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Institute for Advanced Study

This article is about the institute in Princeton, New Jersey. For other institutions with the same or similar names, see Institute for Advanced Study (disambiguation).

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. It has served as the academic home of internationally preeminent scholars, including J. Robert Oppenheimer and, Albert Einstein, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann, and Kurt Gödel, after they immigrated to the United States.

Institute for Advanced Study
MottoTruth and Beauty
TypePrivate
Established1930; 91 years ago (1930)
FounderAbraham Flexner
Endowment$784.7 million (2020)
DirectorRobbert Dijkgraaf
Academic staff
25 (current faculty only)
Administrative staff
26
StudentsNone
Location,,
US
CampusSuburban
Websiteias.edu

It was founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees.

Flexner's guiding principle in founding the institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. The faculty have no classes to teach. There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the institute. Research is never contracted or directed. It is left to each individual researcher to pursue their own goals. Established during the rise of fascism in Europe, the institute played a key role in the transfer of intellectual capital from Europe to America. It quickly earned its reputation as the pinnacle of academic and scientific life—a reputation it has retained.

The institute consists of four schools: Historical Studies, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. The institute also has a program in theoretical biology.

It is supported entirely by endowments, grants, and gifts. It is one of eight American mathematics institutes funded by the National Science Foundation. It is the model for the other eight members of the consortium Some Institutes for Advanced Study.

Contents

Founding

Oswald Veblen (photo ca. 1915)

The institute was founded in 1930 by Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. Flexner was interested in education generally and as early as 1890 he had founded an experimental school which had no formal curriculum, exams, or grades. It was a great success at preparing students for prestigious colleges and this same philosophy would later guide him in the founding of the Institute for Advanced Study. Flexner's study of medical schools, the 1910 Flexner Report, played a major role in the reform of medical education. Flexner had studied European schools such as Heidelberg University, All Souls College, Oxford, and the Collège de France–and he wanted to establish a similar advanced research center in the United States.

In his autobiography Abraham Flexner reports a phone call which he received in the fall of 1929 from representatives of the Bamberger siblings that led to their partnership and the eventual founding of the IAS:

I was working quietly one day when the telephone rang and I was asked to see two gentlemen who wished to discuss with me the possible uses to which a considerable sum of money might be placed. At our interview, I informed them that my competency was limited to the education field and that in this field it seemed to me that the time was ripe for the creation in America of an institute in the field of general scholarship and science, resembling the Rockefeller Institute in the field of medicine—developed by my brother Simon—not a graduate school, training men in the known and to some extent in methods of research, but an institute where everyone—faculty and members—took for granted what was known and published, and in their individual ways, endeavored to advance the frontiers of knowledge.

The Bamberger siblings wanted to use the proceeds from the sale of their Bamberger’s department store in Newark, New Jersey, to fund a dental school as an expression of gratitude to the state of New Jersey. Flexner convinced them to put their money in the service of more abstract research. (There was a brush with near-disaster when the Bambergers pulled their money out of the market just before the Crash of 1929.) The eminent topologist Oswald Veblen at Princeton University, who had long been trying to found a high-level research institute in mathematics, urged Flexner to locate the new institute near Princeton where it would be close to an existing center of learning and a world-class library. In 1932 Veblen resigned from Princeton and became the first professor in the new Institute for Advanced Study. He selected most of the original faculty and also helped the institute acquire land in Princeton for both the original facility and future expansion.

Flexner and Veblen set out to recruit the best mathematicians and physicists they could find. The rise of fascism and the associated anti-semitism forced many prominent mathematicians to flee Europe and some, such as Einstein and Hermann Weyl (whose wife was Jewish), found a home at the new institute. Weyl as a condition of accepting insisted that the institute also appoint the thirty-year-old Austrian-Hungarian polymath John von Neumann. Indeed, the IAS became the key lifeline for scholars fleeing Europe. Einstein was Flexner's first coup and shortly after that he was followed by Veblen's brilliant student James Alexander and the wunderkind of logic Kurt Gödel. Flexner was fortunate in the luminaries he directly recruited but also in the people that they brought along with them. Thus, by 1934 the fledgeling institute was led by six of the most prominent mathematicians in the world. In 1935 quantum physics pioneer Wolfgang Pauli became a faculty member. With the opening of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton replaced Göttingen as the leading center for mathematics in the twentieth century.

Early years

For the six years from its opening in 1933, until Fuld Hall was finished and opened in 1939, the institute was housed within Princeton University—in Fine Hall, which housed Princeton's mathematics department. Princeton University's science departments are less than two miles away and informal ties and collaboration between the two institutions occurred from the beginning. This helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the University, one that has never been completely eradicated.

On June 4, 1930, the Bambergers wrote as follows to the institute's trustees:

It is fundamental in our purpose, and our express desire, that in the appointments to the staff and faculty, as well as in the admission of workers and students, no account shall be taken, directly or indirectly, of race, religion, or sex. We feel strongly that the spirit characteristic of America at its noblest, above all the pursuit of higher learning, cannot admit of any conditions as to personnel other than those designed to promote the objects for which this institution is established, and particularly with no regard whatever to accidents of race, creed, or sex.

Bamberger's policy did not prevent racial discrimination by Princeton. When African-American mathematician William S. Claytor applied to the IAS in 1937, Princeton University said they "would not permit any colored person to go to the Institute for Advanced Study." It was not until 1939, when the institute had moved into its own building, that Veblen was able to offer Claytor a position; but this time Claytor turned it down on principle.

left to right: Albert Einstein Abraham Flexner, John R. Hardin, and Herbert Maass at the IAS on May 22, 1939

Flexner had successfully assembled a faculty of unrivaled prestige in the School of Mathematics which officially opened in 1933. He sought to equal this success in the founding of schools of economics and humanities but this proved to be more difficult. The School of Humanistic Studies and the School of Economics and Politics were established in 1935. All three schools along with the office of the Director moved into the newly built Fuld Hall in 1939. (Ultimately the schools of Humanistic Studies and Economics and Politics were merged into the present day School of Historical Studies established in 1949.) In the beginning, the School of Mathematics included physicists as well as mathematicians. A separate School of Natural Sciences was not established until 1966. The School of Social Science was founded in 1973.

