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Kenneth Clarke

This article is about the politician. For the art historian, see Kenneth Clark. For other people, see Kenneth Clark (disambiguation).

Kenneth Harry Clarke, Baron Clarke of Nottingham,CH, PC, QC (born 2 July 1940), often known as Ken Clarke, is a British politician who served as Home Secretary from 1992 to 1993 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1993 to 1997. A member of the Conservative Party, he was Member of Parliament (MP) for Rushcliffe from 1970 to 2019 and was Father of the House of Commons between 2017 and 2019. The President of the Tory Reform Group since 1997, he is a one-nation conservative who identifies with economically and socially liberal views.

The Right Honourable
The Lord Clarke of Nottingham

Clarke in 2017
Father of the House of Commons
In office
26 February 2017 – 6 November 2019
SpeakerJohn Bercow
Sir Lindsay Hoyle
Preceded bySir Gerald Kaufman
Succeeded bySir Peter Bottomley
Minister without portfolio
In office
4 September 2012 – 14 July 2014
Prime MinisterDavid Cameron
Preceded byThe Baroness Warsi
Succeeded byRobert Halfon (2015)
Secretary of State for Justice
Lord Chancellor
In office
12 May 2010 – 4 September 2012
Prime MinisterDavid Cameron
Preceded byJack Straw
Succeeded byChris Grayling
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
27 May 1993 – 2 May 1997
Prime MinisterSir John Major
Preceded byNorman Lamont
Succeeded byGordon Brown
Home Secretary
In office
10 April 1992 – 27 May 1993
Prime MinisterSir John Major
Preceded byKenneth Baker
Succeeded byMichael Howard
Secretary of State for Education and Science
In office
2 November 1990 – 10 April 1992
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Sir John Major
Preceded byJohn MacGregor
Succeeded byJohn Patten (Education)
Secretary of State for Health
In office
25 July 1988 – 2 November 1990
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byJohn Moore (Social Services)
Succeeded byWilliam Waldegrave
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
13 July 1987 – 25 July 1988
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byNorman Tebbit
Succeeded byTony Newton
Junior ministerial offices
Minister of State for Trade and Industry
In office
13 July 1987 – 25 July 1988
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byGiles Shaw
Succeeded byEric Forth
Paymaster General
In office
2 September 1985 – 13 July 1987
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byJohn Gummer
Succeeded byPeter Brooke
Minister of State for Employment
In office
2 September 1985 – 13 July 1987
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byPeter Morrison
Succeeded byJohn Cope
Minister of State for Health
In office
5 March 1982 – 2 September 1985
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byGerard Vaughan
Succeeded byBarney Hayhoe
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport
In office
7 May 1979 – 5 March 1982
Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher
Preceded byJohn Horam
Succeeded byLynda Chalker
Lord Commissioner of the Treasury
In office
8 January 1974 – 4 March 1974
Prime MinisterEdward Heath
Preceded byHugh Rossi
Succeeded byDonald Coleman
Shadow Cabinet positions
Shadow Secretary of State
for Business, Innovation and Skills
In office
19 January 2009 – 11 May 2010
LeaderDavid Cameron
Preceded byAlan Duncan (Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform)
Succeeded byPat McFadden
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
2 May 1997 – 11 June 1997
LeaderJohn Major
Preceded byGordon Brown
Succeeded byPeter Lilley
Parliamentary offices
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
Assumed office
17 September 2020
Life peerage
Member of Parliament
for Rushcliffe
In office
18 June 1970 – 6 November 2019
Preceded byAntony Gardner
Succeeded byRuth Edwards
Personal details
Born
Kenneth Harry Clarke

(1940-07-02)2 July 1940 (age 81)
West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, England
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)
Gillian Edwards
(m. 1964; died2015)​
Children2
Alma materGonville and Caius College, Cambridge
  1. Parliamentary whip in the British House of Commons suspended from September to November 2019

Clarke served in the Cabinets of Margaret Thatcher and John Major as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1987 to 1988, Health Secretary from 1988 to 1990, and Education Secretary from 1990 to 1993. He held two of the Great Offices of State as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. He contested the Conservative Party leadership three times—in 1997, 2001 and 2005—being defeated each time. Opinion polls indicated he was more popular with the general public than with his party, whose generally Eurosceptic stance did not chime with his pro-European views. He returned to Cabinet under David Cameron as Justice Secretary from 2010 to 2012. He was Minister without Portfolio from 2012 to 2015 and the United Kingdom Anti-Corruption Champion from 2010 to 2014.

The Conservative whip was withdrawn from him in September 2019 because he and 20 other MPs voted with the Opposition on a motion; for the remainder of his time in Parliament he sat as an independent, though still on the government benches. He stood down as an MP at the 2019 general election and was thereafter appointed by Boris Johnson as a Conservative Member of the House of Lords in September 2020.

Clarke is President of the Conservative Europe Group, Co-President of the pro-EU body British Influence and Vice-President of the European Movement UK. Described by the press as a 'Big Beast' of British politics, his total time as a minister is the fifth-longest in the modern era. He has spent over 20 years serving under Prime Ministers Edward Heath, Margaret Thatcher, John Major and David Cameron. He was one of only five ministers (Tony Newton, Malcolm Rifkind, Patrick Mayhew and Lynda Chalker are the others) to serve throughout the whole 18 years of the Thatcher—Major Governments, which represents the longest uninterrupted ministerial service in Britain since Lord Palmerston in the early 19th century.

Contents

Clarke was born in West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, and was christened with the same name as his father, Kenneth Clarke, a Nottinghamshire mining electrician and later a watchmaker and jeweller. He won a scholarship to attend the independent Nottingham High School before going to read for a law degree at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he graduated with an upper second honours degree. Clarke initially held Labour sympathies, and his grandfather was a Communist, but while at Cambridge he joined the Conservative Party.

As Chairman of the Cambridge University Conservative Association (CUCA), Clarke invited former British Fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley to speak for two years in succession, prompting some Jewish students (including his future successor at the Home Office, Michael Howard) to resign from CUCA in protest. Howard then defeated Clarke in one election for the presidency of the Cambridge Union Society, but Clarke subsequently became President of the Cambridge Union a year later, being elected on 6 March 1963 by a majority of 56 votes. Clarke opposed the admission of women to the Union, and is quoted as saying upon his election, "The fact that Oxford has admitted them does not impress me at all. Cambridge should wait a year to see what happens before any decision is taken on admitting them."

In an early-1990s documentary, journalist Michael Cockerell played to Clarke some tape recordings of Clarke speaking at the Cambridge Union as a young man, and he displayed amusement at hearing his then-stereotypical upper class accent. Clarke is deemed one of the Cambridge Mafia, a group of prominent Conservative politicians who were educated at Cambridge in the 1960s. After leaving Cambridge, Clarke was called to the bar in 1963 at Gray's Inn, and "took silk" (was promoted to Queen's Counsel) in 1980.

Clarke sought election to the House of Commons almost immediately after leaving university. His political career began by contesting the Labour stronghold of Mansfield at the 1964 and 1966 elections. In June 1970, just before his 30th birthday, he won the East Midlands constituency of Rushcliffe in Nottinghamshire, south of Nottingham, from Labour MP Tony Gardner. From 2017 to 2019 he was Father of the House. Following his expulsion from the Conservative Party in September 2019, he became the first Independent MP to hold the position of Father of the House since Clement Tudway, who died in office as MP For Wells in 1815.

