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Wikipedia

Harvard University

"Harvard" redirects here. For other uses, see Harvard (disambiguation).
It has been suggested that Harvard Summer School be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2021.

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and among the most prestigious in the world.

Harvard University
Latin: Universitas Harvardiana
Former names
Harvard College
MottoVeritas (Latin)
Motto in English
Truth
TypePrivate research university
Established1636; 385 years ago (1636)
FounderMassachusetts General Court
AccreditationNECHE
Academic affiliations
NAICU
AICUM
AAU
URA
Space-grant
Endowment$41.9 billion (2020)
PresidentLawrence Bacow
ProvostAlan Garber
Academic staff
~2,400 faculty members (and >10,400 academic appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals)
Students20,970 (Fall 2019)
Undergraduates6,755 (Fall 2019)
Postgraduates14,215 (Fall 2019)
Location,,
United States

42°22′28″N71°07′01″W /42.37444°N 71.11694°W /42.37444; -71.11694Coordinates: 42°22′28″N71°07′01″W /42.37444°N 71.11694°W /42.37444; -71.11694
CampusUrban
209 acres (85 ha)
LanguageMostly English
NewspaperThe Harvard Crimson
Colors Crimson
AthleticsNCAA Division IIvy League
NicknameHarvard Crimson
MascotJohn Harvard
Websiteharvard.edu

The Massachusetts colonial legislature, the General Court, authorized Harvard's founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the American Civil War, President Charles William Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he liberalized admissions after the war.

The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional. Harvard has three main campuses: the 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston's Longwood Medical Area. Harvard's endowment is valued at $41.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.

Harvard has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes (161) and Fields Medals (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars (375), and Marshall Scholars (255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.

Contents

Colonial

The seal of the Harvard Corporation, found on Harvard diplomas. Christo et Ecclesiae ("For Christ and Church") is one of Harvard's several early mottoes.
Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere, 1767

Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust." It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university model‍—‌many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge‍—‌but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.

Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

19th century

In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties.:1–4 When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.:4–5:24

Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Programs in the study of French and Spanish languages began in 1816 with George Ticknor as its first professor.

20th century

Richard Rummell's 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast.

In the 20th century, Harvard's reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.

The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians." A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories.

President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard's preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.

Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.

Harvard's graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the medical school in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard.

21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard's first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.

Cambridge

Harvard's 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard ("the Yard") in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. The Yard contains administrative offices such as University Hall and Massachusetts Hall; libraries such as Widener, Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont; and Memorial Church.

The Yard and adjacent areas include the main academic buildings of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, including the College, such as Sever Hall and Harvard Hall.

Freshman dormitories are in the Yard or nearby. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential houses, nine of which are south of the Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (the "Quad") which formerly housed Radcliffe College students. Each residential house is a community with undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and recreational spaces.

Also in Cambridge are the Law, Divinity (theology), Engineering and Applied Science, Design (architecture), Education, Kennedy (public policy), and Extension schools, as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in Radcliffe Yard.

Harvard has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge.

Allston

Harvard Business School, Harvard Innovation Labs, and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre (145 ha) campus in Allston, a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses.

The university is actively expanding into Allston, where it now owns more land than in Cambridge. Plans include new construction and renovation for the Business School, a hotel and conference center, graduate student housing, Harvard Stadium, and other athletics facilities.

In 2021, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences will expand into a new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston. The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus, the Business School, and the Harvard Innovation Labs to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies.

Longwood

The schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus. Several Harvard-affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital, are located throughout the Greater Boston area.

Other

Harvard owns the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, D.C., the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts, the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy, the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China, and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston.

University seal

Governance

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University. There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors.

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.

Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.

Endowment

Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world, valued at about $41.9 billion as of 2020. During the recession of 2007–2009, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, in particular temporarily halting construction on the Allston Science Complex. The endowment has since recovered.

About $2 billion of investment income is annually distributed to fund operations. Harvard's ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs depends on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 forced a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Endowment income is critical, as only 22% of revenue is from students' tuition, fees, room, and board.

Divestment

Since the 1970s, several student-led campaigns have advocated divesting Harvard's endowment from controversial holdings, including investments in apartheid South Africa, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the tobacco, fossil fuel, and private prison industries.

In the late 1980s, during the divestment from South Africa movement, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. The university eventually reduced its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.

Teaching and learning

Massachusetts Hall (1720), Harvard's oldest building

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university offering 50 undergraduate majors, 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees.

Main article: Harvard College

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a liberal arts and sciences focus. To graduate in the usual four years, undergraduates normally take four courses per semester. In most majors, an honors degree requires advanced coursework and a senior thesis. Though some introductory courses have large enrollments, the median class size is 12 students.

Research

Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and a preeminent research university with "very high" research activity (R1) and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification.

With the medical school consistently ranking first among medical schools for research, biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty and over 1,600 graduate students conduct research at the medical school as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes. The medical school and its affiliates attracted $1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2019, more than twice as much as any other university.

Libraries and museums

Widener Library anchors the Harvard Library system.

The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the world.

Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.

Henry Moore's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont Library

The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum covers Asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic art, the Busch–Reisinger Museum (formerly the Germanic Museum) covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.