In a 1939 essay Flexner emphasized how James Clerk Maxwell, driven only by a desire to know, did abstruse calculations in the field of magnetism and electricity and that these investigations led in a direct line to the entire electrical development of modern times. Citing Maxwell and other theoretical scientists such as Gauss, Faraday, Ehrlich and Einstein, Flexner said, "Throughout the whole history of science most of the really great discoveries which have ultimately proved to be beneficial to mankind have been made by men and women who were driven not by the desire to be useful but merely the desire to satisfy their curiosity."

Fuld Hall

The IAS Bluebook says:[full citation needed]

The Institute for Advanced Study is one of the few institutions in the world where the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is the ultimate raison d'être. Speculative research, the kind that is fundamental to the advancement of human understanding of the world of nature and of humanity, is not a product that can be made to order. Rather, like artistic creativity, it benefits from a special environment.

This was the belief to which Flexner clung passionately, and which continues to inspire the institute today.

Institute for Advanced Study campus

From the day it opened the IAS had a major impact on mathematics, physics, economic theory, and world affairs. In mathematics forty-two out of sixty-one Fields Medalists have been affiliated with the institute. Thirty-four Nobel Laureates have been working at the IAS. Of the sixteen Abel Prizes awarded since the establishment of that award in 2003, nine were garnered by Institute professors or visiting scholars. Of the fifty-six Cole Prizes awarded since the establishment of that award in 1928, thirty-nine have gone to scholars associated with the IAS at some point in their career. IAS people have won 20 Wolf Prizes in mathematics and physics. Its more than 6,000 former members hold positions of intellectual and scientific leadership throughout the academic world.

Pioneering work on the theory of the stored-program computer as laid down by Alan Turing was done at the IAS by John von Neumann, and the IAS machine built in the basement of the Fuld Hall from 1942 to 1951 under von Neumann's direction introduced the basic architecture of all modern digital computers. The IAS is the leading center of research in string theory and its generalization M-theory introduced by Edward Witten at the IAS in 1995. The Langlands program, a far-reaching approach which unites parts of geometry, mathematical analysis, and number theory was introduced by Robert Langlands, the mathematician who now occupies Albert Einstein's old office at the institute. Langlands was inspired by the work of Hermann Weyl, André Weil, and Harish-Chandra, all scholars with wide-ranging ties to the institute, and the IAS maintains the key repository for the papers of Langlands and the Langlands program. The IAS is a main center of research for homotopy type theory, a modern approach to the foundations of mathematics which is not based on classical set theory. A special year organized by Institute professor Vladimir Voevodsky and others resulted in a benchmark book in the subject which was published by the institute in 2013.

The institute is or has been the academic home of many of the best minds of their generation. Among them are James Waddell Alexander II, Michael Atiyah, Enrico Bombieri, Shiing-Shen Chern, Pierre Deligne, Freeman J. Dyson, Albert Einstein, Clifford Geertz, Kurt Gödel, Albert Hirschman, George F. Kennan, Tsung-Dao Lee, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Erwin Panofsky, Atle Selberg, John von Neumann, André Weil, Hermann Weyl, Frank Wilczek, Edward Witten, Chen-Ning Yang and Shing-Tung Yau.

Flexner's vision of the kind of results that can emerge in an institution devoted to the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is illustrated by the "Special Year" programs sponsored by the IAS School of Mathematics. For example, in 2012–13 researchers at the IAS school of mathematics held A Special Year on Univalent Foundations of Mathematics. Intuitionistic type theory was created by the Swedish logician Per Martin-Löf's in 1972 to serve as an alternative to set theory as a foundation for mathematics. The special year brought together researchers in topology, computer science, category theory, and mathematical logic with the goal of formalizing and extending this theory of foundations. The program was organized by Steve Awodey, Thierry Coquand and Vladimir Voevodsky, and resulted in a book being published in homotopy type theory. The authors—more than 30 researchers ultimately contributed to the project—noted the essential contribution of the IAS saying,

Special thanks are due to the Institute for Advanced Study, without which this book would obviously never have come to be. It proved to be an ideal setting for the creation of this new branch of mathematics: stimulating, congenial, and supportive. May some trace of this unique atmosphere linger in the pages of this book, and in the future development of this new field of study.

The Univalent Foundations Program, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, April 2013

One of the researchers, Andrej Bauer said,

We are a group of two dozen mathematicians who wrote a 600 page book in less than half a year. This is quite amazing, since mathematicians do not normally work together in large groups. But more importantly, the spirit of collaboration that pervaded our group at the Institute for Advanced Study was truly amazing. We did not fragment. We talked, shared ideas, explained things to each other, and completely forgot who did what.

Andrej Bauer, Mathematics and Computation, June 20, 2013

The book, informally known as The HoTT book, is freely available online.

The institute's founding premise, that individuals with lifetime tenure and no assigned duties will produce the most outstanding scholarship,[citation needed] is not universally shared. One critic was Richard Feynman, who argued that the IAS does not offer real activity or challenge:

When I was at Princeton in the 1940s I could see what happened to those great minds at the Institute for Advanced Study, who had been specially selected for their tremendous brains and were now given this opportunity to sit in this lovely house by the woods there, with no classes to teach, with no obligations whatsoever. These poor bastards could now sit and think clearly all by themselves, OK? So they don't get any ideas for a while: They have every opportunity to do something, and they're not getting any ideas. I believe that in a situation like this a kind of guilt or depression worms inside of you, and you begin to worry about not getting any ideas. And nothing happens. Still no ideas come. Nothing happens because there's not enough real activity and challenge: You're not in contact with the experimental guys. You don't have to think how to answer questions from the students. Nothing!