Clarke was soon appointed a Government whip, and served as such from 1972 to 1974; he, with the assistance of Labour rebels, helped ensure Edward Heath's government won key votes on British entry into the European Communities (which later evolved into the European Union). Even though Clarke opposed the election of Margaret Thatcher as Conservative Party Leader in 1975, he was appointed as her Industry Spokesman from 1976 to 1979, and then occupied a range of ministerial positions during her premiership.

He is the subject of a portrait in oil commissioned by Parliament.

Early ministerial positions

Clarke first served in the government of Margaret Thatcher as Parliamentary Secretary for Transport (1979–81) and Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport (1981–82), and then Minister of State for Health (1982–85).

He joined the Cabinet as Paymaster-General and Employment Minister (1985–87) (his Secretary of State, Lord Young of Graffham, sat in the Lords), and served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Minister of the DTI (1987–88) with responsibility for Inner Cities. While in that position, Clarke announced the sale to British Aerospace of the Rover Group, a new name for British Leyland, which had been nationalised in 1975 by the Government of Harold Wilson.

Health Secretary

Clarke was appointed the first Secretary of State for Health when the department was created out of the former Department of Health and Social Security in July 1988. Clarke, with backing from John Major, persuaded Thatcher to accept the controversial "internal market" concept to the NHS. Clarke claimed that he had persuaded Thatcher to introduce internal competition in the NHS as an alternative to her preference for introducing a system of compulsory health insurance, which he opposed.

He told his biographer Malcolm Balen: "John Moore was pursuing a line which Margaret [Thatcher] was very keen on, which made everything compulsory medical insurance. I was bitterly opposed to that...The American system is...the world's worst health service – expensive, inadequate and with a lot of rich doctors". In her memoirs Thatcher claimed that Clarke, although "a firm believer in state provision", was "an extremely effective Health minister – tough in dealing with vested interests and trade unions, direct and persuasive in his exposition of government policy".

In January 1989, Clarke's White Paper Working for Patients appeared; this advocated giving hospitals the right to become self-governing NHS Trusts, taxpayer-funded but with control over their budgets and independent of the regional health authorities. It also proposed that doctors be given the option to become "GP fundholders". This would grant doctors control of their own budgets in the belief that they would purchase the most effective services for their patients. Instead of doctors automatically sending patients to the nearest hospital, they would be able to choose where they were treated. In this way, money would follow the patient and the most efficient hospitals would receive the greatest funding.

This was not well received by doctors and their trade union, the British Medical Association, launched a poster campaign against Clarke's reforms, claiming that the NHS was "underfunded, undermined and under threat". They also called the new GP contracts "Stalinist". A March 1990 opinion poll commissioned by the BMA showed that 73% believed that the NHS was not safe in Conservative hands. Clarke later claimed that the BMA was "the most unscrupulous trade union I have ever dealt with and I've dealt with every trade union across the board". Although Thatcher tried to halt the reforms just before they were introduced, Clarke successfully argued that they were necessary to demonstrate the government's commitment to the NHS. Thatcher told Clarke: "It is you I'm holding responsible if my NHS reforms don't work".

By 1994 almost all hospitals had opted to become trusts but GP fundholding was much less popular. There were allegations that fundholders received more funding than non-fundholders, creating a two-tier system. GP fundholding was abolished by Labour in 1997 and replaced by Primary Care Groups. According to John Campbell, by "the mid-1990s the NHS was treating more patients, more efficiently than in the 1980s...the system was arguably better managed and more accountable than before". Studies suggest that while the competition introduced in the "internal market" system resulted in shorter waiting times it also caused a reduction in the quality of care for patients.

Clarke has been the subject of criticism over the decades for his involvement in the contaminated blood scandal. It was the largest loss-of-life disaster in Britain since the 1950s and claimed the lives of thousands of haemophiliacs. Theresa May ordered a public inquiry into the contaminated blood scandal in July 2017.

Clarke excluded Medical Laboratory staff in the NHS from the pay review body in 1984 leading to massive staff shortages and a crisis in Medical Laboratory testing by 1999.

Later ministerial positions

Just over two years later he was appointed Secretary of State for Education and Science in the final weeks of Thatcher's Government, following Norman Tebbit's unwillingness to return to Cabinet after the resignation of Sir Geoffrey Howe. Clarke was the first Cabinet Minister to advise Thatcher to resign after her victory in the first round of the November 1990 leadership contest was less than the 15% winning margin required to prevent a second ballot; she referred to him in her memoirs as a candid friend: "his manner was robust in the brutalist style he has cultivated: the candid friend".

Clarke came to work with John Major very closely, and quickly emerged as a central figure in his government. After continuing as Education Secretary (1990–92), where he introduced a number of reforms, he was appointed as Home Secretary in the wake of the Conservatives' victory at the 1992 general election. In May 1993, seven months after the impact of "Black Wednesday" had damaged Norman Lamont's credibility as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Major sacked Lamont and appointed Clarke in his place.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

At first, Clarke was seen as the dominant figure in Cabinet, and at the October 1993 Conservative Party Conference he defended Major from his critics by pronouncing "any enemy of John Major is an enemy of mine."

In the party leadership contest of 1995, when John Major beat John Redwood, Clarke kept faith in Major and commented: "I don't think the Conservative Party could win an election in 1,000 years on this ultra right-wing programme".

Clarke enjoyed an increasingly successful record as Chancellor, as the economy recovered from the recession of the early 1990s and a new monetary policy was put into effect after Black Wednesday. He reduced the basic rate of income tax from 25% to 23%, reduced UK Government spending as a percentage of GDP, and reduced the budget deficit from £50.8 billion in 1993 to £15.5 billion in 1997. Clarke's successor, the Labour Chancellor Gordon Brown, continued these policies, which eliminated the deficit by 1998 and allowed Brown to record a budget surplus for the following four years. Interest rates, inflation and unemployment all fell during Clarke's tenure at HM Treasury. Clarke's success was such that Brown felt he had to pledge to keep to Clarke's spending plans and these limits remained in place for the first two years of the Labour Government that was elected in 1997.

Single Currency: free hand and referendum pledge

The matter of a referendum on Britain joining the planned euro - first raised by Margaret Thatcher in 1990 - was, after much press speculation, raised again at Cabinet by Douglas Hogg in the spring of 1996, very likely (in Clarke's view) with Major's approval; Clarke records that Heseltine spoke "with passionate intensity" at Cabinet against a referendum, believing both that referendums were pernicious and that no concession would be enough to please the Eurosceptics. Clarke, who had already threatened resignation over the issue, also opposed the measure and, although Clarke and Heseltine were in a small minority in Cabinet, Major once again deferred a decision.

Major, Heseltine and Clarke eventually reached agreement in April 1996, in what Clarke describes as "a tense meeting … rather like a treaty session", that there would be a commitment to a referendum before joining the euro, but that the pledge would be valid for one Parliament only (i.e. until the general election after next), with the Government's long-term options remaining completely open; Clarke threatened to resign if this formula were departed from.

Clarke, writing in 2016 after the Brexit Referendum, comments that he and Heseltine later agreed that they had separately decided to give way because of the pressure Major was under, and that the referendum pledge "was the biggest single mistake" of their careers, giving "legitimacy" to such a device.

