of 2005:

Fellows

Arun Kundnani, adjunct professor at New York University, in a review of FDD publication Homegrown Terrorists in the US and UK argues that as a work "typical of many in its approach and conclusions", it does not provide empirical evidence for assumptions it makes and neglects contradicting data as a result of an influence by politics of the publisher and funders, and bias in favor of knowledge claims.

Lawrence Wilkerson has criticized FDD for "pushing falsehood" in support of waging wars.

The International Relations Center features a report on the foundation on its "Right Web" website, a program of the think tank Institute for Policy Studies which, according to its mission statement, seeks to "check the militaristic drift of the country". The report states that "although the FDD is an ardent critic of terrorism, it has not criticized actions taken by Israel against Palestinians that arguably fall into this category".

The left-leaning political blog ThinkProgress has criticized FDD for "alarmist rhetoric and fear mongering",[unreliable source?] for example in April 2002 when they aired a 30-second television ad campaign called "Suicide Strategy" that was described by critics as "conflating" Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat with the likes of Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein. As FDD explained it: "a militant Islamic terrorist who 'martyrs' himself by hijacking a plane and flying it into the World Trade Center"—i.e., the September 11 attacks—"is no different from a militant Islamic terrorist who 'martyrs' himself by strapping explosives to his body and walking into a hotel"—i.e., Palestinian suicide attacks.

In 2017 Bari Weiss of the New York Times reported on dissent within the organization over the pro-Trump orientation it adopted following the 2016 elections, which included at least two employees leaving.

Christopher A. Bail, professor of sociology, public policy and data science at Duke University, describes FDD as an "anti-Muslim fringe organization" that has tried to establish itself as a legitimate authority on Islam and terrorism by tactically using "ethnic experts" —i.e. pundits with Middle Eastern background who were not Muslim— because they advocate views contrary to the mainstream perspective of the Muslim community in the United States, but look like and talk like Muslims.

Sarah Marusek, research fellow at University of Johannesburg, argues that FDD is one of the "key organizations peddling Islamophobia" in a "transatlantic network". Farid Hafez, researcher at Universität Salzburg, asserts the same.