The IAS in Princeton is widely recognized as the world's first Institute for Advanced Study. Despite later imitators of the institute's model, it took years before any similar institutions were founded. The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford was the first such spinoff in 1954. This was followed by the National Humanities Center founded in North Carolina in 1978. These two institutions eventually became the core of a consortium known as Some Institutes for Advanced Study (SIAS). The SIAS consortium includes the original institute in Princeton and nine other institutes founded explicitly to emulate the model of the original IAS. These ten Institutes for Advanced Study are:

In recent years there have been other institutes loosely based on the Princeton original, in some cases established with help from IAS professors. In 1997 IAS professor Chen-Ning Yang helped the Chinese set up the Institute for Advanced Study at Tsinghua University in Beijing. The Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies in Freiburg, Germany was founded in 2007, with IAS director at the time Peter Goddard giving the inaugural address. Princeton IAS professors André Weil and Armand Borel helped to establish close contacts with the Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics, founded in 1967 as part of the University of Madras in India.

The prestigious Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) founded in 1958 just south of Paris is universally acknowledged to be the French counterpart of the IAS in Princeton. Princeton Institute director Robert Oppenheimer had a close relationship with IHÉS founder Léon Motchane and played a major role in helping to get it established.

Neither the Princeton IAS nor SIAS is connected with, and should not be confused with, the Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies which comprises some twenty research institutes located throughout Great Britain and Ireland. The name Institute for Advanced Study, along with the acronym IAS, is also used by various other independent institutions throughout the world, some having little to do with the Princeton model. See Institute for Advanced Study (disambiguation) for a complete list.

At any given time, the IAS has a faculty consisting of twenty-eight eminent academics who are appointed for life. Although the faculty do not teach classes (because there are none), they often do give lectures at their own initiative and have the title Professor along with the prestige associated with that title. Furthermore, they direct research and serve as the nucleus of a larger and generally younger group of scholars, whom they have the power to select and invite. Each year fellowships are awarded to about 190 visiting members from over 100 universities and research institutions who come to the institute for periods from one term to a few years. Individuals must apply to become members of the institute, and each of the schools has its own application procedures and deadlines.

Directors of the IAS
Name Term
Abraham Flexner 1930–1939
Frank Aydelotte 1939–1947
J. Robert Oppenheimer 1947–1966
Carl Kaysen 1966–1976
Harry Woolf 1976–1987
Marvin Leonard Goldberger 1987–1991
Phillip Griffiths 1991–2003
Peter Goddard 2004–2012
Robbert Dijkgraaf 2012–present

The IAS owns over 600 acres of land, most of which was acquired between 1936 and 1945. Since 1997 the Institute has preserved 589 acres of woods, wetlands, and farmland. By 1936, for total of $290,000, the founding trustees of the IAS had purchased 256 acres, including the two-hundred-acre Olden Farm with Olden Manor, which was the former home of William Olden. Olden Manor, with its extensive gardens, has been, since 1940, the residence of the institute's Director.

Olden Manor is a substantial dwelling owned and maintained by the Institute and located on its main campus on Olden Lane in Princeton Township. It is the principal residence of the Director and his family, to whom it is furnished rent-free and as a term of his employment. It is also used by the Director, on behalf of the Institute, for official entertainment and for numerous faculty and trustees' meetings and conferences.