Reputation and rankings

National Graduate Rankings
Program Ranking
Biological Sciences 4
Business 6
Chemistry 2
Clinical Psychology 10
Computer Science 16
Earth Sciences 8
Economics 1
Education 1
Engineering 22
English 8
History 4
Law 3
Mathematics 2
Medicine: Primary Care 10
Medicine: Research 1
Physics 3
Political Science 1
Psychology 3
Public Affairs 3
Public Health 2
Sociology 1
Global Subject Rankings
Program Ranking
Agricultural Sciences 22
Arts & Humanities 2
Biology & Biochemistry 1
Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems 1
Chemistry 15
Clinical Medicine 1
Computer Science 47
Economics & Business 1
Electrical & Electronic Engineering 136
Engineering 27
Environment/Ecology 5
Geosciences 7
Immunology 1
Materials Science 7
Mathematics 12
Microbiology 1
Molecular Biology & Genetics 1
Neuroscience & Behavior 1
Oncology 1
Pharmacology & Toxicology 1
Physics 4
Plant & Animal Science 13
Psychiatry/Psychology 1
Social Sciences & Public Health 1
Space Science 2
Surgery 1

Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world's top university every year since it was released. When QS and Times Higher Education collaborated to publish the Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on THE World Reputation Rankings ever since it was released in 2011. In 2019, it was ranked first worldwide by SCImago Institutions Rankings. It was ranked in the first tier of American research universities, along with Columbia, MIT, and Stanford, in the 2019 report from the Center for Measuring University Performance. Harvard University is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education.

Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named "dream colleges" in the United States, both for students and parents. Additionally, having made significant investments in its engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education.

Student demographics (Fall 2019)
Undergrad Grad/prof
Asian 21% 13%
Black 9% 5%
Hispanic or Latino 11% 7%
White 37% 38%
Two or more races 8% 3%
International 12% 32%

Student government

The Undergraduate Council represents College students. The Graduate Council represents students at all twelve graduate and professional schools, most of which also have their own student government.

Athletics

Main article: Harvard Crimson

Harvard College fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the NCAA Division I Ivy League, more than any other college in the country. Every two years, the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford and Cambridge team in the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships. The school color is crimson.

Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875.

Both the undergraduate College and the graduate schools have intramural sports programs.

This section contains an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images. Please help improve the section by removing excessive or indiscriminate images or by moving relevant images beside adjacent text, in accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images.(June 2017) ()

Alumni

Over more than three and a half centuries, Harvard alumni have contributed creatively and significantly to society, the arts and sciences, business, and national and international affairs. Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, 188 living billionaires, 79 Nobel laureates, 7 Fields Medal winners, 9 Turing Award laureates, 369 Rhodes Scholars, 252 Marshall Scholars, and 13 Mitchell Scholars. Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (including 46 gold medals), and they have founded many notable companies worldwide.

  1. Nominal Harvard College class year: did not graduate

Faculty


Tower at the University of Puerto Rico, showing (right) the emblem of Harvard‍—‌the oldest in the United States‍—‌and (left) that of National University of San Marcos, Lima‍—‌the oldest in the Americas

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.

Literature

Film

Harvard's policy since 1970 (after the damage caused by Love Story) has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.