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    • Ashwarya, Sujata (2017), India-Iran Relations: Progress, Problems and Prospects, Routledge, p. 179, ISBN 9781351987073, In a 155-page report “US Non-proliferation Strategy for the Changing Middle East,” co-authored by the head of a right-wing pro-Israel lobby group, the Foundation for Defence of Democracies (FDD), Mark Dubowitz, states that...
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Foundation for Defense of Democracies
foundation, defense, democracies, language, watch, edit, profit, think, tank, registered, lobbying, organization, based, washington, united, states, abbreviationfddformation2001, years, 2001, type501, organizationtax, 4174402locationwashington, presidentcliffo. Foundation for Defense of Democracies Language Watch Edit The Foundation for Defense of Democracies FDD is a 501 c 3 non profit 1 think tank 2 and registered lobbying organization 3 based in Washington D C United States Foundation for Defense of DemocraciesAbbreviationFDDFormation2001 20 years ago 2001 Type501 c 3 organizationTax ID no 13 4174402LocationWashington D C U S PresidentClifford MayCEOMark DubowitzWebsitewww wbr fdd wbr org Its political leanings have been described as hawkish 4 5 6 7 and neoconservative 8 9 though it is officially nonpartisan 10 11 12 FDD publishes research on foreign policy and security issues focusing on subjects such as nuclear non proliferation cyber threats sanctions illicit finance and policy surrounding North Korea Iran Russia the war in Afghanistan and other areas of study 13 14 FDD has been identified as part of the Israel lobby in the United States 15 Contents 1 History and mission 2 Funding 2 1 2001 2004 2 2 2008 2011 2 3 2017 2 4 Others 3 Activities 3 1 The Iran Project 3 2 The Syria Project 3 3 Long War Journal 3 4 European Foundation for Democracy 4 Personnel 4 1 Executives 4 2 Board of directors 4 3 Advisors 4 4 Fellows 5 Criticism 6 Islamophobia accusations 7 References 8 External linksHistory and mission EditFDD was founded shortly after the September 11 attacks in 2001 16 In the initial documents filed for tax exempt status in Internal Revenue Service the FDD stated its mission was to provide education to enhance Israel s image in North America and the public s understanding of issues affecting Israeli Arab relations 17 Later documents described the mission as to conduct research and provide education on international terrorism and related issues 18 On its website FDD describes itself as a a non profit non partisan 501 c 3 policy institute with focus on foreign policy and national security that combines policy research democracy and counterterrorism education strategic communications and investigative journalism in support of its mission to promote pluralism defend democratic values and fight the ideologies that drive terrorism 16 FDD has been identified as part of the Israel lobby in the United States by several scholarly sources 19 20 21 Sima Vaknin Gil Director General of Israel s Ministry of Strategic Affairs had stated that the FDD works in conjunction with the Israeli government in particular the ministry she works for 22 Later documents described the mission as to conduct research and provide education on international terrorism and related issues 23 On 15 November 2019 FDD was officially registered as a lobby under Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 3 Funding EditAccording to Dennis Jett FDD offers hardly any information on where its money comes from and where it goes 16 2001 2004 Edit Money contributed to the FDD during first decade of its activity based on calculations made by Christopher Bail expanded by 442 24 In 2011 news website ThinkProgress published FDD s Form 990 documents 25 that revealed where FDD funding came from from 2001 to 2004 Top donors included Roland Arnall 1 802 000 26 Edgar M and Charles Bronfman 1 050 000 26 Michael Steinhardt 850 000 26 Abramson Family Foundation of Leonard Abramson 822 523 26 Bernard Marcus 600 000 26 Lewis Ranieri 350 000 26 Other notable donors who gave lesser money during the same period were Haim Saban 26 Jennifer Laszlo Mizrahi 26 Douglas J Feith 26 2008 2011 Edit FDD s Schedule A documents filed by the end of the 2011 tax year indicates that the organization from 2008 to 2011 was funded more than 20 000 000 27 and the top three donors were Bernard Marcus 10 745 000 27 Paul Singer 3 600 000 27 Sheldon Adelson 1 510 059 27 2017 Edit In 2018 AP reported that the United Arab Emirates has wired 2 500 000 to the FDD through Elliott Broidy and George Nader to host a conference amidst Qatar diplomatic crisis about the country s role as a state sponsor of terrorism 28 FDD stated that it does not accept money from foreign governments adding that a s is our funding policy we asked if his funding was connected to any foreign governments or if he had business contracts in the Gulf He assured us that he did not 28 Adam Hanieh states that the FDD high profile conference of 23 May 2017 was in line with UAE s policy at the time which officially alleged