  1. As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. February 19, 2021. RetrievedFebruary 20, 2021.
  2. "Faculty & Emeriti". Retrieved2021-06-19.
  3. "Administration". Retrieved2021-06-19.
  4. Institute for Advanced Study: Frequently Asked Questions What is the relationship between the Institute and Princeton University?
  5. Jogalekar.
  6. Nevins pp. 45–46.
  7. Institute For Advanced Study Frees Scholar From Class, Tests, Students The Harvard Crimson, November 7, 1953
  8. Reisz.
  9. Leitch (1978).
  10. Wittrock (1910).
  11. Arntzenius, Introduction p. iii.
  12. Flexner (1910).
  13. Bonner, p. 237.
  14. Abraham Flexner: his life and legacy by M. Saleem Seyal, MD, Hektoen International Journal: A Journal of Medical Humanities, Summer 2013
  15. Gunderman.
  16. Review of Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning in Times Higher Education, December 19, 2003: "his inspiration was All Souls College in Oxford"
  17. Flexner (1930), pp. 362-363.
  18. University of Freiberg: Opening ceremonial of the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, in German
  19. Flexner (1960), p. 232.
  20. Nasar, pp. 51-55.
  21. Axtell (2007).
  22. Nasar, p. 55.
  23. Villani p. 62-63.
  24. Feuer, p. 98.
  25. Bonner, pp. 247-248.
  26. Leitch (1995).
  27. Documents located at Princeton University in the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library: The Princeton Mathematics Community in the 1930s Archived 2017-01-07 at the Wayback Machine, "Veblen was instrumental both in envisioning the Institute before the circumstances led to its creation as well as ... the initial selection of members for the Institute."
  28. Villani p. 63. "After several years of patient negotiation the Bambergers succeeded in luring away the very best, one after another. Einstein came in 1933. Then Godel. Weyl. Von Neumann. And many more ... As the political climate in Europe became increasingly unbearable for Jewish scientists and their friends, the world's scientific center of gravity shifted from Germany to the United States."
  29. Arntzenius, p. 8.
  30. Nasar, p. 54.
  31. Grattan-Guinness, p. 1518-19.
  32. Nasar, p. 53.
  33. Batterson.
  34. Edwards.
  35. Review of "Alan Turing: The Enigma" By James Case, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, March 2, 2015.
  36. Axtell, p. 95.
  37. Regis, p. 26.
  38. Pais p. 64.
  39. William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor at the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive
  40. Bonner, From the first, an invitation to come to the institute was viewed as a mark of prestige. p. 256
  41. Institute for Advanced Study (1940), p. 3
  42. Institute for Advanced Study (2010), p. 2
  43. Institute for Advanced Study (2013): IAS Bluebook, p. 16
  44. Batterson p. 142.
  45. Institute for Advanced Study (2014), p. 42
  46. Flexner (1939).
  47. Big Ideas: Big Thinkers: The faculty of the Institute for Advanced Study are changing the way we look at the world. Thirteen/WNET
  48. Fields Medal Winners Affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study as of August 2014
  49. Nobel Prize Winners affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study as of February 2012
  50. IAS pages for All Scholars
  51. The Abel Prize Laureates
  52. Wolfram Mathworld: Cole Prize winners
  53. "Wolf Foundation General Information". Wolf Foundation.
  54. PBS Series: Big Ideas
  55. Dyson, pp. 82-86, 274.
  56. Smithsonian: The National Museum of American History: IAS Computer
  57. In Fake Universes, Evidence for String Theory by Natalie Wolchover, Quanta Magazine, February 18, 2015
  58. Institute for Advanced Study (2010)
  59. Frenkel, p. 4.
  60. Institute for Advanced Study: The Work of Robert Langlands collected as an archive in uniform TeX format
  61. IAS school of mathematics: Special Year on The Univalent Foundations of Mathematics
  62. Homotopy Type Theory: Univalent Foundations of Mathematics
  63. A day at Genius Camp: getting dumb in Einstein's paradise, By Katie Drummond, The Verge, October 4, 2013
  64. Institute for Advanced Study: Special Year Programs
  65. "Univalent Foundations of Mathematics". Retrieved19 July 2015.
  66. "The HoTT book (finished)". Retrieved19 July 2015.
  67. "The HoTT Book (obtaining)". Homotopy Type Theory. 12 March 2013. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved10 December 2017.
  68. Reisz. "The Princeton IAS proved a hard act to follow. It was not until 1954 that a similar institute was founded."
  69. Hebrew U. Institute for Advanced Studies accepted into international ‘Ivy League’ of advanced institutes press release by The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, July 15, 2007
  70. STIAS joins prestigious international group press release by STIAS, September 13, 2018
  71. Tsinghua University Institute for Advanced Study: Founding
  72. Ramanujan Institute For Advanced Study In Mathematics
  73. Alexander Grothendieck Obituary Le Monde, November 11, 2014
  74. "On the occasion of receiving the Seki Takakazu Prize"(PDF). Mathematical Society of Japan.
  75. Oppenheimer and IHÉS (1958-1967) Archived 2016-02-04 at the Wayback Machine, Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques
  76. Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies School of Advanced Study: University of London
  77. Times Higher Education: Local but not global April 3, 2008
  78. "A Community of Scholars". Retrieved19 July 2015.
  79. Institute for Advanced Study (2015): Mission and History
  80. Robbert Dijkgraaf Appointed Director of Institute for Advanced Study Akademie van Wetenschappen, 14 November 2011
  81. "Campus & Lands". Institute for Advanced Study (ias.org).
  82. "Acquiring the Land". Institute for Advanced Study (ias.edu).
  83. "Olden Manor, 91 Olden Lane". Historical Society of Princeton (princetonhistory.org).
  84. "Olden Manor". Princeton, NJ (princetonnj.gov).
  85. Bird, Kai; Sherwin, Martin J. (18 December 2007). American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-307-42473-0.
  86. "Princeton Township v. Institute for Advanced Study". Justia U.S. Law.
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Coordinates:40°19′54″N74°40′04″W /40.33167°N 74.66778°W /40.33167; -74.66778