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Harvard University
harvard, university, language, watch, edit, harvard, redirects, here, other, uses, harvard, disambiguation, been, suggested, that, harvard, summer, school, merged, into, this, article, discuss, proposed, since, june, 2021, private, league, research, university. Harvard University Language Watch Edit Harvard redirects here For other uses see Harvard disambiguation It has been suggested that Harvard Summer School be merged into this article Discuss Proposed since June 2021 Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge Massachusetts Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor clergyman John Harvard Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States 6 and among the most prestigious in the world 7 Harvard UniversityCoat of armsLatin Universitas HarvardianaFormer namesHarvard CollegeMottoVeritas Latin 1 Motto in EnglishTruthTypePrivate research universityEstablished1636 385 years ago 1636 2 FounderMassachusetts General CourtAccreditationNECHEAcademic affiliationsNAICU AICUM AAU URA Space grantEndowment 41 9 billion 2020 3 PresidentLawrence BacowProvostAlan GarberAcademic staff 2 400 faculty members and gt 10 400 academic appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals 4 Students20 970 Fall 2019 5 Undergraduates6 755 Fall 2019 5 Postgraduates14 215 Fall 2019 5 LocationCambridge Massachusetts United States 42 22 28 N 71 07 01 W 42 37444 N 71 11694 W 42 37444 71 11694 Coordinates 42 22 28 N 71 07 01 W 42 37444 N 71 11694 W 42 37444 71 11694CampusUrban 209 acres 85 ha LanguageMostly EnglishNewspaperThe Harvard CrimsonColors Crimson 4 AthleticsNCAA Division I Ivy LeagueNicknameHarvard CrimsonMascotJohn HarvardWebsiteharvard wbr edu The Massachusetts colonial legislature the General Court authorized Harvard s founding In its early years Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century and by the 19th century Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite 8 9 Following the American Civil War President Charles William Eliot s long tenure 1869 1909 transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900 10 James B Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II he liberalized admissions after the war The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees mostly professional Harvard has three main campuses 11 the 209 acre 85 ha Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston and the medical campus in Boston s Longwood Medical Area 12 Harvard s endowment is valued at 41 9 billion making it the largest of any academic institution 3 Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans 13 The Harvard Library is the world s largest academic library system comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20 4 million items 14 15 16 17 Harvard has more alumni faculty and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes 161 and Fields Medals 18 than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the U S Congress MacArthur Fellows Rhodes Scholars 375 and Marshall Scholars 255 than any other university in the United States 18 Its alumni include eight U S presidents and 188 living billionaires the most of any university Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates Students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals 46 gold and they have founded many notable companies Contents 1 History 1 1 Colonial 1 2 19th century 1 3 20th century 1 4 21st century 2 Campuses 2 1 Cambridge 2 2 Allston 2 3 Longwood 2 4 Other 3 Organization and administration 3 1 Governance 3 2 Endowment 3 2 1 Divestment 4 Academics 4 1 Teaching and learning 4 2 Research 4 3 Libraries and museums 4 4 Reputation and rankings 5 Student life 5 1 Student government 5 2 Athletics 6 Notable people 6 1 Alumni 6 2 Faculty 7 Literature and popular culture 7 1 Literature 7 2 Film 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External linksHistoryMain article History of Harvard University Colonial The seal of the Harvard Corporation found on Harvard diplomas Christo et Ecclesiae For Christ and Church is one of Harvard s several early mottoes 19 Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere 1767 Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony In 1638 it acquired British North America s first known printing press 20 21 In 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school 779 and his library of some 400 volumes 22 The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 A 1643 publication gave the school s purpose as to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust 23 It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years 24 and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university model many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism Harvard has never affiliated with any particular denomination though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches 25 Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701 In 1708 John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence 26 19th century John Harvard statue Harvard Yard In the 19th century Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist Calvinist parties 27 1 4 When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later a struggle broke out over their replacements Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805 and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal Arminian ideas 27 4 5 28 24 Charles William Eliot president 1869 1909 eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self direction Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson 29 Programs in the study of French and Spanish languages began in 1816 with George Ticknor as its first professor 20th century Richard Rummell s 1906 watercolor landscape view facing northeast 30 In the 20th century Harvard s reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university s scope Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded Radcliffe College established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900 10 The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly old stock high status Protestants especially Episcopalians Congregationalists and Presbyterians A 1923 proposal by President A Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15 of undergraduates was rejected but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories 31 32 33 34 President James B Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard s preeminence among research institutions He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy so Conant devised programs to identify recruit and support talented youth In 1943 he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be at the secondary as well as at the college level The resulting Report published in 1945 was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education 35 Between 1945 and 1960 admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools many more Jews and Catholics were admitted but few blacks Hispanics or Asians 36 Throughout the rest of the 20th century Harvard became more diverse 37 Harvard s graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century During World War II students at Radcliffe College which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women began attending Harvard classes alongside men 38 Women were first admitted to the medical school in 1945 39 Since 1971 Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission instruction and housing for Radcliffe women In 1999 Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard 40 21st century Drew Gilpin Faust previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study became Harvard s first woman president on July 1 2007 41 She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1 2018 42 CampusesCambridge Memorial Hall Memorial Church Harvard s 209 acre 85 ha main campus is centered on Harvard Yard the Yard in Cambridge about 3 miles 5 km west northwest of downtown Boston and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood The Yard contains administrative offices such as University Hall and Massachusetts