In December 1996, after Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind had commented that it was unlikely that the government would join the euro, Clarke and Heseltine took to the airwaves – in apparent unison – to insist that the government retained a free choice as to whether or not to join, angering Eurosceptics. When Tory Party Chairman, Brian Mawhinney, was understood to have briefed against him, Clarke declared: "tell your kids to get their scooters off my lawn" – an allusion to Harold Wilson's rebuke of Trades Union leader Hugh Scanlon in the late 1960s.

Role as a backbencher

After the Conservatives entered opposition in 1997, Clarke contested the leadership of the Party for the first time. In 1997, the electorate being solely Tory Members of Parliament, he topped the poll in the first and second rounds. In the third and final round he formed an alliance with Eurosceptic John Redwood, who would have become Shadow Chancellor and Clarke's deputy, were he to have won the contest. However, Thatcher endorsed Clarke's rival William Hague, who proceeded to win the election comfortably. The contest was criticised for not involving the rank-and-file members of the Party, where surveys showed Clarke to be more popular. Clarke rejected the offer from Hague of a Shadow Cabinet role, opting instead to return to the backbenches.

Clarke contested the party leadership for a second time in 2001. Despite opinion polls again showing he was the most popular Conservative politician with the British public, he lost in a final round among the rank-and-file membership, a new procedure introduced by Hague, to a much less experienced, but strongly Eurosceptic rival, Iain Duncan Smith. This loss, by a margin of 62% to 38%, was attributed to the former Chancellor's strong pro-European views being increasingly out-of-step with the party members' Euroscepticism. His campaign was managed by Andrew Tyrie.

Clarke opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After choosing not to stand for the leadership after Duncan Smith departed in 2003 in the interests of party unity, he returned to fight the 2005 leadership election. He still retained huge popularity among voters, with 40% of the public believing he would be the best leader. He was accused by Norman Tebbit of being "lazy" whilst leadership rival Sir Malcolm Rifkind suggested that Clarke's pro-European views could have divided the Conservative Party had Clarke won. In the event, Clarke was eliminated in the first round of voting by Conservative MPs. Eventual winner David Cameron appointed Clarke to head a Democracy Task Force as part of his extensive 18-month policy review in December 2005, exploring issues such as the reform of the House of Lords and party funding. Clarke is President of the Tory Reform Group, a liberal, pro-European ginger group within the Conservative Party.

Clarke became known as "an economic and social liberal, an internationalist and a strong supporter of the European idea".

In 2006, he described Cameron's plans for a British Bill of Rights as "xenophobic and legal nonsense".

Expenses scandal

On 12 May 2009, The Daily Telegraph reported that Clarke had "flipped" his Council Tax. He had told the Parliamentary authorities that his main home was in the Rushcliffe constituency, enabling him to claim a second-home allowance on his London residence, leaving the taxpayer to foot the bill for Council Tax due on that property. However, he told Rushcliffe Borough Council in Nottinghamshire that he spent so little time at his constituency address that his wife Gillian should qualify for a 25% Council Tax (single person's) discount, saving the former Chancellor around £650 per year. Land Registry records showed that Clarke no longer had a mortgage on his Nottinghamshire home where he has lived since 1987. Instead he held a mortgage on his London property, which was being charged to the taxpayer at £480 per month.

Return to the frontbench

In 2009, Clarke became Shadow Business Secretary in opposition to then-Business Secretary, Lord Mandelson. David Cameron described Clarke as about the only one able to challenge Mandelson and Brown's economic credibility. Two days later it was revealed that Clarke had warned in a speech a month earlier that President Barack Obama could see David Cameron as a "right-wing nationalist" if the Conservatives maintained Eurosceptic policies and that Obama would "start looking at whoever is in Germany or France if we start being isolationist". The Financial Times said "Clarke has in effect agreed to disagree with the Tories' official Eurosceptic line".

Lord Chancellor and Justice Secretary

Clarke's portrait as Lord Chancellor, 2011

On 12 May 2010, Clarke's appointment as Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor was announced by Prime Minister David Cameron in the Coalition Government formed between the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties. James Macintyre, political editor of Prospect, argued that in this ministerial role he had instigated a process of radical reform.

In June 2010, Clarke signalled an end to short prison sentences after warning it was "virtually impossible" to rehabilitate any inmate in less than 12 months. In his first major speech after taking office, Clarke indicated a major shift in penal policy by saying prison was not effective in many cases. This could result in more offenders being handed community sentences. Clarke, who described the current prison population of 85,000 as "astonishing", received immediate criticism from some colleagues in a Party renowned for its tough stance on law and order. He signalled that fathers who fail to pay child maintenance, disqualified drivers and criminals fighting asylum refusals could be among the first to benefit and should not be sent to prison.

Clarke announced in February 2011 that the Government intended to scrutinise the relationship between the European Court of Human Rights and national parliaments.

In May 2011, controversy related to Clarke's reported views on rape resurfaced after an interview on the radio station BBC 5 Live, where he discussed a proposal to further reduce the sentences of criminals, including rapists, who pleaded guilty pre-trial.

In 2011 and 2012, Clarke faced criticism for his Justice and Security Bill, in particular those aspects of it that allow secret trials when "national security" is at stake. The Economist stated: "the origins of the proposed legislation lie in civil cases brought by former Guantánamo detainees, the best-known of whom was Binyam Mohamed, alleging that government intelligence and security agencies (MI6 and MI5) were complicit in their rendition and torture". Prominent civil liberties and human rights campaigners argued: "the worst excesses of the war on terror have been revealed by open courts and a free media. Yet the Justice and Security Green Paper seeks to place Government above the law and would undermine such crucial scrutiny."

Minister without Portfolio

Clarke in 2012

Following the 2012 Cabinet reshuffle, Clarke was moved from Justice Secretary to Minister without Portfolio. It was also announced that he would assume the role of roving Trade Envoy with responsibility for promoting British business and trade interests abroad, a position which he enjoyed.

In the 2014 Cabinet reshuffle, after more than 20 years serving as a Minister, it was announced that Clarke had stepped down from government, to return to the backbenches. Clarke was honoured with appointment as a Companion of Honour, upon the Prime Minister's recommendation, in July 2014. His total time as a government minister is the fifth-longest in the modern era after Winston Churchill, Arthur Balfour, Rab Butler, and The Duke of Devonshire.

Return to the backbench

Clarke was opposed to Brexit during the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's continued membership of the European Union, and opposed the holding of the referendum in the first place. He was the sole Conservative MP to vote against the triggering of Article 50.

During the 2016 Conservative Party leadership election Clarke was interviewed by Sky News on 5 July 2016 and made negative comments to Sir Malcolm Rifkind, about the "fiasco" (leadership contest) and about three of the candidates. In a widely circulated video clip, he referred to Theresa May as a "bloody difficult woman", joked that Michael Gove, who was "wild", would "go to war with at least three countries at once" and characterised some of the utterances of Andrea Leadsom as "extremely stupid". Clarke added that Gove "did us all a favour by getting rid of Boris. The idea of Boris as prime minister is ridiculous."

In February 2017, following the death of Sir Gerald Kaufman, Clarke became Father of the House. He was re-elected as an MP in the 2017 general election.

In December 2017, he voted along with fellow Conservative Dominic Grieve and nine other Conservative MPs against the government, and in favour of guaranteeing Parliament a "meaningful vote" on any Brexit deal Britain agrees with the European Union.

Clarke endorsed Rory Stewart during the 2019 Conservative leadership election.