Institute for Advanced Study
institute, advanced, study, language, watch, edit, this, article, about, institute, princeton, jersey, other, institutions, with, same, similar, names, disambiguation, located, princeton, jersey, united, states, independent, center, theoretical, research, inte. Institute for Advanced Study Language Watch Edit This article is about the institute in Princeton New Jersey For other institutions with the same or similar names see Institute for Advanced Study disambiguation The Institute for Advanced Study IAS located in Princeton New Jersey in the United States is an independent center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry It has served as the academic home of internationally preeminent scholars including J Robert Oppenheimer and Albert Einstein Hermann Weyl John von Neumann and Kurt Godel after they immigrated to the United States Institute for Advanced StudyMottoTruth and BeautyTypePrivateEstablished1930 91 years ago 1930 FounderAbraham FlexnerEndowment 784 7 million 2020 1 DirectorRobbert DijkgraafAcademic staff25 2 current faculty only Administrative staff26 3 StudentsNoneLocationPrinceton New Jersey USCampusSuburbanWebsiteias wbr edu It was founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University Rutgers University and other nearby institutions it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees 4 Flexner s guiding principle in founding the institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake 5 The faculty have no classes to teach There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the institute Research is never contracted or directed It is left to each individual researcher to pursue their own goals 6 7 Established during the rise of fascism in Europe the institute played a key role in the transfer of intellectual capital from Europe to America It quickly earned its reputation as the pinnacle of academic and scientific life a reputation it has retained 8 9 10 The institute consists of four schools Historical Studies Mathematics Natural Sciences and Social Sciences The institute also has a program in theoretical biology It is supported entirely by endowments grants and gifts It is one of eight American mathematics institutes funded by the National Science Foundation 11 It is the model for the other eight members of the consortium Some Institutes for Advanced Study 10 Contents 1 History 1 1 Founding 1 2 Early years 2 Mission 3 Impact 4 Special Year Programs 5 Criticism 6 Other Institutes for Advanced Study 7 Directors faculty and members 8 Campus Lands Olden Farm and Olden Manor 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External linksHistory EditFounding Edit Abraham Flexner Louis Bamberger Caroline Bamberger Fuld Oswald Veblen photo ca 1915 The institute was founded in 1930 by Abraham Flexner together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld 12 13 Flexner was interested in education generally and as early as 1890 he had founded an experimental school which had no formal curriculum exams or grades It was a great success at preparing students for prestigious colleges and this same philosophy would later guide him in the founding of the Institute for Advanced Study 14 Flexner s study of medical schools the 1910 Flexner Report played a major role in the reform of medical education 15 Flexner had studied European schools such as Heidelberg University All Souls College Oxford and the College de France and he wanted to establish a similar advanced research center in the United States 16 17 18 In his autobiography Abraham Flexner reports a phone call which he received in the fall of 1929 from representatives of the Bamberger siblings that led to their partnership and the eventual founding of the IAS 19 I was working quietly one day when the telephone rang and I was asked to see two gentlemen who wished to discuss with me the possible uses to which a considerable sum of money might be placed At our interview I informed them that my competency was limited to the education field and that in this field it seemed to me that the time was ripe for the creation in America of an institute in the field of general scholarship and science resembling the Rockefeller Institute in the field of medicine developed by my brother Simon not a graduate school training men in the known and to some extent in methods of research but an institute where everyone faculty and members took for granted what was known and published and in their individual ways endeavored to advance the frontiers of knowledge The Bamberger siblings wanted to use the proceeds from the sale of their Bamberger s department store in Newark New Jersey to fund a dental school as an expression of gratitude to the state of New Jersey 20 Flexner convinced them to put their money in the service of more abstract research 21 There was a brush with near disaster when the Bambergers pulled their money out of the market just before the Crash of 1929 22 23 The eminent topologist Oswald Veblen 24 at Princeton University who had long been trying to found a high level research institute in mathematics urged Flexner to locate the new institute near Princeton where it would be close to an existing center of learning and a world class library 25 In 1932 Veblen resigned from Princeton and became the first professor in the new Institute for Advanced Study He selected most of the original faculty and also helped the institute acquire land in Princeton for both the original facility and future expansion 26 27 Flexner and Veblen set out to recruit the best mathematicians and physicists they could find 26 The rise of fascism and the associated anti semitism forced many prominent mathematicians to flee Europe and some such as Einstein and Hermann Weyl whose wife was Jewish found a home at the new institute 28 Weyl as a condition of accepting insisted that the institute also appoint the thirty year old Austrian Hungarian polymath John von Neumann Indeed the IAS became the key lifeline for scholars fleeing Europe 29 Einstein was Flexner s first coup and shortly after that he was followed by Veblen s brilliant student James Alexander and the wunderkind of logic Kurt Godel 30 31 Flexner was fortunate in the luminaries he directly recruited but also in the people that they brought along with them 32 Thus by 1934 the fledgeling institute was led by six of the most prominent mathematicians in the world In 1935 quantum physics pioneer Wolfgang Pauli became a faculty member 33 With the opening of the Institute for Advanced Study Princeton replaced Gottingen as the leading center for mathematics in the twentieth century 34 35 Early years Edit For the six years from its opening in 1933 until Fuld Hall was finished and opened in 1939 the institute was housed within Princeton University in Fine Hall which housed Princeton s mathematics department 36 Princeton University s science departments are less than two miles away and informal ties and collaboration between the two institutions occurred from the beginning 9 This helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the University one that has never been completely eradicated 37 On June 4 1930 the Bambergers wrote as follows to the institute s trustees 38 It is fundamental in our purpose and our express desire that in the appointments to the staff and faculty as well as in the admission of workers and students no account shall be taken directly or indirectly of race religion or sex We feel strongly that the spirit characteristic of America at its noblest above all the pursuit of higher learning cannot admit of any conditions as to personnel other than those designed to promote the objects for which this institution is established and particularly with no regard whatever to accidents of race creed or sex Bamberger s policy did not prevent racial discrimination by Princeton When African American mathematician William S Claytor applied to the IAS in 1937 