that Qatar finances Islamist groups adding that emails leaked shortly after show that UAE s Ambassador Yousef Al Otaiba had a cosy relationship with the FDD and had reviewed the remarks made by Robert Gates at the convention 29 Others Edit Additionally it is known that as of 2016 FDD has received donations from the following institutions Abstraction Fund 30 24 Hertog Foundation 30 24 Jacobson Family Foundation 30 30 Klarman Family Foundation 30 30 Koret Foundation 30 30 Milstein Family Foundation 30 30 Nathan Seter Foundation 30 30 Newton and Rochelle Becker Charitable Trust 30 31 Snider Foundation 30 31 Hochberg Family Foundation 30 39 Marcus Foundation 30 39 Bodman Foundation 30 39 Emerson Family Foundation 30 41 Eris amp Larry Field Family Foundation 30 41 Rita amp Irwin Hochberg Family Foundation 30 42 Anchorage Charitable Fund 31 William Rosenwald Family Fund 32 Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation 33 Activities EditThe Iran Project Edit FDD and its CEO Mark Dubowitz have been sanctioned by Iran for advocating sanctions against Iran and working to end the Iranian nuclear deal 34 35 36 FDD s Iran Program is led by CEO Mark Dubowitz 37 38 third party source needed In 2008 FDD founded the Iran Energy Project which conducts extensive research on ways to deny the Iranian regime the profits of its energy sector 39 third party source needed The Wall Street Journal credited FDD with bringing the idea of gasoline sanctions to political attention 40 The organization pushed for sanctions against the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its use of Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication SWIFT to perform transactions citation needed The Syria Project Edit For years Syria has been a focus of FDD s research because of its alignment with Iran and support for organizations such as Hezbollah 41 In 2012 as the Arab Spring spread to Syria FDD launched The Syria Project to support dissident efforts in removing Syrian president Bashar al Assad from power 42 third party source needed In that effort FDD facilitated a Skype call between dissidents and U S journalists in 2012 43 Long War Journal Edit Main article Long War Journal Long War Journal is a FDD project dedicated to reporting the Global War on Terror launched by the United States and its allies following the attacks of September 11 2001 Under the direction of FDD senior fellows Bill Roggio and Thomas Joscelyn this website covers stories about countries such as Afghanistan Pakistan Somalia Syria and Iraq and follows the actions of al Qaeda and its affiliates 44 third party source needed According to the Columbia Journalism Review Roggio s greatest service then may be the way he picks up where the mainstream press leaves off giving readers a simultaneously more specific and holistic understanding of the battlefield but says that there have been times when Roggio has done himself a disservice by aligning with bloggers who are more about pushing a conservative agenda 45 European Foundation for Democracy Edit Main article European Foundation for Democracy Ties to the Foundation for Defense of DemocraciesPersonnel Edit Clifford May FDD s founder and current president Executives Edit Clifford May President 17 Mark Dubowitz CEO 3 Toby Dershowitz Senior Vice President for Government Relations and Strategy 17 Tyler Stapleton Deputy for Congressional Relations 3 John Hannah Senior Counselor Bill McCarthy COO Lawrence Muscant Senior Vice President Jonathan Schanzer Vice President for Research 17 Former staff include Nir Boms President 17 Board of directors Edit As of 2005 members of FDD s board of directors were Steve Forbes 46 Jack Kemp 46 Jeane Kirkpatrick 46 Advisors Edit The following people served as advisors to FDD as of 2005 Newt Gingrich 46 James Woolsey 46 Bill Kristol 46 Richard Perle 46 Fellows Edit Walid Phares Michael Ledeen Emanuele Ottolenghi Olli Heinonen Orde KittrieCriticism EditArun Kundnani adjunct professor at New York University in a review of FDD publication Homegrown Terrorists in the US and UK argues that as a work typical of many in its approach and conclusions it does not provide empirical evidence for assumptions it makes and neglects contradicting data as a result of an influence by politics of the publisher and funders and bias in favor of knowledge claims 47 Lawrence Wilkerson has criticized FDD for pushing falsehood in support of waging wars 48 The International Relations Center features a report on the foundation on its Right Web website a program of the think tank Institute for Policy Studies 49 which according to its mission statement seeks to check the militaristic drift of the country The report states that although the FDD is an ardent critic of terrorism it has not criticized actions taken by Israel against Palestinians that arguably fall into this category 50 The left leaning political blog ThinkProgress has criticized FDD for alarmist rhetoric and fear mongering 26 unreliable source for example in April 2002 when they aired a 30 second television ad campaign called Suicide