In September 2019, after Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson lost a number of key votes in the House of Commons, Clarke stated that it would be 'not inconceivable' for him to become Prime Minister leading a government of national unity in order to revoke Article 50 and prevent Brexit. Other politicians who were suggested for such a role at the time included Harriet Harman, his female counterpart as Mother of the House of Commons. Lib Dem leader Jo Swinson supported the proposal, though Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn, the Leader of the Opposition, both dismissed the suggestion. As it turned out, a vote of no-confidence was not in fact tabled against Boris Johnson's government and no such government of national unity was formed or took office.

Sitting as an Independent

Clarke on the backbench with Theresa May and Sir Alan Duncan, 19 October 2019

On 3 September 2019, Clarke joined 20 other rebel Conservative MPs to vote against the Conservative government of Boris Johnson. The rebel MPs voted against a Conservative motion which subsequently failed. Effectively, they helped block Johnson's no-deal Brexit plan from proceeding on 31 October. Subsequently, all 21 were advised that they had lost the Conservative whip and were expelled as Conservative MPs, requiring them to sit as independents. If they decided to run for re-election in a future election, the party would block their selection as Conservative candidates, though Clarke opted not to do so.

On the 3 September edition of BBC's Newsnight, Clarke discussed the situation, saying that he no longer recognised the Conservative Party, referring to it as "the Brexit Party, rebadged". His rationale was "It's been taken over by a rather knockabout sort of character, who's got this bizarre crash-it-through philosophy… a Cabinet which is the most right-wing Cabinet any Conservative Party has ever produced." In an interview on 7 September, Clarke rejected the suggestion that, like other former Conservative MPs, he could join the Liberal Democrats, but noted that, if he were to cast 'a protest vote', he would 'follow the Conservative tradition of voting Lib Dem.'

In his capacity as Father of the House, Clarke presided over the House of Commons during the 2019 Speakership election. He then retired from the House of Commons at the 2019 general election. Since Dennis Skinner lost his seat in the election, Sir Peter Bottomley became Father of the House.

Peerage

In early 2020, Clarke was nominated for a peerage by Boris Johnson. On 4 September he was created Baron Clarke of Nottingham, of West Bridgford in the County of Nottinghamshire. He made his maiden speech on 28 September 2020.

Whilst serving as a backbench MP and as a Shadow Cabinet Minister, Clarke accepted several non-executive directorships:

  • Deputy Chairman and a director of British American Tobacco (BAT) (1998–2007), for which Clarke faced allegations relating to activities of BAT in lobbying the developing world to reject stronger health warnings on cigarette packets and evidence the corporation had been involved in smuggling and targeting children with advertisements.
  • Deputy Chairman of Alliance Unichem[citation needed]
  • Chairman (non-executive) of Unichem[citation needed]
  • Director of Foreign & Colonial Investment Trust[citation needed]
  • Member from June 2007 of the Advisory Board of Centaurus Capital, a London-based hedge fund management company.
  • Clarke is a member of the advisory board of Agcapita Farmland Investment Partnership, a Canadian farmland investment fund.
  • Director (non-executive) of Independent News and Media (UK).
  • Participant at the annual meeting of the Bilderberg Group in 1993, 1998–2000, 2003–04, 2006–08 and 2012–13.

Also as a backbencher, Clarke declared engagement in non-political media work:

In 1964, Clarke married Gillian Edwards, a Cambridge contemporary. They had a son and a daughter. Edwards died of cancer in July 2015.

Clarke's enthusiasm for cigars, jazz, and motor racing is well known, and he enjoys birdwatching as well as reading political history. He is also popularly recognised for his affection for suede Hush Puppies, a brand of shoe, which became a "trademark" of his during his early ministerial days. His autobiography denies he wore Hush Puppies and says these suede shoes were hand-made by Crockett & Jones.

Clarke is a sports enthusiast, being a supporter of both local clubs Notts County and Nottingham Forest, who offered him a chair and a former President of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. He is President of both Radcliffe Olympic and the Radcliffe on Trent Male Voice Choir, and a keen follower of Formula One motorsport. He was involved with tobacco giant British American Tobacco's Formula One team British American Racing (BAR) and has attended Grands Prix in support of the BAR team. BAR was sold to Honda in 2005. He also appeared on the podium of the 2012 British Grand Prix to present the first-place trophy to Mark Webber.

He attended the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final and jokingly claims to have been influential in persuading the linesman, Tofiq Bahramov, to award a goal to Geoff Hurst when the England striker had seen his shot hit the crossbar of opponents West Germany, leaving doubt as to whether the ball had crossed the line. Clarke's position in the Wembley crowd was right behind the linesman at the time, and he shouted at the official to award a goal.

Clarke is a lover of real ale and has been an active member of the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA). His memoir, Kind of Blue, was published in October 2016.

Insignia of Companion of Honour
  1. Parliamentary Secretary (1979–81)
  2. "Mr Kenneth Clarke (Hansard)". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved11 May 2021.
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  4. "The Rt Hon Kenneth Clarke QC MP – GOV.UK". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved15 July 2014.
  5. "My School Days: Ken Clarke". 9 June 2014. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014.
  6. Anthony, Andrew (27 March 2005). "Howard's way". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2006. Retrieved24 September 2008.
  7. "News in Brief". The Times (55643). London. 7 March 1963. col B, p. 5.
  8. "Kenneth Clarke". Conservative Party. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved19 January 2009.
  9. "Artwork – Portrait of Kenneth Clarke MP". Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved28 July 2014.
  10. Murphy, Joe (13 January 2014). "MPs splash out £250,000 of public money on vanity portraits". London Evening Standard. Retrieved13 January 2014.
  11. "Rover Group (Privatisation) (Hansard, 29 March 1988)". Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved22 March 2014.
  12. John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher, Volume Two: The Iron Lady (London: Jonathan Cape, 2003), p. 552.
  13. Campbell, p. 552.
  14. "Contender: Kenneth Clarke". BBC News. 2 August 2005. Archived from the original on 23 September 2007. Retrieved24 September 2008.
  15. Rawnsley, Andrew (19 July 2014). "Kenneth Clarke: I had a lot of views, but they didn't coincide with No 10's". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved20 July 2014.
  16. Malcolm Balen, Kenneth Clarke (London: Fourth Estate, 1994), p. 166.
  17. Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years (London: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 614.
  18. Campbell, pp. 552–553.
  19. Campbell, p. 553.
  20. Campbell, pp. 553–554.
  21. Campbell, p. 554.
  22. Propper Carol, Burgess Simon, Green Katherine (1 July 2004). "Does competition between hospitals improve the quality of care?: Hospital death rates and the NHS internal market". Journal of Public Economics. 88 (7–8): 1247–1272. doi:10.1016/S0047-2727(02)00216-5. ISSN 0047-2727.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. Propper, Carol; Burgess, Simon; Gossage, Denise (1 January 2008). "Competition and Quality: Evidence from the NHS Internal Market 1991–9*"(PDF). The Economic Journal. 118 (525): 138–170. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2007.02107.x. ISSN 1468-0297. S2CID 709809. Archived(PDF) from the original on 4 February 2007. Retrieved14 September 2019.
  24. Hattenstone, Simon (3 March 2018). "Britain's contaminated blood scandal: 'I need them to admit they killed our son'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved7 March 2018.
  25. "Contaminated blood 'cover-up' revealed in Cabinet papers". Sky News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved7 March 2018.
  26. Johnson, Diana. "Contaminated Blood – Hansard Online". hansard.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved7 March 2018.
  27. May, Theresa. "PM statement on contaminated blood inquiry: 11 July 2017 – GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved7 March 2018.
  28. "Home – Infected Blood Inquiry". Infected Blood Inquiry. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved7 March 2018.
  29. "Health Lab tests under threat". BBC News. London. 15 February 1999. Retrieved27 July 2021.
  30. Thatcher, Margaret (1993).The Downing Street Years. New York: HarperCollins. p. 914. ISBN 978-0-06-017056-1.
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Articles
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Antony Gardner
Member of Parliament
for Rushcliffe