Princeton University said they would not permit any colored person to go to the Institute for Advanced Study It was not until 1939 when the institute had moved into its own building that Veblen was able to offer Claytor a position but this time Claytor turned it down on principle 39 left to right Albert Einstein Abraham Flexner John R Hardin and Herbert Maass at the IAS on May 22 1939 Flexner had successfully assembled a faculty of unrivaled prestige 40 in the School of Mathematics which officially opened in 1933 He sought to equal this success in the founding of schools of economics and humanities but this proved to be more difficult The School of Humanistic Studies and the School of Economics and Politics were established in 1935 All three schools along with the office of the Director moved into the newly built Fuld Hall in 1939 41 Ultimately the schools of Humanistic Studies and Economics and Politics were merged into the present day School of Historical Studies established in 1949 42 In the beginning the School of Mathematics included physicists as well as mathematicians A separate School of Natural Sciences was not established until 1966 43 44 The School of Social Science was founded in 1973 45 Mission EditIn a 1939 essay Flexner emphasized how James Clerk Maxwell driven only by a desire to know did abstruse calculations in the field of magnetism and electricity and that these investigations led in a direct line to the entire electrical development of modern times 5 Citing Maxwell and other theoretical scientists such as Gauss Faraday Ehrlich and Einstein Flexner said Throughout the whole history of science most of the really great discoveries which have ultimately proved to be beneficial to mankind have been made by men and women who were driven not by the desire to be useful but merely the desire to satisfy their curiosity 46 Fuld Hall The IAS Bluebook says full citation needed The Institute for Advanced Study is one of the few institutions in the world where the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is the ultimate raison d etre Speculative research the kind that is fundamental to the advancement of human understanding of the world of nature and of humanity is not a product that can be made to order Rather like artistic creativity it benefits from a special environment This was the belief to which Flexner clung passionately and which continues to inspire the institute today Impact Edit Institute for Advanced Study campus From the day it opened the IAS had a major impact on mathematics physics economic theory and world affairs 47 In mathematics forty two out of sixty one Fields Medalists have been affiliated with the institute 48 Thirty four Nobel Laureates have been working at the IAS 49 Of the sixteen Abel Prizes awarded since the establishment of that award in 2003 nine were garnered by Institute professors or visiting scholars 50 51 Of the fifty six Cole Prizes awarded since the establishment of that award in 1928 thirty nine have gone to scholars associated with the IAS at some point in their career 52 IAS people have won 20 Wolf Prizes in mathematics and physics 53 Its more than 6 000 former members hold positions of intellectual and scientific leadership throughout the academic world 54 Pioneering work on the theory of the stored program computer as laid down by Alan Turing was done at the IAS by John von Neumann and the IAS machine built in the basement of the Fuld Hall from 1942 to 1951 under von Neumann s direction introduced the basic architecture of all modern digital computers 34 55 56 The IAS is the leading center of research in string theory and its generalization M theory introduced by Edward Witten at the IAS in 1995 57 The Langlands program a far reaching approach which unites parts of geometry mathematical analysis and number theory was introduced by Robert Langlands the mathematician who now occupies Albert Einstein s old office at the institute 58 59 Langlands was inspired by the work of Hermann Weyl Andre Weil and Harish Chandra all scholars with wide ranging ties to the institute and the IAS maintains the key repository for the papers of Langlands and the Langlands program 60 The IAS is a main center of research for homotopy type theory a modern approach to the foundations of mathematics which is not based on classical set theory A special year organized by Institute professor Vladimir Voevodsky and others resulted in a benchmark book in the subject which was published by the institute in 2013 61 62 The institute is or has been the academic home of many of the best minds of their generation 63 Among them are James Waddell Alexander II Michael Atiyah Enrico Bombieri Shiing Shen Chern Pierre Deligne Freeman J Dyson Albert Einstein Clifford Geertz Kurt Godel Albert Hirschman George F Kennan Tsung Dao Lee J Robert Oppenheimer Erwin Panofsky Atle Selberg John von Neumann Andre Weil Hermann Weyl Frank Wilczek Edward Witten Chen Ning Yang and Shing Tung Yau Special Year Programs EditFlexner s vision of the kind of results that can emerge in an institution devoted to the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is illustrated by the Special Year programs sponsored by the IAS School of Mathematics 64 For example in 2012 13 researchers at the IAS school of mathematics held A Special Year on Univalent Foundations of Mathematics 65 Intuitionistic type theory was created by the Swedish logician Per Martin Lof s in 1972 to serve as an alternative to set theory as a foundation for mathematics The special year brought together researchers in topology computer science category theory and mathematical logic with the goal of formalizing and extending this theory of foundations The program was organized by Steve Awodey Thierry Coquand and Vladimir Voevodsky and resulted in a book being published in homotopy type theory 62 The authors more than 30 researchers ultimately contributed to the project noted the essential contribution of the IAS saying Special thanks are due to the Institute for Advanced Study without which this book would obviously never have come to be It proved to be an ideal setting for the creation of this new branch of mathematics stimulating congenial and supportive May some trace of this unique atmosphere linger in the pages of this book and in the future development of this new field of study 62 The Univalent Foundations Program Institute for Advanced Study Princeton April 2013 One of the researchers Andrej Bauer said We are a group of two dozen mathematicians who wrote a 600 page book in less than half a year This is quite amazing since mathematicians do not normally work together in large groups But more importantly the spirit of collaboration that pervaded our group at the Institute for Advanced Study was truly amazing We did not fragment We talked shared ideas explained things to each other and completely forgot who did what 66 Andrej Bauer Mathematics and Computation June 20 2013 The book informally known as The HoTT book is freely available online 67 Criticism EditThe institute s founding premise that individuals with lifetime tenure and no assigned duties will produce the most outstanding scholarship citation needed is not universally shared One critic was Richard Feynman who argued that the IAS does not offer real activity or challenge When I was at Princeton in the 1940s I could see what happened to those great minds at the Institute for Advanced Study who had been specially selected for their tremendous brains and were now given this opportunity to sit in this lovely house by the woods there with no classes to teach with no obligations whatsoever These poor bastards could now sit and think clearly all by themselves OK So they don t get any ideas for a while They have every opportunity to do something and they re not getting any ideas I believe that in a situation like this a kind of guilt or depression worms inside of you and you begin to worry about not