Hall libraries such as Widener Pusey Houghton and Lamont and Memorial Church The Yard and adjacent areas include the main academic buildings of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences including the College such as Sever Hall and Harvard Hall Freshman dormitories are in the Yard or nearby Sophomore junior and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential houses nine of which are south of the Yard along or near the Charles River The other three are located half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle the Quad which formerly housed Radcliffe College students Each residential house is a community with undergraduates faculty deans and resident tutors as well as a dining hall library and recreational spaces 43 Also in Cambridge are the Law Divinity theology Engineering and Applied Science Design architecture Education Kennedy public policy and Extension schools as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in Radcliffe Yard 44 Harvard has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge 45 46 Allston See also Harvard University s expansion in Allston Massachusetts Harvard Business School Harvard Innovation Labs and many athletics facilities including Harvard Stadium are located on a 358 acre 145 ha campus in Allston 47 a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus The John W Weeks Bridge a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River connects the two campuses The university is actively expanding into Allston where it now owns more land than in Cambridge 48 Plans include new construction and renovation for the Business School a hotel and conference center graduate student housing Harvard Stadium and other athletics facilities 49 In 2021 the Harvard John A Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences will expand into a new 500 000 square foot Science and Engineering Complex SEC in Allston 50 The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus the Business School and the Harvard Innovation Labs to encourage technology and life science focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies 51 Longwood See also Longwood Medical and Academic Area The schools of Medicine Dental Medicine and Public Health are located on a 21 acre 8 5 ha campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston about 3 3 miles 5 3 km south of the Cambridge campus 12 Several Harvard affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston Children s Hospital Brigham and Women s Hospital Dana Farber Cancer Institute Joslin Diabetes Center and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering Additional affiliates most notably Massachusetts General Hospital are located throughout the Greater Boston area Other Harvard owns the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington D C the Harvard Forest in Petersham Massachusetts the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord Massachusetts 52 the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence Italy 53 the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai China 54 and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston Organization and administration University seal Governance School FoundedHarvard College 1636Medicine 1782Divinity 1816Law 1817Dental Medicine 1867Arts and Sciences 1872Business 1908Extension 1910Design 1914Education 1920Public Health 1922Government 1936Engineering and Applied Sciences 2007 Harvard Medical School Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College also known as the Harvard Corporation which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University 55 There are 16 000 staff and faculty 56 including 2 400 professors lecturers and instructors 57 The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences the John A Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences SEAS and the Division of Continuing Education which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology the Broad Institute The Observatory of Economic Complexity and edX Endowment Main article Harvard University endowment Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world valued at about 41 9 billion as of 2020 3 During the recession of 2007 2009 it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts in particular temporarily halting construction on the Allston Science Complex 58 The endowment has since recovered 59 60 61 62 63 About 2 billion of investment income is annually distributed to fund operations 64 Harvard s ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs depends on the performance of its endowment a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 forced a 4 4 cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences 65 Endowment income is critical as only 22 of revenue is from students tuition fees room and board 66 Divestment See also Financial endowment Criticism and reforms Since the 1970s several student led campaigns have advocated divesting Harvard s endowment from controversial holdings including investments in apartheid South Africa Sudan during the Darfur genocide and the tobacco fossil fuel and private prison industries 67 68 In the late 1980s during the divestment from South Africa movement student activists erected a symbolic shantytown on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent Brown 69 70 The university eventually reduced its South African holdings by 230 million out of 400 million in response to the pressure 69 71 AcademicsTeaching and learning Massachusetts Hall 1720 Harvard s oldest building 72 Harvard Yard Harvard is a large highly residential research university 73 offering 50 undergraduate majors 74 134 graduate degrees 75 and 32 professional degrees 76 For the 2018 2019 academic year Harvard granted 1 665 baccalaureate degrees 1 013 graduate degrees and 5 695 professional degrees 76 Main article Harvard College The four year full time undergraduate program has a liberal arts and sciences focus 73 74 To graduate in the usual four years undergraduates normally take four courses per semester 77 In most majors an honors degree requires advanced coursework and a senior thesis 78 Though some introductory courses have large enrollments the median class size is 12 students 79 Research Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities 80 and a preeminent research university with very high research activity R1 and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts sciences engineering and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification 73 With the medical school consistently ranking first among medical schools for research 81 biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university More than 11 000 faculty and over 1 600 graduate students conduct research at the medical school as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes 82 The medical school and its affiliates attracted 1 65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2019 more than twice as much as any other university 83 Libraries and museums Widener Library anchors the Harvard Library system The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20 4 million items 14 15 17 According to the American Library Association this makes it the largest academic library in the world 15 4 Houghton Library the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials America s oldest collection of maps gazetteers and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public The largest collection of East Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard Yenching Library Henry Moore s sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure near Lamont Library The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums The Arthur M Sackler Museum covers Asian Mediterranean and Islamic art the Busch Reisinger Museum formerly the Germanic Museum covers central and northern European art and the Fogg Museum covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance British pre Raphaelite and 19th century French art The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit and the Museum of Comparative Zoology Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere and the Harvard Museum of the Ancient Near East featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East Reputation and rankings Academic rankingsNationalARWU 84 1Forbes 85 1THE WSJ 86 1U S News amp World Report 87 2Washington Monthly 88 2GlobalARWU 89 1QS 90 5THE 91 3U S News amp World Report 92 1National Graduate Rankings 93 Program RankingBiological Sciences 4Business 6Chemistry 2Clinical Psychology 10Computer Science 16Earth Sciences 8Economics 1Education 1Engineering 22English 8History 4Law 3Mathematics 2Medicine Primary Care 10Medicine Research 1Physics 3Political Science 1Psychology 3Public Affairs 3Public Health 2Sociology 1Global Subject Rankings 94 Program RankingAgricultural Sciences 22Arts amp Humanities 2Biology amp Biochemistry 1Cardiac amp Cardiovascular Systems 1Chemistry 15Clinical Medicine 1Computer Science 47Economics amp Business 1Electrical amp Electronic Engineering 136Engineering 27Environment Ecology 5Geosciences 7Immunology 1Materials Science 7Mathematics 12Microbiology 1Molecular Biology amp Genetics 1Neuroscience amp Behavior 1Oncology 1Pharmacology amp Toxicology 1Physics 4Plant amp Animal Science 13Psychiatry Psychology 1Social Sciences amp Public Health 1Space Science 2Surgery 1 Among overall rankings the Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU has ranked Harvard as the world s top university every year since it was released 95 When QS and Times Higher Education collaborated to publish the Times Higher Education QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009 Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on THE World Reputation Rankings ever since it was released in 2011 96 In 2019 it was ranked first worldwide by SCImago Institutions Rankings 97 It was ranked in the first tier of American research universities along with Columbia MIT and Stanford in the 2019 report from the Center for Measuring University Performance 98 Harvard University is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education 99 Among rankings of specific indicators Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance 2019 2020 and Mines ParisTech Professional Ranking of World Universities 2011 which measured universities numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies 100 According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named dream colleges in the United States both for students and parents 101 102 103 Additionally having made significant investments in its engineering school in recent years Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education 104 Student lifeStudent demographics Fall 2019 105 Undergrad Grad profAsian 21 13 Black 9 5 Hispanic or Latino 11 7 White 37 38 Two or more races 8 3 International 12 32 Student government The Undergraduate Council represents College students The Graduate Council represents students at all twelve graduate and professional schools most of which also have their own student government 106 Athletics Main article Harvard Crimson Harvard College fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the NCAA Division I Ivy League more than any other college in the country 107 Every two years the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford and Cambridge team in the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world 108 As with other Ivy League universities Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships 109 The school color is crimson Harvard s athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting which dates back to 1875 110 Both the undergraduate College and the graduate schools have intramural sports programs Notable peopleThis section contains an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images Please help improve the section by removing excessive or indiscriminate images or by moving relevant images beside adjacent text in accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images June 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message Alumni Main articles List of Harvard University people List of Harvard University non graduate alumni and List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University Over more than three and a half centuries Harvard alumni have contributed creatively and significantly to society the arts and sciences business and national and international affairs Harvard s alumni include eight U S presidents 188 living billionaires 79 Nobel laureates 7 Fields Medal winners 9 Turing Award laureates 369 Rhodes Scholars 252 Marshall Scholars and 13 Mitchell Scholars 111 112 113 114 Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals including 46 gold medals and they have founded many notable companies worldwide 115 116 Notable Harvard alumni include 2nd President of the United States John Adams AB 1755 AM 1758 117 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams AB 1787 AM 1790 118 119 Essayist lecturer philosopher and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson AB 1821 Naturalist essayist poet and philosopher Henry David Thoreau AB 1837 19th President of the United States Rutherford B Hayes LLB 1845 120 Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr AB 1861 LLB Philosopher logician and mathematician Charles Sanders Peirce AB 1862 SB 1863 26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt AB 1880 121 Sociologist and civil rights activist W E B Du Bois PhD 1895 32nd President of the United States Franklin D Roosevelt AB 1903 122 Author political activist and lecturer Helen Keller AB 1904 Radcliffe College Poet and Nobel laureate in literature T S Eliot AB 1909 AM 1910 Physicist and leader of Manhattan Project J Robert Oppenheimer AB 1925 Economist and Nobel laureate in economics Paul Samuelson AM 1936 PhD 1941 Musician and composer Leonard Bernstein AB 1939 35th President of the United States John F Kennedy AB 1940 123 7th President of Ireland and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson LLM 1968 45th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Al Gore AB 1969 24th President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf MPA 1971 124 Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer AB 1971 JD 1975 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto AB 1973 Radcliffe College 14th Chair of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke AB 1975 AM 1975 43rd President of the United States George W Bush MBA 1975 125 17th Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts AB 1976 JD 1979 Founder of Microsoft and philanthropist Bill Gates College 1977 a 1 LLD hc 2007 8th Secretary General of the United Nations Ban Ki moon MPA 1984 Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan JD 1986 Former First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama JD 1988 Biochemist and Nobel laureate in chemistry Jennifer Doudna PhD 1989 126 44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama JD 1991 127 128 Nominal Harvard College class year did not graduate Faculty Notable present and past Harvard faculty include Louis Agassiz Danielle Allen Alan Dershowitz Paul Farmer Jason Furman John Kenneth Galbraith Henry Louis Gates Jr Asa Gray Seamus Heaney Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr William James Timothy Leary Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Greg Mankiw Steven Pinker Michael Porter Arthur M Schlesinger Jr Amartya Sen B F Skinner Lawrence Summers Cass Sunstein Elizabeth Warren Cornel West Alfred North Whitehead E O Wilson Shing Tung Yau Robert ReichLiterature and popular culture Tower at the University of Puerto Rico showing right the emblem of Harvard the oldest in the United States and left that of National University of San Marcos Lima the oldest in the Americas The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement or elitist privilege has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop In the grammar of film Harvard has come to mean both tradition and a certain amount of stuffiness film critic Paul Sherman has said 129 Literature The Sound and the Fury 1929 and Absalom Absalom 1936 by William Faulkner both depict Harvard student life non primary source needed Of