19702019
Succeeded by
Ruth Edwards
Political offices
Preceded by
John Gummer
Paymaster General
1985–1987
Succeeded by
Peter Brooke
Preceded by
Norman Tebbit
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1987–1988
Succeeded by
Tony Newton
Preceded by
John Moore
Secretary of State for Health
1988–1990
Succeeded by
William Waldegrave
Preceded by
John MacGregor
Secretary of State for Education and Science
1990–1992
Succeeded by
John Patten
Preceded by
Kenneth Baker
Home Secretary
1992–1993
Succeeded by
Michael Howard
Preceded by
Norman Lamont
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1993–1997
Succeeded by
Gordon Brown
Second Lord of the Treasury
1993–1997
Preceded by
Gordon Brown
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
1997
Succeeded by
Peter Lilley
Preceded by
Alan Duncan
as Shadow Secretary of State for Business,
Enterprise and Regulatory Reform
Shadow Secretary of State for Business,
Innovation and Skills

2009–2010
Succeeded by
The Lord Mandelson
Preceded by
Jack Straw
Secretary of State for Justice
2010–2012
Succeeded by
Chris Grayling
Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
2010–2012
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Gerald Kaufman
Father of the House of Commons
2017–2019
Succeeded by
Sir Peter Bottomley
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Lord Walney
Gentlemen
Baron Clarke of Nottingham
Followed by
The Lord Sarfraz