getting any ideas And nothing happens Still no ideas come Nothing happens because there s not enough real activity and challenge You re not in contact with the experimental guys You don t have to think how to answer questions from the students Nothing Richard Feynman Surely You re Joking Mr Feynman 1985 page needed Other Institutes for Advanced Study EditThe IAS in Princeton is widely recognized as the world s first Institute for Advanced Study 8 Despite later imitators of the institute s model it took years before any similar institutions were founded The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford was the first such spinoff in 1954 This was followed by the National Humanities Center founded in North Carolina in 1978 68 These two institutions eventually became the core of a consortium known as Some Institutes for Advanced Study SIAS The SIAS consortium includes the original institute in Princeton and nine other institutes founded explicitly to emulate the model of the original IAS These ten Institutes for Advanced Study are 10 69 70 Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford California National Humanities Center in North Carolina Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in Cambridge Massachusetts Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in Amsterdam the Netherlands until 2016 in Wassenaar Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in Uppsala Sweden Berlin Institute for Advanced Study in Berlin Germany Israel Institute for Advanced Studies in Jerusalem Israel Nantes Institute for Advanced Study Foundation in Nantes France Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study in Stellenbosch South Africa Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton New Jersey In recent years there have been other institutes loosely based on the Princeton original in some cases established with help from IAS professors In 1997 IAS professor Chen Ning Yang helped the Chinese set up the Institute for Advanced Study at Tsinghua University in Beijing 71 The Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies in Freiburg Germany was founded in 2007 with IAS director at the time Peter Goddard giving the inaugural address 18 Princeton IAS professors Andre Weil and Armand Borel helped to establish close contacts with the Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics founded in 1967 as part of the University of Madras in India 72 The prestigious Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques IHES founded in 1958 just south of Paris is universally acknowledged to be the French counterpart of the IAS in Princeton 73 74 Princeton Institute director Robert Oppenheimer had a close relationship with IHES founder Leon Motchane and played a major role in helping to get it established 75 Neither the Princeton IAS nor SIAS is connected with and should not be confused with the Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies which comprises some twenty research institutes located throughout Great Britain and Ireland 76 The name Institute for Advanced Study along with the acronym IAS is also used by various other independent institutions throughout the world some having little to do with the Princeton model 77 See Institute for Advanced Study disambiguation for a complete list Directors faculty and members EditMain article List of faculty members at the Institute for Advanced Study At any given time the IAS has a faculty consisting of twenty eight eminent academics who are appointed for life Although the faculty do not teach classes because there are none they often do give lectures at their own initiative and have the title Professor along with the prestige associated with that title Furthermore they direct research and serve as the nucleus of a larger and generally younger group of scholars whom they have the power to select and invite 78 Each year fellowships are awarded to about 190 visiting members from over 100 universities and research institutions who come to the institute for periods from one term to a few years Individuals must apply to become members of the institute and each of the schools has its own application procedures and deadlines 79 Directors of the IASName TermAbraham Flexner 1930 1939Frank Aydelotte 1939 1947J Robert Oppenheimer 1947 1966Carl Kaysen 1966 1976Harry Woolf 1976 1987Marvin Leonard Goldberger 1987 1991Phillip Griffiths 1991 2003Peter Goddard 2004 2012Robbert Dijkgraaf 2012 present 80 Campus Lands Olden Farm and Olden Manor EditThe IAS owns over 600 acres of land most of which was acquired between 1936 and 1945 Since 1997 the Institute has preserved 589 acres of woods wetlands and farmland 81 By 1936 for total of 290 000 the founding trustees of the IAS had purchased 256 acres including the two hundred acre Olden Farm with Olden Manor which was the former home of William Olden 82 83 84 Olden Manor with its extensive gardens 85 has been since 1940 the residence of the institute s Director 82 Olden Manor is a substantial dwelling owned and maintained by the Institute and located on its main campus on Olden Lane in Princeton Township It is the principal residence of the Director and his family to whom it is furnished rent free and as a term of his employment It is also used by the Director on behalf of the Institute for official entertainment and for numerous faculty and trustees meetings and conferences 86 See also EditList of Nobel laureates affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study List of Fields medalists affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study List of Cole Prize winners affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study List of Wolf Prize winners affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study List of Brouwer medalists affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study Some Institutes for Advanced StudyReferences Edit As of June 30 2020 U S and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 Report National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA February 19 2021 Retrieved February 20 2021 Faculty amp Emeriti Retrieved 2021 06 19 Administration Retrieved 2021 06 19 Institute for Advanced Study Frequently Asked Questions What is the relationship between the Institute and Princeton University a b Jogalekar Nevins pp 45 46 Institute For Advanced Study Frees Scholar From Class Tests Students The Harvard Crimson November 7 1953 a b Reisz a b Leitch 1978 a b c Wittrock 1910 Arntzenius Introduction p iii Flexner 1910 Bonner p 237 Abraham Flexner his life and legacy by M Saleem Seyal MD Hektoen International Journal A Journal of Medical Humanities Summer 2013 Gunderman Review of Iconoclast Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning in Times Higher Education December 19 2003 his inspiration was All Souls College in Oxford Flexner 1930 pp 362 363 a b University of Freiberg Opening ceremonial of the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies in German Flexner 1960 p 232 Nasar pp 51 55 Axtell 2007 Nasar p 55 Villani p 62 63 Feuer p 98 Bonner pp 247 248 a b Leitch 1995 Documents located at Princeton University in the Seeley G Mudd Manuscript Library The Princeton Mathematics Community in the 1930s Archived 2017 01 07 at the Wayback Machine Veblen was instrumental both in envisioning the Institute before the circumstances led to its creation as well as the initial selection of members for the Institute Villani p 63 After several years of patient negotiation the Bambergers succeeded in luring away the very best one after another Einstein came in 1933 Then Godel Weyl Von Neumann And many more As the political climate in Europe became increasingly unbearable for Jewish scientists and their friends the world s scientific center of gravity shifted from Germany to the United States Arntzenius p 8 Nasar p 54 Grattan Guinness p 1518 19 Nasar p 53 Batterson a b Edwards Review of Alan Turing The Enigma By James