Strategy that was described by critics as conflating Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat with the likes of Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein As FDD explained it a militant Islamic terrorist who martyrs himself by hijacking a plane and flying it into the World Trade Center i e the September 11 attacks is no different from a militant Islamic terrorist who martyrs himself by strapping explosives to his body and walking into a hotel i e Palestinian suicide attacks In 2017 Bari Weiss of the New York Times reported on dissent within the organization over the pro Trump orientation it adopted following the 2016 elections which included at least two employees leaving 51 Islamophobia accusations EditChristopher A Bail professor of sociology public policy and data science at Duke University describes FDD as an anti Muslim fringe organization that has tried to establish itself as a legitimate authority on Islam and terrorism by tactically using ethnic experts i e pundits with Middle Eastern background who were not Muslim because they advocate views contrary to the mainstream perspective of the Muslim community in the United States but look like and talk like Muslims 52 Sarah Marusek research fellow at University of Johannesburg argues that FDD is one of the key organizations peddling Islamophobia in a transatlantic network 53 Farid Hafez researcher at Universitat Salzburg asserts the same 54 References Edit Charity Navigator IRS Data for Foundation for Defense of Democracies Charity Navigator Retrieved 2020 04 17 Charity Navigator Rating for Foundation for Defense of Democracies Charity Navigator Retrieved 2020 04 17 a b c d Schaffer Aaron Pecquet Julian 15 November 2019 Anti Iran advocacy group FDD registers to lobby Al Monitor archived from the original on 16 November 2019 retrieved 15 April 2020 Lee Carol white house blindsided by iranian foreign minister zarif s appearance cnbc com Archived from the original on 2019 09 20 Retrieved 2019 09 20 Wilson Mark How Trump trips up his own Afghanistan peace efforts politico com Archived from the original on 2019 09 14 Retrieved 2019 09 20 He Was a Tireless Critic of the Iran Deal Now He Insists He Wanted to Save It The New York Times 2018 05 13 ISSN 0362 4331 Archived from the original on 2018 05 14 Retrieved 2018 05 14 Morgan Wesley May 9 2019 McMaster blasts former colleagues as danger to the Constitution Politico Foster Peter February 24 2013 Obama s new head boy The Telegraph UK Archived from the original on 2013 02 28 Retrieved 12 March 2013 Jonsson Patrik June 11 2009 Shooting of two soldiers in Little Rock puts focus on lone wolf Islamic extremists Christian Science Monitor Archived from the original on 2013 04 06 Retrieved 13 March 2013 DeYoung Karen 15 April 2016 GOP foreign policy elites don t know whether they ll serve if Trump is president Washington Post ISSN 0190 8286 Retrieved 2021 06 15 via www washingtonpost com Richter Paul March 14 2012 Chinese bank pulls out of Pakistan Iran pipeline project Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on 2013 03 01 Retrieved 14 March 2013 NPR Staff October 10 2012 Better To Elect Islamists Than Have Dictators NPR Archived from the original on 2013 03 25 Retrieved 14 March 2013 Foundation for Defense of Democracies onthinktanks org Retrieved 2020 04 17 FDD Issues FDD Retrieved 2020 04 17 For example see the following sources Ahmad Muhammad Idrees 2014 Road to Iraq The Making of a Neoconservative War Edinburgh University Press p 179 ISBN 9780748693054 The Israel lobby has insulated itself with a network of satellite institutions and alliances all invested in cultivating the view that Israeli and US interests are identical It consists of think thanks such as WINEP JINSA AEI CSP the Saban Center for Middle East Policy FDD and the defence national security programmes of the Hudson Institute and the Heritage Foundation Seliktar Ofira Rezaei Farhad 2018 Iran Israel and the United States The Politics of Counter Proliferation Intelligence Rowman amp Littlefield p 168 ISBN 9781498569767 The Israel lobby stalwarts the WINEP the FDD the Israel Project the Jewish National Security Affairs JINSA CSP and UANI among others produced a considerable number of reports policy papers articles and op eds and their reprasantatives regularly testified before Congress Mearsheimer John J Stephen Walt 2007 The Israel Lobby and U S Foreign Policy New York Farrar Straus and Giroux pp 128 130 ISBN 978 0 374 17772 0 The Israel lobby s drift to the right has been reinforced by the emergence of the neoconservatives The think tanks and advocacy groups most closely associated with these neoconservatives are the American Enterprise Institute AEI the Center for Security Policy CSP the Hudson Institute the Foundation for Defense of Democracies FDD the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs JINSA the Middle East Forum MEF the Project for a New American Century PNAC and the Washington Institute for Near East Policy WINEP Virtually all neoconservatives are strongly committed to Israel a point