Kenneth Clarke
kenneth, clarke, language, watch, edit, this, article, about, politician, historian, kenneth, clark, other, people, kenneth, clark, disambiguation, kenneth, harry, clarke, baron, clarke, nottingham, born, july, 1940, often, known, clarke, british, politician, . Kenneth Clarke Language Watch Edit This article is about the politician For the art historian see Kenneth Clark For other people see Kenneth Clark disambiguation Kenneth Harry Clarke Baron Clarke of Nottingham CH PC QC born 2 July 1940 2 often known as Ken Clarke is a British politician who served as Home Secretary from 1992 to 1993 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1993 to 1997 A member of the Conservative Party he was Member of Parliament MP for Rushcliffe from 1970 to 2019 and was Father of the House of Commons between 2017 and 2019 The President of the Tory Reform Group since 1997 he is a one nation conservative who identifies with economically and socially liberal views The Right Honourable The Lord Clarke of Nottingham CH QC PCClarke in 2017Father of the House of CommonsIn office 26 February 2017 6 November 2019SpeakerJohn Bercow Sir Lindsay HoylePreceded bySir Gerald KaufmanSucceeded bySir Peter BottomleyMinister without portfolioIn office 4 September 2012 14 July 2014Prime MinisterDavid CameronPreceded byThe Baroness WarsiSucceeded byRobert Halfon 2015 Secretary of State for Justice Lord ChancellorIn office 12 May 2010 4 September 2012Prime MinisterDavid CameronPreceded byJack StrawSucceeded byChris GraylingChancellor of the ExchequerIn office 27 May 1993 2 May 1997Prime MinisterSir John MajorPreceded byNorman LamontSucceeded byGordon BrownHome SecretaryIn office 10 April 1992 27 May 1993Prime MinisterSir John MajorPreceded byKenneth BakerSucceeded byMichael HowardSecretary of State for Education and ScienceIn office 2 November 1990 10 April 1992Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher Sir John MajorPreceded byJohn MacGregorSucceeded byJohn Patten Education Secretary of State for HealthIn office 25 July 1988 2 November 1990Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byJohn Moore Social Services Succeeded byWilliam WaldegraveChancellor of the Duchy of LancasterIn office 13 July 1987 25 July 1988Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byNorman TebbitSucceeded byTony NewtonJunior ministerial officesMinister of State for Trade and IndustryIn office 13 July 1987 25 July 1988Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byGiles ShawSucceeded byEric ForthPaymaster GeneralIn office 2 September 1985 13 July 1987Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byJohn GummerSucceeded byPeter BrookeMinister of State for EmploymentIn office 2 September 1985 13 July 1987Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byPeter MorrisonSucceeded byJohn CopeMinister of State for HealthIn office 5 March 1982 2 September 1985Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byGerard VaughanSucceeded byBarney HayhoeParliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport 1 In office 7 May 1979 5 March 1982Prime MinisterMargaret ThatcherPreceded byJohn HoramSucceeded byLynda ChalkerLord Commissioner of the TreasuryIn office 8 January 1974 4 March 1974Prime MinisterEdward HeathPreceded byHugh RossiSucceeded byDonald ColemanShadow Cabinet positionsShadow Secretary of State for Business Innovation and SkillsIn office 19 January 2009 11 May 2010LeaderDavid CameronPreceded byAlan Duncan Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Succeeded byPat McFaddenShadow Chancellor of the ExchequerIn office 2 May 1997 11 June 1997LeaderJohn MajorPreceded byGordon BrownSucceeded byPeter LilleyParliamentary officesMember of the House of Lords Lord TemporalIncumbentAssumed office 17 September 2020 Life peerageMember of Parliament for RushcliffeIn office 18 June 1970 6 November 2019Preceded byAntony GardnerSucceeded byRuth EdwardsPersonal detailsBornKenneth Harry Clarke 1940 07 02 2 July 1940 age 81 West Bridgford Nottinghamshire EnglandPolitical partyConservative a Spouse s Gillian Edwards m 1964 died 2015 wbr Children2Alma materGonville and Caius College Cambridge Parliamentary whip in the British House of Commons suspended from September to November 2019 Clarke served in the Cabinets of Margaret Thatcher and John Major as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1987 to 1988 Health Secretary from 1988 to 1990 and Education Secretary from 1990 to 1993 He held two of the Great Offices of State as Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer He contested the Conservative Party leadership three times in 1997 2001 and 2005 being defeated each time Opinion polls indicated he was more popular with the general public than with his party whose generally Eurosceptic stance did not chime with his pro European views He returned to Cabinet under David Cameron as Justice Secretary from 2010 to 2012 He was Minister without Portfolio from 2012 to 2015 and the United Kingdom Anti Corruption Champion from 2010 to 2014 The Conservative whip was withdrawn from him in September 2019 because he and 20 other MPs voted with the Opposition on a motion for the remainder of his time in Parliament he sat as an independent though still on the government benches He stood down as an MP at the 2019 general election and was thereafter appointed by Boris Johnson as a Conservative Member of the House of Lords in September 2020 Clarke is President of the Conservative Europe Group Co President of the pro EU body British Influence and Vice President of the European Movement UK 3 Described by the press as a Big Beast of British politics his total time as a minister is the fifth longest in the modern era He has spent over 20 years serving under Prime Ministers Edward Heath Margaret Thatcher John Major and David Cameron He was one of only five ministers Tony Newton Malcolm Rifkind Patrick Mayhew and Lynda Chalker are the others to serve throughout the whole 18 years of the Thatcher Major Governments which represents the longest uninterrupted ministerial service in Britain since Lord Palmerston in the early 19th century Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Parliamentary career 2 1 Early ministerial positions 2 2 Health Secretary 2 3 Later ministerial positions 2 4 Chancellor of the Exchequer 2 5 Single Currency free hand and referendum pledge 2 6 Role as a backbencher 2 7 Expenses scandal 2 8 Return to the frontbench 2 9 Lord Chancellor and Justice Secretary 2 10 Minister without Portfolio 2 11 Return to the backbench 2 12 Sitting as an Independent 2 13 Peerage 3 Corporate media and other work 4 Personal life 5 Honours 6 References 7 Books 8 External linksEarly life and education EditClarke was born in West Bridgford Nottinghamshire and was christened with the same name as his father Kenneth Clarke a Nottinghamshire mining electrician and later a watchmaker and jeweller 4 He won a scholarship to attend the independent Nottingham High School 5 before going to read for a law degree at Gonville and Caius College Cambridge where he graduated with an upper second honours degree Clarke initially held Labour sympathies and his grandfather was a Communist but while at Cambridge he joined the Conservative Party As Chairman of the Cambridge University Conservative Association CUCA Clarke invited former British Fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley to speak for two years in succession prompting some Jewish students including his future successor at the Home Office Michael Howard to resign from CUCA in protest 6 Howard then defeated Clarke in one election for the presidency of the Cambridge Union Society but Clarke subsequently became President of the Cambridge Union a year later being elected on 6 March 1963 by a majority of 56 votes Clarke opposed the admission of women to the Union and is quoted as saying upon his election The fact that Oxford has admitted them does not impress me at all Cambridge should wait a year to see what happens before any decision is taken on admitting them 7 In an early 1990s documentary journalist Michael Cockerell played to Clarke some tape recordings of Clarke speaking at the Cambridge Union as a young man and he displayed amusement at hearing his then stereotypical upper class accent Clarke is deemed one of the Cambridge Mafia a group of prominent Conservative politicians who were educated at Cambridge in the 1960s After leaving Cambridge Clarke was called to the bar in 1963 at Gray s Inn and took silk was promoted to Queen s Counsel in 1980 8 Parliamentary career EditClarke sought election to the House of Commons almost immediately after leaving university His political career began by contesting the Labour stronghold of Mansfield at the 1964 and 1966 elections In June 1970 just before his 30th birthday he won the East Midlands constituency of Rushcliffe in Nottinghamshire south of Nottingham from Labour MP Tony Gardner From 2017 to 2019 he was Father of the House Following his expulsion from the Conservative Party in September 2019 he became the first Independent MP to hold the position of Father of the House since Clement Tudway who died in office as MP For Wells in 1815 Clarke was soon appointed a Government whip and served as such from 1972 to 1974 he with the assistance of Labour rebels helped ensure Edward Heath s government won key votes on British entry into the European Communities which later evolved into the European Union Even though Clarke opposed the election of Margaret Thatcher as Conservative Party Leader in 1975 he was appointed as her Industry Spokesman from 1976 to 1979 and then occupied a range of ministerial positions during her premiership He is the subject of a portrait in oil commissioned by Parliament 9 10 Early ministerial positions Edit Clarke first served in the government of Margaret Thatcher as Parliamentary Secretary for Transport 1979 81 and Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport 1981 82 and then Minister of State for Health 1982 85 He joined the Cabinet as Paymaster General and Employment Minister 1985 87 his Secretary of State Lord Young of Graffham sat in the Lords and served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Minister of the DTI 1987 88 with responsibility for Inner Cities While in that position Clarke announced the sale to British Aerospace of the Rover Group a new name for British Leyland which had been nationalised in 1975 by the Government of Harold Wilson 11 Health Secretary Edit Clarke was appointed the first Secretary of State for Health when the department was created out of the former Department of Health and Social Security in July 1988 12 Clarke with backing from John Major persuaded Thatcher to accept the controversial internal market concept to the NHS 13 14 Clarke claimed that he had persuaded Thatcher to introduce internal competition in the NHS as an alternative to her preference for introducing a system of compulsory health insurance which he opposed 15 He told his biographer Malcolm Balen John Moore was pursuing a line which Margaret