Case Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics March 2 2015 Axtell p 95 Regis p 26 Pais p 64 William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor at the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive Bonner From the first an invitation to come to the institute was viewed as a mark of prestige p 256 Institute for Advanced Study 1940 p 3 Institute for Advanced Study 2010 p 2 Institute for Advanced Study 2013 IAS Bluebook p 16 Batterson p 142 Institute for Advanced Study 2014 p 42 Flexner 1939 Big Ideas Big Thinkers The faculty of the Institute for Advanced Study are changing the way we look at the world Thirteen WNET Fields Medal Winners Affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study as of August 2014 Nobel Prize Winners affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study as of February 2012 IAS pages for All Scholars The Abel Prize Laureates Wolfram Mathworld Cole Prize winners Wolf Foundation General Information Wolf Foundation PBS Series Big Ideas Dyson pp 82 86 274 Smithsonian The National Museum of American History IAS Computer In Fake Universes Evidence for String Theory by Natalie Wolchover Quanta Magazine February 18 2015 Institute for Advanced Study 2010 Frenkel p 4 Institute for Advanced Study The Work of Robert Langlands collected as an archive in uniform TeX format IAS school of mathematics Special Year on The Univalent Foundations of Mathematics a b c Homotopy Type Theory Univalent Foundations of Mathematics A day at Genius Camp getting dumb in Einstein s paradise By Katie Drummond The Verge October 4 2013 Institute for Advanced Study Special Year Programs Univalent Foundations of Mathematics Retrieved 19 July 2015 The HoTT book finished Retrieved 19 July 2015 The HoTT Book obtaining Homotopy Type Theory 12 March 2013 Archived from the original on 13 August 2018 Retrieved 10 December 2017 Reisz The Princeton IAS proved a hard act to follow It was not until 1954 that a similar institute was founded Hebrew U Institute for Advanced Studies accepted into international Ivy League of advanced institutes press release by The Hebrew University of Jerusalem July 15 2007 STIAS joins prestigious international group press release by STIAS September 13 2018 Tsinghua University Institute for Advanced Study Founding Ramanujan Institute For Advanced Study In Mathematics Alexander Grothendieck Obituary Le Monde November 11 2014 On the occasion of receiving the Seki Takakazu Prize PDF Mathematical Society of Japan Oppenheimer and IHES 1958 1967 Archived 2016 02 04 at the Wayback Machine Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies School of Advanced Study University of London Times Higher Education Local but not global April 3 2008 A Community of Scholars Retrieved 19 July 2015 Institute for Advanced Study 2015 Mission and History Robbert Dijkgraaf Appointed Director of Institute for Advanced Study Akademie van Wetenschappen 14 November 2011 Campus amp Lands Institute for Advanced Study ias org a b Acquiring the Land Institute for Advanced Study ias edu Olden Manor 91 Olden Lane Historical Society of Princeton princetonhistory org Olden Manor Princeton NJ princetonnj gov Bird Kai Sherwin Martin J 18 December 2007 American Prometheus The Triumph and Tragedy of J Robert Oppenheimer Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group p 369 ISBN 978 0 307 42473 0 Princeton Township v Institute for Advanced Study Justia U S Law Bibliography EditArntzenius Linda G 2011 Institute for Advanced Study pub by Arcadia Charleston SC ISBN 0738574090 Axtell James 2007 The Making of Princeton University From Woodrow Wilson to the Present Princeton University Press ISBN 0691126860 Batterson Steve 2006 Pursuit of Genius Flexner Einstein and the Early Faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study A K Peters Ltd Wellesley MA ISBN 1568812590 Bonner Thomas Neville 2002 Iconoclast Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 0801871247 Dyson George 2012 Turing s Cathedral The Origins of the Digital Universe Pantheon Books New York ISBN 0375422773 Edwards Jon R 2012 A History of Early Computing at Princeton Princeton Turing Centennial Celebration Princeton University May 10 12 2012 Feuer Lewis Samuel 1974 Einstein and the Generations of Science Basic Books ISBN 0465018718 Flexner Abraham 1910 Medical Education in the United States and Canada A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Merrymount Press OCLC 9795002 Flexner Abraham 1930 Universities American English German Oxford Univ Press New York OCLC 238820218 Flexner Abraham 1939 The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge Harpers Magazine Issue 179 June November 1939 Flexner Abraham 1960 Abraham Flexner An Autobiography Simon and Schuster New York OCLC 14616573 Freiberger Marianne 2011 Review of Pursuit of Genius Flexner Einstein and the Early Faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study The Mathematical Intelligencer Frenkel Edward 2015 Love and Math The Heart of Hidden Reality Basic Books New York ISBN 0465050743 Grattan Guinness Ivor 2003 Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences volume 2 The Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 0801873975 Gunderman Richard B Gascoine Kelly Hafferty Frederic W Kanter Steven L 2010 A paradise for scholars Flexner and the Institute for Advanced Study Academic Medicine Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges November 2010 85 11 1784 9 Institute for Advanced Study 1940 Bulletin No 9 History And Organization Institute for Advanced Study 2010 Modern Mathematics and the Langlands Program Institute for Advanced Study 2013 IAS Bluebook PDF Institute for Advanced Study 2014 Report for the Academic Year 2013 2014 PDF Institute for Advanced Study 2015 Mission and History Jogalekar Ashutoshon 2013 Ich probiere Revisiting Abraham Flexners dream of the useful pursuit of useless knowledge Scientific American December 12 2013 Leitch Alexander 1978 The Institute for Advanced Study in A Princeton Companion Princeton University Press Leitch Alexander 1995 Oswald Veblen in A Princeton Companion Princeton University Press Nasar Sylvia 1998 A beautiful mind a biography of John Forbes Nash Jr Simon amp Schuster New York ISBN 0684819066 Nevins Michael 2010 Abraham Flexner A Flawed American Icon iUniverse Inc ISBN 1450260861 Britta Padberg 2020 The Global Diversity of Institutes for Advanced Study Sociologica vol 14 no 1 2020 Pais Abraham amp Crease Robert P J Robert Oppenheimer A Life Oxford University Press New York ISBN 0195347226 Pasachoff Naomi 1992 Science s Intellectual Hotel The Institute for Advanced Study Encyclopaedia Britannica Yearbook of Science and the Future ISBN 0852295499 Regis Ed 1987 Who Got Einstein s Office Eccentricity and Genius at the Institute for Advanced Study Addison Wesley Reading ISBN 0201120658 Reisz Matthew 2008 The perfect brainstorm Times Higher Education March 20 2008 Scott Joan Wallach amp Keates Debra eds 2001 Schools of Thought Twenty five Years of Interpretive Social Science Princeton University Press A collection of reflective pieces by former fellows at the Institute for Advanced Study School for Social Science ISBN 0691088411 Villani Cedric 2015 Birth of a Theorem A Mathematical Adventure Faber and Faber ISBN 0865477671 Wittrock Bjorn 1910 A brief history of institutes for advanced studyExternal links EditWikiquote has quotations related to Institute for Advanced StudyWikimedia Commons has media related to Institute for Advanced Study Official website Institute for Advanced Study a historical overview of the Institute published on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the founding Coordinates 40 19 54 N 74 40 04 W 40 33167 N 74 66778 W 40 33167 74 66778Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Institute for Advanced Study amp oldid 1037884284, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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