Time and the River 1935 by Thomas Wolfe is a fictionalized autobiography that includes his alter ego s time at Harvard non primary source needed The Late George Apley 1937 by John P Marquand parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century non primary source needed it won the Pulitzer Prize The Second Happiest Day 1953 by John P Marquand Jr portrays the Harvard of the World War II generation 130 131 132 133 134 Film Harvard s policy since 1970 after the damage caused by Love Story has been to permit filming on its property only rarely so most scenes set at Harvard especially indoor shots but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square are in fact shot elsewhere 135 136 Love Story 1970 concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard hockey player Ryan O Neal and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means Ali MacGraw it is screened annually for incoming freshmen 137 138 139 The Paper Chase 1973 140 A Small Circle of Friends 1980 135 See also United States portal 2012 Harvard cheating scandal Academic regalia of Harvard University Gore Hall Harvard College social clubs Harvard University Police Department Harvard University Press Harvard MIT Cooperative Society I Too Am Harvard List of oldest universities in continuous operation List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Harvard University Outline of Harvard University Secret Court of 1920References Samuel Eliot Morison 1968 The Founding of Harvard College Harvard University Press p 329 ISBN 978 0 674 31450 4 An appropriation of 400 toward a school or college was voted on October 28 1636 OS at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28 Some sources consider October 28 1636 OS November 7 1636 NS to be the date of founding Harvard s 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8 1836 Sources meeting dates Quincy Josiah 1860 History of Harvard University 117 Washington Street Boston Crosby Nichols Lee and Co CS1 maint location link p 586 At a Court holden September 8th 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month October 1636 the Court agreed to give 400 towards a School or College whereof 200 to be paid next year Tercentenary dates Cambridge Birthday Time September 28 1936 Archived from the original on December 5 2012 Retrieved September 8 2006 Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding This was Sept 8 1637 under the Julian calendar Allowing for the ten day advance of the Gregorian calendar Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration on Oct 28 1636 400 for that school or college was voted by the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Bicentennial date Marvin Hightower September 2 2003 Harvard Gazette This Month in Harvard History Harvard University Archived from the original on September 8 2006 Retrieved September 15 2006 Sept 8 1836 Some 1 100 to 1 300 alumni flock to Harvard s Bicentennial at which a professional choir premieres Fair Harvard guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr Class of 1821 makes a motion unanimously adopted that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8 1936 Tercentary opening of Quincy s sealed package The New York Times September 9 1936 p 24 Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary September 8th 1936 As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard s tercentenary the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the mysterious package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836 a b c Burstein Ellen Harvard Endowment Returns 7 3 Percent for Fiscal Year 2020 The Harvard Crimson Retrieved September 29 2020 a b c Harvard at a Glance Harvard University Retrieved December 26 2019 a b c Common Data Set 2019 2020 PDF Office of Institutional Research Harvard University Retrieved June 23 2020 Rudolph Frederick 1961 The American College and University University of Georgia Press p 3 ISBN 0 8203 1285 1 Keller Morton Keller Phyllis 2001 Making Harvard Modern The Rise of America s University Oxford University Press pp 463 481 ISBN 0 19 514457 0 Harvard s professional schools won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions Harvard s age wealth quality and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes Spaulding Christina 1989 Sexual Shakedown In Trumpbour John ed How Harvard Rules Reason in the Service of Empire South End Press pp 326 336 ISBN 0 89608 284 9 Harvard s tremendous institutional power and prestige Within the nation s arguably most prestigious institution of higher learning David Altaner March 9 2011 Harvard MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities Study Reports Bloomberg Retrieved March 1 2012 Collier s Encyclopedia Macmillan Educational Co 1986 Harvard University one of the world s most prestigious institutions of higher learning was founded in Massachusetts in 1636 Newport Frank August 26 2003 Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place Gallup Leonhardt David September 17 2006 Ending Early Admissions Guess Who Wins The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved March 27 2020 The most prestigious college in the world of course is Harvard and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated Hoerr John 1997 We Can t Eat Prestige The Women Who Organized Harvard Temple University Press p 3 ISBN 9781566395359 Wong Alia September 11 2018 At Private Colleges Students Pay for Prestige The Atlantic Americans tend to think of colleges as falling somewhere on a vast hierarchy based largely on their status and brand recognition At the top are the Harvards and the Stanfords with their celebrated faculty groundbreaking research and perfectly manicured quads Story Ronald 1975 Harvard and the Boston Brahmins A Study in Institutional and Class Development 1800 1865 Journal of Social History 8 3 94 121 doi 10 1353 jsh 8 3 94 Farrell Betty G 1993 Elite Families Class and Power in Nineteenth Century Boston State University of New York Press ISBN 0 7914 1593 7 a b Member Institutions and years of Admission Association of American Universities Retrieved August 28 2010 Faculties and Allied Institutions PDF Office of the Provost Harvard University Archived from the original PDF on June 11 2010 Retrieved August 27 2010 a b Faculties and Allied Institutions PDF Office of the Provost Harvard University 2012 Archived from the original PDF on May 23 2013 Retrieved June 15 2013 Kurt Daniel What Harvard Actually Costs Investopedia Retrieved July 30 2020 a b Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013 Harvard University Library 2013 Archived from the original on June 9 2016 Retrieved January 3 2015 a b c The Nation s Largest Libraries A Listing By Volumes Held American Library Association May 2009 Retrieved August 19 2009 Speaking Volumes Harvard Gazette The President and Fellows of Harvard College February 26 1998 Archived from the original on September 9 1999 a b Harvard Media Relations Quick Facts Retrieved December 12 2019 Rachel Sugar May 29 2015 Where MacArthur Geniuses Went to College businessinsider com Retrieved November 5 2020 Top Producers us fulbrightonline org Retrieved November 4 2020 Statistics www marshallscholarship org Retrieved November 2 2020 US Rhodes Scholars Over Time www rhodeshouse ox ac uk Retrieved November 23 2020 Harvard Stanford Yale Graduate Most Members of Congress The complete list of Fields Medal winners areppim AG 2014 Retrieved September 10 2015 Samuel Eliot Morison 1968 The Founding of Harvard College Harvard University Press p 330 ISBN 978 0 674 31450 4 The instrument behind New England s first literary flowering Harvard University March 8 2012 Retrieved January 18 2014 Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers The First North American Printing Press PDF Maritime Historical Studies Centre University of Hull Retrieved January 18 2014 John Harvard Facts Information The Columbia Encyclopedia Sixth Edition 2008 Retrieved July 17 2009 He bequeathed 780 half his estate and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge Mass which was named in his honor Wright Louis B 2002 The Cultural Life of the American Colonies p 