they emphasize openly and unapologetically Ashwarya Sujata 2017 India Iran Relations Progress Problems and Prospects Routledge p 179 ISBN 9781351987073 In a 155 page report US Non proliferation Strategy for the Changing Middle East co authored by the head of a right wing pro Israel lobby group the Foundation for Defence of Democracies FDD Mark Dubowitz states that a b c Jett Dennis 2017 The Iran Nuclear Deal Bombs Bureaucrats and Billionaires C Springer pp 83 86 ISBN 9783319598222 a b c d e Judis John B 18 August 2015 The Little Think Tank That Could Inside the small pro Israel outfit leading the attack on Obama s Iran deal Slate archived from the original on 18 August 2015 retrieved 15 April 2020 Marusek Sarah 2017 Inventing terrorists the nexus of intelligence and Islamophobia PDF Critical Studies on Terrorism 11 1 65 87 doi 10 1080 17539153 2017 1351597 S2CID 148693782 Ahmad Muhammad Idrees 2014 The Road to Iraq the Making of a Neoconservative War Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press ISBN 978 0 7486 9304 7 OCLC 888747321 Mearsheimer John J 4 September 2007 The Israel lobby and U S foreign policy Walt Stephen M 1955 New York ISBN 978 0 374 17772 0 OCLC 144227359 Seliktar Ofira Iran Israel and the United States the politics of counter proliferation intelligence Rezaei Farhad Lanham Maryland ISBN 978 1 4985 6975 0 OCLC 1030485498 Un documentaire interdit sur le lobby pro israelien aux Etats Unis Orient XXI in French 2018 11 02 Retrieved 2020 07 07 Marusek Sarah 2018 01 02 Inventing terrorists the nexus 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Gulf Cooperation Council and the Political Economy of the Contemporary Middle East Cambridge University Press p 247 ISBN 9781108429146 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cronin David Marusek Sarah Miller David 2016 The Israel Lobby and the European Union PDF Glasgow Public Interest Investigations ISBN 978 0 9570274 7 3 via University of Bath Ali Wajahat Clifton Eli Duss Matthew Fang Lee Keyes Scott Shakir Faiz August 2011 Fear Inc The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in America PDF Center for American Progress p 21 archived from the original PDF on 8 April 2020 Factsheet European Foundation for Democracy The Bridge Initiative Georgetown University 5 December 2019 archived from the original on 13 April 2020 retrieved 1 April 2020 Kundnani Arun 2014 Radicalisation The Journey of a Concept in Baker Beall Christopher Heath Kelly Charlotte Jarvis Lee eds Counter Radicalisation Critical Perspectives Routledge p 23 ISBN 978 1 317 68039 0 Iran Sanctions Former U S National Security Aide Report www 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resistance leader s plea to the world CNN Archived from the original on 2012 08 27 Retrieved 2013 01 31 About The Long War Journal Archived from the original on 2013 02 01 Retrieved 30 January 2013 Mcleary Paul March April 2008 Blogging the long war Bill Roggio wants to be your source for conflict coverage Columbia Journalism Review a b c d e f g Zangana Haifa 2005 Colonial Feminists from Washington to Baghdad Women for a Free Iraq as a case study Al Raida Journal Beirut Institute for Women s Studies in the Arab World Lebanese American University XXII 109 110 30 40 doi 10 32380 alrj v0i0 299 ISSN 0259 9953 Open access material licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3 0 License Kundnani Arun 2014 Radicalisation The Journey of a Concept in Baker Beall Christopher Heath Kelly Charlotte Jarvis Lee eds Counter Radicalisation Critical Perspectives Routledge pp 21 23 ISBN 9781317680390 Wilkerson Lawrence 5 February 2018 I Helped Sell the False Choice of War Once It s Happening Again The New York Times archived from the original on 5 February 2018 retrieved 15 April 2020 About Right Web RightWeb Archived from the original on 2013 01 21 Retrieved 2013 01 29 Foundation for Defense of Democracies Profile Right Web Institute for Policy Studies Rightweb irc online org Archived from the original on 2012 11 05 Retrieved 2011 08 21 Weiss Bari November 2 2017 The Trump Debate Inside Conservative Citadels The New York Times Retrieved November 2 2020 Bail Christopher 2015 Terrified How Anti Muslim Fringe Organizations Became Mainstream Princeton University Press pp 70 71 ISBN 978 0 691 15942 3 Marusek Sarah 2017 The Transatlantic Network Funding Islamophobia and Israeli Settlements in Massoumi Narzanin Mills Tom Miller David eds What is Islamophobia Pluto Press pp 189 206 ISBN 978 1 7868 0068 8 Hafez Farid 2018 Muslim Civil Society Under Attack The European Foundation for Democracy s Role in Defaming and Delegitimizing Muslim Civil Society in Esposito John L Iner Derya eds Islamophobia and Radicalization Breeding Intolerance and Violence Springer pp 119 120 doi 10 1007 978 3 319 95237 6 7 ISBN 978 3 319 95237 6External links EditOfficial websiteRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Foundation for Defense of Democracies amp oldid 1028740789, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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