Thatcher was very keen on which made everything compulsory medical insurance I was bitterly opposed to that The American system is the world s worst health service expensive inadequate and with a lot of rich doctors 16 In her memoirs Thatcher claimed that Clarke although a firm believer in state provision was an extremely effective Health minister tough in dealing with vested interests and trade unions direct and persuasive in his exposition of government policy 17 In January 1989 Clarke s White Paper Working for Patients appeared this advocated giving hospitals the right to become self governing NHS Trusts taxpayer funded but with control over their budgets and independent of the regional health authorities 18 It also proposed that doctors be given the option to become GP fundholders This would grant doctors control of their own budgets in the belief that they would purchase the most effective services for their patients Instead of doctors automatically sending patients to the nearest hospital they would be able to choose where they were treated In this way money would follow the patient and the most efficient hospitals would receive the greatest funding 19 This was not well received by doctors and their trade union the British Medical Association launched a poster campaign against Clarke s reforms claiming that the NHS was underfunded undermined and under threat They also called the new GP contracts Stalinist A March 1990 opinion poll commissioned by the BMA showed that 73 believed that the NHS was not safe in Conservative hands 19 Clarke later claimed that the BMA was the most unscrupulous trade union I have ever dealt with and I ve dealt with every trade union across the board 19 Although Thatcher tried to halt the reforms just before they were introduced Clarke successfully argued that they were necessary to demonstrate the government s commitment to the NHS Thatcher told Clarke It is you I m holding responsible if my NHS reforms don t work 19 By 1994 almost all hospitals had opted to become trusts but GP fundholding was much less popular 20 There were allegations that fundholders received more funding than non fundholders creating a two tier system GP fundholding was abolished by Labour in 1997 and replaced by Primary Care Groups 21 According to John Campbell by the mid 1990s the NHS was treating more patients more efficiently than in the 1980s the system was arguably better managed and more accountable than before 21 Studies suggest that while the competition introduced in the internal market system resulted in shorter waiting times it also caused a reduction in the quality of care for patients 22 23 Clarke has been the subject of criticism over the decades for his involvement in the contaminated blood scandal 24 25 26 It was the largest loss of life disaster in Britain since the 1950s and claimed the lives of thousands of haemophiliacs 27 Theresa May ordered a public inquiry into the contaminated blood scandal in July 2017 28 Clarke excluded Medical Laboratory staff in the NHS from the pay review body in 1984 leading to massive staff shortages and a crisis in Medical Laboratory testing by 1999 29 Later ministerial positions Edit Just over two years later he was appointed Secretary of State for Education and Science in the final weeks of Thatcher s Government following Norman Tebbit s unwillingness to return to Cabinet after the resignation of Sir Geoffrey Howe Clarke was the first Cabinet Minister to advise Thatcher to resign after her victory in the first round of the November 1990 leadership contest was less than the 15 winning margin required to prevent a second ballot she referred to him in her memoirs as a candid friend his manner was robust in the brutalist style he has cultivated the candid friend 30 Clarke came to work with John Major very closely and quickly emerged as a central figure in his government After continuing as Education Secretary 1990 92 where he introduced a number of reforms he was appointed as Home Secretary in the wake of the Conservatives victory at the 1992 general election In May 1993 seven months after the impact of Black Wednesday had damaged Norman Lamont s credibility as Chancellor of the Exchequer Major sacked Lamont and appointed Clarke in his place Chancellor of the Exchequer Edit At first Clarke was seen as the dominant figure in Cabinet and at the October 1993 Conservative Party Conference he defended Major from his critics by pronouncing any enemy of John Major is an enemy of mine In the party leadership contest of 1995 when John Major beat John Redwood Clarke kept faith in Major and commented I don t think the Conservative Party could win an election in 1 000 years on this ultra right wing programme 31 Clarke enjoyed an increasingly successful record as Chancellor as the economy recovered from the recession of the early 1990s and a new monetary policy was put into effect after Black Wednesday He reduced the basic rate of income tax from 25 to 23 reduced UK Government spending as a percentage of GDP and reduced the budget deficit from 50 8 billion in 1993 to 15 5 billion in 1997 Clarke s successor the Labour Chancellor Gordon Brown continued these policies which eliminated the deficit by 1998 and allowed Brown to record a budget surplus for the following four years Interest rates inflation and unemployment all fell during Clarke s tenure at HM Treasury Clarke s success was such that Brown felt he had to pledge to keep to Clarke s spending plans and these limits remained in place for the first two years of the Labour Government that was elected in 1997 14 Single Currency free hand and referendum pledge Edit The matter of a referendum on Britain joining the planned euro first raised by Margaret Thatcher in 1990 was after much press speculation raised again at Cabinet by Douglas Hogg in the spring of 1996 very likely in Clarke s view with Major s approval Clarke records that Heseltine spoke with passionate intensity at Cabinet against a referendum believing both that referendums were pernicious and that no concession would be enough to please the Eurosceptics Clarke who had already threatened resignation over the issue also opposed the measure and although Clarke and Heseltine were in a small minority in Cabinet Major once again deferred a decision Major Heseltine and Clarke eventually reached agreement in April 1996 in what Clarke describes as a tense meeting rather like a treaty session that there would be a commitment to a referendum before joining the euro but that the pledge would be valid for one Parliament only i e until the general election after next with the Government s long term options remaining completely open Clarke threatened to resign if this formula were departed from 32 Clarke writing in 2016 after the Brexit Referendum comments that he and Heseltine later agreed that they had separately decided to give way because of the pressure Major was under and that the referendum pledge was the biggest single mistake of their careers giving legitimacy to such a device 32 In December 1996 after Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind had commented that it was unlikely that the government would join the euro Clarke and Heseltine took to the airwaves in apparent unison to insist that the government retained a free choice as to whether or not to join angering Eurosceptics 33 When Tory Party Chairman Brian Mawhinney was understood to have briefed against him Clarke declared tell your kids to get their scooters off my lawn an allusion to Harold Wilson s rebuke of Trades Union leader Hugh Scanlon in the late 1960s Role as a backbencher Edit After the Conservatives entered opposition in 1997 Clarke contested the leadership of the Party for the first time In 1997 the electorate being solely Tory Members of Parliament he topped the poll in the first and second rounds In the third and final round he formed an alliance with Eurosceptic John Redwood who would have become Shadow Chancellor and Clarke s deputy were he to have won the contest However Thatcher endorsed Clarke s rival William Hague who proceeded to win the election comfortably The contest was criticised for not involving the rank and file members of the Party where surveys showed Clarke to be more popular Clarke rejected the offer from Hague of a Shadow Cabinet role opting instead to return to the backbenches Clarke contested the party leadership for a second time in 2001 Despite opinion polls again showing he was the most popular Conservative politician with the British public 14 he lost in a final round among the rank and file membership a new procedure introduced by Hague to a much less experienced but strongly Eurosceptic rival Iain Duncan Smith This loss by a margin of 62 to 38 was attributed to the former Chancellor s strong pro European views being increasingly out of step with the party members Euroscepticism 14 His campaign was managed by Andrew Tyrie Clarke opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq After choosing not to stand for the leadership after Duncan Smith departed in 2003 in the interests of party unity he returned to fight the 2005 leadership election He still retained huge popularity among voters with 40 of the public believing he would be the best leader 34 He was accused by Norman Tebbit of being lazy whilst leadership rival Sir Malcolm Rifkind suggested that Clarke s pro European views could have divided the Conservative Party had Clarke won 35 In the event Clarke was eliminated in the first round of voting by Conservative MPs Eventual winner David Cameron appointed Clarke to head a Democracy Task Force as part of his extensive 18 month policy review in December 2005 exploring issues such as the reform of the House of Lords and party funding Clarke is President of the Tory Reform Group a liberal pro European ginger group within the Conservative Party Clarke became known as an economic and social liberal an internationalist and a strong supporter of the European idea 36 In 2006 he described Cameron s plans for a British Bill of Rights as xenophobic and legal nonsense 37 Expenses scandal Edit Main article United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal On 12 May 2009 The Daily Telegraph reported that Clarke had flipped his Council Tax He had told the Parliamentary authorities that his main home was in the Rushcliffe constituency enabling him to claim a second home allowance on his London residence leaving the taxpayer to foot the bill for Council Tax due on that property However he told Rushcliffe Borough Council in Nottinghamshire that he spent so little time at his constituency address that his wife Gillian should qualify for a 25 Council Tax single person s discount saving the former Chancellor around 650 per year Land Registry records showed that Clarke no longer had a mortgage on his Nottinghamshire home where he has lived since 1987 Instead he held a mortgage on his London property which was being charged to the taxpayer at 480 per month 38 Return to the frontbench Edit In 2009 Clarke became Shadow Business Secretary in