116 ISBN 978 0 486 42223 7 Grigg John A Mancall Peter C 2008 British Colonial America People and Perspectives ABC CLIO p 47 ISBN 978 1 59884 025 4 Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs July 26 2007 Harvard guide intro Harvard University Archived from the original on July 26 2007 Retrieved August 29 2010 John Leverett History Office of the President Archived June 12 2010 at the Wayback Machine a b Gary J Dorrien The Making of American Liberal Theology Imagining Progressive Religion 1805 1900 Volume 1 Westminster John Knox Press 2001 Peter S Field Ralph Waldo Emerson The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman amp Littlefield 2003 ISBN 978 0 8476 8842 5 Shoemaker Stephen P 2006 2007 The Theological Roots of Charles W Eliot s Educational Reforms Journal of Unitarian Universalist History 31 30 45 Arader Galleries Iconic College Views Rummell Richard Littig amp Co 1915 Jerome Karabel 2006 The Chosen The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard Yale and Princeton p 23 ISBN 978 0 618 77355 8 Steinberg Stephen September 1 1971 How Jewish Quotas Began Commentary Retrieved September 10 2017 Johnson Dirk March 4 1986 YALE S LIMIT ON JEWISH ENROLLMENT LASTED UNTIL EARLY 1960 S BOOK SAYS The New York Times Lowell Tells Jews Limits at Colleges Might Help Them The New York Times June 17 1922 Anita Fay Kravitz The Harvard Report of 1945 An historical ethnography Ph D dissertation University of Pennsylvania 1994 367 pages AAT 9427558 Malka A Older 1996 Preparatory schools and the admissions process The Harvard Crimson January 24 1996 Powell Alvin October 1 2018 An update on Harvard s diversity inclusion efforts The Harvard Gazette Schwager Sally 2004 Taking up the Challenge The Origins of Radcliffe In Laurel Thatcher Ulrich ed Yards and Gates Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History New York Palgrave Macmillan p 115 ISBN 1 4039 6098 4 First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School 1945 Report Countway Repository Harvard University Library Retrieved May 2 2016 Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard Report Retrieved May 6 2016 Associated Press February 11 2007 Harvard Board Names First Woman President NBC News Retrieved August 8 2015 Harvard University names Lawrence Bacow its 29th president Fox News February 11 2018 Retrieved February 15 2018 The Houses Harvard College Dean of Students Office Retrieved December 13 2019 Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard President and Fellows of Harvard College 2016 Retrieved October 10 2016 Institutional Ownership Map Cambridge Massachusetts PDF Harvard Purchases Doubletree Hotel Building News The Harvard Crimson www thecrimson com Harvard continues its march into Allston with science complex Tim Logan Boston Globe April 14 2016 Retrieved September 30 2016 Allston Planning and Development Office of the Executive Vice President Harvard University Retrieved September 7 2016 Harvard unveils big campus expansion Svea Herbst Bayliss Reuters January 12 2007 Retrieved September 30 2016 O Rourke Brigid April 10 2020 SEAS moves opening of Science and Engineering Complex to spring semester 21 The Harvard Gazette Retrieved May 14 2020 Our Campus Retrieved December 20 2019 Concord Field Station mcz harvard edu Harvard University Retrieved March 4 2017 Villa I Tatti The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies Itatti it Retrieved June 30 2010 Shanghai Center Harvard edu Bethell John T Hunt Richard M Shenton Robert 2009 Harvard A to Z Harvard University Press pp 166 ISBN 978 0 674 02089 4 Burlington Free Press June 24 2009 page 11B Harvard to cut 275 jobs Associated Press Office of Institutional Research 2009 Harvard University Fact Book 2009 2010 PDF Archived from the original PDF on July 23 2011 Faculty Vidya B Viswanathan and Peter F Zhu March 5 2009 Residents Protest Vacancies in Allston Harvard Crimson Retrieved February 10 2011 Harvard Endowment Rises 4 4 Billion to 32 Billion Harvard Magazine Vol November December 2011 Retrieved December 13 2011 Beth Healy January 28 2010 Harvard endowment leads others down The Boston Globe Retrieved September 2 2010 Hechinger John December 4 2008 Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges The Wall Street Journal p A1 Munk Nina August 2009 Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard Vanity Fair Retrieved August 29 2010 Andrew M Rosenfield March 4 2009 Understanding Endowments Part I Forbes Retrieved August 29 2010 A Singular Mission Retrieved December 14 2019 Admissions Cuts Concern Some Graduate Students Retrieved December 14 2019 Financial Report PDF Retrieved December 14 2019 Alli Welton November 20 2012 Harvard Students Vote 72 Percent Support for Fossil Fuel Divestment The Nation Retrieved July 27 2015 Chaidez Alexandra A October 22 2019 Harvard Prison Divestment Campaign Delivers Report to Mass Hall The Harvard Crimson Retrieved December 15 2019 a b Michael C George David W Kaufman May 23 2012 Students Protest Investment in Apartheid South Africa The Harvard Crimson Retrieved July 27 2015 Anjali Cadambi September 19 2010 Harvard University community campaigns for divestment from apartheid South Africa 1977 1989 Global Nonviolent Action Database Retrieved July 27 2015 Robert Anthony Waters Jr March 20 2009 Historical Dictionary of United States Africa Relations Scarecrow Press p 77 ISBN 978 0 8108 6291 3 Harvard College A Brief History of Harvard College Harvard College Archived from the original on April 24 2011 Retrieved July 25 2011 a b c Carnegie Classifications Harvard University The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Retrieved August 28 2010 a b Liberal Arts amp Sciences Harvard College Retrieved December 12 2019 Degree Programs PDF Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook pp 28 30 Archived from the original PDF on September 9 2015 Retrieved August 28 2010 a b Degrees Awarded Office of Institutional Research Harvard University Retrieved December 13 2019 The Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science Degrees Harvard College Retrieved December 8 2019 Academic Information The Concentration Requirement Handbook for Students Harvard College Archived from the original on December 5 2010 Retrieved August 28 2010 How large are classes Harvard College Retrieved December 14 2019 Member Institutions and Years of Admission Association of American Universities Archived from the original on October 28 2012 Retrieved September 15 2013 Best Medical Schools Research U S News amp World Report Retrieved December 8 2019 Research at Harvard Medical School Harvard Medical School Retrieved December 9 2019 Which schools get the most research money U S News amp World Report Retrieved March 30 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020 National Regional Rank Shanghai Ranking Consultancy Retrieved August 15 2020 America s Top Colleges 2019 Forbes Retrieved August 15 2019 Wall Street Journal Times Higher Education College Rankings 2021 The Wall Street Journal Times Higher Education Retrieved October 20 2020 2021 Best National University Rankings U S News amp World Report Retrieved September 24 2020 2020 National University Rankings Washington Monthly Retrieved August 31 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020 Shanghai Ranking Consultancy 2020 Retrieved August 15 2020 QS World University Rankings 2022 Quacquarelli Symonds Retrieved June 18 2021 World University Rankings 2021 Times Higher Education Retrieved September 2 2020 2021 Best Global Universities Rankings U S News amp World Report Retrieved October 20 2020 Harvard University s Graduate School Rankings U S News amp World Report Retrieved April 27 2020 Harvard University U S News Global University Rankings U S News amp World Report Retrieved April 27 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities Harvard University Ranking Profile Shanghai Ranking Consultancy Retrieved July 29 2018 World Reputation Rankings 2016 Times Higher Education 2016 Retrieved September 7 2016 SCImago Institutions Rankings Higher Education All Regions and Countries 2019 Overall Rank www scimagoir com Lombardi John V Abbey Craig W Craig Diane D 2020 The Top American Research Universities 2019 Annual Report PDF mup umass edu Retrieved July 17 2021 Massachusetts Institutions NECHE New England Commission of Higher Education retrieved May 26 2021 World Ranking University Ranking by Academic Performance Retrieved January 22 2020 College Hopes amp Worries Press Release PR Newswire 2016 Retrieved September 7 2016 Princeton Review s 2012 College Hopes amp Worries Survey Reports on 10 650 Students amp Parents Top 10 Dream Colleges and Application Perspectives PR Newswire 2012 Retrieved December 10 2019 2019 College Hopes amp Worries Press Release 2019 Retrieved December 10 2019 Harvard is 3 in World University Engineering Rankings 2019 Retrieved December 10 2019 Student Enrollment Data Office of Institutional Research Retrieved December 14 2019 a Law School Student Government 1 b School of Education Student Council 2 c Kennedy School Student Government 3 d Design School Student Forum 4 e Student Council of Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Dental Medicine 5 Harvard Women s Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University Gocrimson com August 9 2012 Retrieved July 5 2013 Yale and Harvard Defeat Oxford Cambridge Team Yale University Athletics Archived from the original on October 13 2011 Retrieved September 13 2011 The Harvard Guide Financial Aid at Harvard Harvard University September 2 2006 Archived from the original on September 2 2006 Retrieved August 29 2010 Bracken Chris A game unlike any other yaledailynews com Retrieved September 9 2020 2020 Rhodes Mitchell Scholars named harvard edu Retrieved November 25 2020 Five Harvard students named Rhodes Scholars The Harvard Gazette Retrieved November 24 2019 Kathleen Elkins May 18 2018 More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford MIT and Yale combined CNBC Retrieved October 1 2019 Statistics www marshallscholarship org Pulitzer Prize Winners Harvard University Retrieved February 2 2018 Companies Entrepreneurship Harvard Business School entrepreneurship hbs edu Retrieved March 28 2019 Barzilay Karen N The Education of John Adams Massachusetts Historical Society Retrieved September 20 2020 John Quincy Adams The White House Retrieved September 21 2020 Hogan Margaret A October 4 2016 John Quincy Adams Life Before the Presidency Miller Center Retrieved September 21 2020 HLS s first alumnus elected as President Rutherford B Hayes Harvard Law Today Retrieved September 21 2020 Theodore Roosevelt Biographical Nobel Foundation Retrieved September 21 2020 Leuchtenburg William E October 4 2016 Franklin D Roosevelt Life Before the Presidency Miller Center Retrieved September 21 2020 Selverstone Marc J October 4 2016 John F Kennedy Life Before the Presidency Miller Center Retrieved September 21 2020 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Biographical www nobelprize org Retrieved October 14 2020 L Gregg II Gary October 4 2016 George W Bush Life Before the Presidency Miller Center Retrieved September 21 2020 Press release The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 nobelprize org Nobel Foundation Retrieved October 14 2020 Barack Obama Life Before the Presidency Miller Center October 4 2016 Retrieved September 21 2020 Barack H Obama Biographical Nobel Foundation Retrieved September 21 2020 Thomas Sarah September 24 2010 Social Network taps other campuses for Harvard role Boston com In the grammar of film Harvard has come to mean both tradition and a certain amount of stuffiness Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston can get this idea that it s all trust fund babies and ivy covered walls King Michael 2002 Wrestling with the Angel p 371 praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP ish class Halberstam Michael J February 18 1953 White Shoe and Weak Will Harvard Crimson The book is written slickly but without distinction The book will be quick enjoyable reading for all Harvard men Yardley Jonathan December 23 2009 Second Reading The Washington Post a balanced and impressive novel is a judgment with which I agree Du Bois William February 1 1953 Out of a Jitter and Fritter World The New York Times p BR5 exhibits Mr Phillips talent at its finest John Phillips The Second Happiest Day Southwest Review 38 p 267 So when the critics say the author of The Second Happiest Day is a new Fitzgerald we think they may be right a b Schwartz Nathaniel L September 21 1999 University Hollywood Relationship Not Always a Love Story Harvard Crimson Retrieved September 15 2013 Sarah Thomas September 24 2010 Social Network taps other campuses for Harvard role boston com Never Having To Say You re Sorry for 25 Years Harvard Crimson June 3 1996 Retrieved September 15 2013 Vinciguerra Thomas August 20 2010 The Disease Fatal The Treatment Mockery The New York Times Gewertz Ken February 8 1996 A Many Splendored Love Story Movie filmed at Harvard 25 years ago helped to define a generation Harvard University Gazette Walsh Colleen October 2 2012 The Paper Chase at 40 Harvard Gazette BibliographyAbelmann Walter H ed The Harvard MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology The First 25 Years 1970 1995 2004 346 pp Beecher Henry K and Altschule Mark D Medicine at Harvard The First 300 Years 1977 569 pp Bentinck Smith William ed The Harvard Book Selections from Three Centuries 2d ed 1982 499 pp Bethell John T Hunt Richard M and Shenton Robert Harvard A to Z 2004 396 pp excerpt and text search Bethell John T Harvard Observed An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century Harvard University Press 1998 ISBN 0 674 37733 8 Bunting Bainbridge Harvard An Architectural History 1985 350 pp Carpenter Kenneth E The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library Description of an Exhibition 1986 216 pp Cuno James et al Harvard s Art Museums 100 Years of Collecting 1996 364 pp Elliott Clark A and Rossiter Margaret W eds Science at Harvard University Historical Perspectives 1992 380 pp Hall Max Harvard University Press A History 1986 257 pp Hay Ida Science in the Pleasure Ground A History of the Arnold Arboretum 1995 349 pp Hoerr John We Can t Eat Prestige The Women Who Organized Harvard Temple University Press 1997 ISBN 1 56639 535 6 Howells Dorothy Elia A Century to Celebrate Radcliffe College 1879 1979 1978 152 pp Keller Morton and Phyllis Keller Making Harvard Modern The Rise of America s University 2001 major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition Lewis Harry R Excellence Without a Soul How a Great University Forgot Education 2006 ISBN 1 58648 393 5 Morison Samuel Eliot Three Centuries of Harvard 1636 1936 1986 512pp excerpt and text search Powell Arthur G The Uncertain Profession Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority 1980 341 pp Reid Robert Year One An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School 1994 331 pp Rosovsky Henry The University An Owner s Manual 1991 312 pp Rosovsky Nitza The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe 1986 108 pp Seligman Joel The High Citadel The Influence of Harvard Law School 1978 262 pp Sollors Werner Titcomb Caldwell and Underwood Thomas A eds Blacks at Harvard A Documentary History of African American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe 1993 548 pp Trumpbour John ed How Harvard Rules Reason in the Service of Empire Boston South End Press 1989 ISBN 0 89608 283 0 Ulrich Laurel Thatcher ed Yards and Gates Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History New York Palgrave Macmillan 2004 337 pp Winsor Mary P Reading the Shape of Nature Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum 1991 324 pp Wright Conrad Edick Revolutionary Generation Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence 2005 298 pp External linksHarvard Universityat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Scholia has an organization profile for Harvard University Official website Harvard University at College Navigator a tool from the National Center for Education StatisticsRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Harvard 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