opposition to then Business Secretary Lord Mandelson David Cameron described Clarke as about the only one able to challenge Mandelson and Brown s economic credibility Two days later it was revealed that Clarke had warned in a speech a month earlier that President Barack Obama could see David Cameron as a right wing nationalist if the Conservatives maintained Eurosceptic policies and that Obama would start looking at whoever is in Germany or France if we start being isolationist 39 The Financial Times said Clarke has in effect agreed to disagree with the Tories official Eurosceptic line 40 Lord Chancellor and Justice Secretary Edit Clarke s portrait as Lord Chancellor 2011 On 12 May 2010 Clarke s appointment as Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor was announced by Prime Minister David Cameron in the Coalition Government formed between the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties 41 James Macintyre political editor of Prospect argued that in this ministerial role he had instigated a process of radical reform 42 In June 2010 Clarke signalled an end to short prison sentences after warning it was virtually impossible to rehabilitate any inmate in less than 12 months In his first major speech after taking office Clarke indicated a major shift in penal policy by saying prison was not effective in many cases This could result in more offenders being handed community sentences Clarke who described the current prison population of 85 000 as astonishing received immediate criticism from some colleagues in a Party renowned for its tough stance on law and order He signalled that fathers who fail to pay child maintenance disqualified drivers and criminals fighting asylum refusals could be among the first to benefit and should not be sent to prison 43 Clarke announced in February 2011 that the Government intended to scrutinise the relationship between the European Court of Human Rights and national parliaments 44 In May 2011 controversy related to Clarke s reported views on rape resurfaced after an interview on the radio station BBC 5 Live where he discussed a proposal to further reduce the sentences of criminals including rapists who pleaded guilty pre trial 45 In 2011 and 2012 Clarke faced criticism for his Justice and Security Bill in particular those aspects of it that allow secret trials when national security is at stake 46 47 The Economist stated the origins of the proposed legislation lie in civil cases brought by former Guantanamo detainees the best known of whom was Binyam Mohamed alleging that government intelligence and security agencies MI6 and MI5 were complicit in their rendition and torture 48 49 Prominent civil liberties and human rights campaigners argued the worst excesses of the war on terror have been revealed by open courts and a free media Yet the Justice and Security Green Paper seeks to place Government above the law and would undermine such crucial scrutiny 50 Minister without Portfolio Edit Clarke in 2012 Following the 2012 Cabinet reshuffle Clarke was moved from Justice Secretary to Minister without Portfolio It was also announced that he would assume the role of roving Trade Envoy with responsibility for promoting British business and trade interests abroad a position which he enjoyed In the 2014 Cabinet reshuffle after more than 20 years serving as a Minister it was announced that Clarke had stepped down from government to return to the backbenches 51 Clarke was honoured with appointment as a Companion of Honour upon the Prime Minister s recommendation in July 2014 52 His total time as a government minister is the fifth longest in the modern era after Winston Churchill Arthur Balfour Rab Butler and The Duke of Devonshire 53 Return to the backbench Edit Clarke was opposed to Brexit during the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom s continued membership of the European Union and opposed the holding of the referendum in the first place 54 He was the sole Conservative MP to vote against the triggering of Article 50 55 During the 2016 Conservative Party leadership election Clarke was interviewed by Sky News on 5 July 2016 and made negative comments to Sir Malcolm Rifkind 56 about the fiasco leadership contest and about three of the candidates In a widely circulated video clip he referred to Theresa May as a bloody difficult woman joked that Michael Gove who was wild would go to war with at least three countries at once and characterised some of the utterances of Andrea Leadsom as extremely stupid Clarke added that Gove did us all a favour by getting rid of Boris The idea of Boris as prime minister is ridiculous 57 In February 2017 following the death of Sir Gerald Kaufman Clarke became Father of the House He was re elected as an MP in the 2017 general election In December 2017 he voted along with fellow Conservative Dominic Grieve and nine other Conservative MPs against the government and in favour of guaranteeing Parliament a meaningful vote on any Brexit deal Britain agrees with the European Union 58 Clarke endorsed Rory Stewart during the 2019 Conservative leadership election 59 In September 2019 after Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson lost a number of key votes in the House of Commons Clarke stated that it would be not inconceivable for him to become Prime Minister leading a government of national unity in order to revoke Article 50 and prevent Brexit Other politicians who were suggested for such a role at the time included Harriet Harman his female counterpart as Mother of the House of Commons Lib Dem leader Jo Swinson supported the proposal though Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn the Leader of the Opposition both dismissed the suggestion 60 As it turned out a vote of no confidence was not in fact tabled against Boris Johnson s government and no such government of national unity was formed or took office Sitting as an Independent Edit Clarke on the backbench with Theresa May and Sir Alan Duncan 19 October 2019 Main article September 2019 suspension of rebel Conservative MPs On 3 September 2019 Clarke joined 20 other rebel Conservative MPs to vote against the Conservative government of Boris Johnson 61 The rebel MPs voted against a Conservative motion which subsequently failed Effectively they helped block Johnson s no deal Brexit plan from proceeding on 31 October 62 Subsequently all 21 were advised that they had lost the Conservative whip 63 64 and were expelled as Conservative MPs requiring them to sit as independents 65 66 If they decided to run for re election in a future election the party would block their selection as Conservative candidates though Clarke opted not to do so 62 On the 3 September edition of BBC s Newsnight Clarke discussed the situation saying that he no longer recognised the Conservative Party referring to it as the Brexit Party rebadged His rationale was It s been taken over by a rather knockabout sort of character who s got this bizarre crash it through philosophy a Cabinet which is the most right wing Cabinet any Conservative Party has ever produced 67 In an interview on 7 September Clarke rejected the suggestion that like other former Conservative MPs he could join the Liberal Democrats but noted that if he were to cast a protest vote he would follow the Conservative tradition of voting Lib Dem 68 In his capacity as Father of the House Clarke presided over the House of Commons during the 2019 Speakership election 69 He then retired from the House of Commons at the 2019 general election Since Dennis Skinner lost his seat in the election Sir Peter Bottomley became Father of the House Peerage Edit In early 2020 Clarke was nominated for a peerage by Boris Johnson 70 On 4 September he was created Baron Clarke of Nottingham of West Bridgford in the County of Nottinghamshire 71 He made his maiden speech on 28 September 2020 72 Corporate media and other work EditWhilst serving as a backbench MP and as a Shadow Cabinet Minister Clarke accepted several non executive directorships Deputy Chairman and a director of British American Tobacco BAT 1998 2007 for which Clarke faced allegations relating to activities of BAT in lobbying the developing world to reject stronger health warnings on cigarette packets and evidence the corporation had been involved in smuggling and targeting children with advertisements 73 74 Deputy Chairman of Alliance Unichem citation needed Chairman non executive of Unichem citation needed Director of Foreign amp Colonial Investment Trust citation needed Member from June 2007 of the Advisory Board of Centaurus Capital a London based hedge fund management company 75 Clarke is a member of the advisory board of Agcapita Farmland Investment Partnership 76 a Canadian farmland investment fund Director non executive of Independent News and Media UK 77 Participant at the annual meeting of the Bilderberg Group in 1993 1998 2000 2003 04 2006 08 and 2012 13 78 79 80 81 82 Also as a backbencher Clarke declared engagement in non political media work presented several series of jazz programmes on BBC Radio Four including one on his namesake bebop drummer Kenny Clarke wrote a monthly column for Financial Mail on Sunday 10 001 15 000 wrote a weekly commentary or interview for Bloomberg Television 10 001 15 000 undertook occasional lecturing on a self employed basis 83 Personal life EditIn 1964 Clarke married Gillian Edwards a Cambridge contemporary 84 They had a son and a daughter 14 Edwards died of cancer in July 2015 85 Clarke s enthusiasm for cigars jazz and motor racing is well known 14 and he enjoys birdwatching as well as reading political history He is also popularly recognised for his affection for suede Hush Puppies a brand of shoe which became a trademark of his during his early ministerial days 86 His autobiography denies he wore Hush Puppies and says these suede shoes were hand made by Crockett amp Jones 87 Clarke is a sports enthusiast being a supporter of both local clubs Notts County 88 89 and Nottingham Forest who offered him a chair 90 and a former President of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club He is President of both Radcliffe Olympic and the Radcliffe on Trent Male Voice Choir and a keen follower of Formula One motorsport He was involved with tobacco giant British American Tobacco s Formula One team British American Racing BAR and has attended Grands Prix in support of the BAR team BAR was sold to Honda in 2005 He also appeared on the podium of the 2012 British Grand Prix to present the first place trophy to Mark Webber He attended the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final and jokingly claims to have been influential in persuading the linesman Tofiq Bahramov to award a goal to Geoff Hurst when the England striker had seen his shot hit the crossbar of opponents West Germany leaving doubt as to whether the ball had crossed the line Clarke s position in the Wembley crowd was right behind the linesman at the time and he shouted at the official to award a goal 91 Clarke is a lover of real ale and has been an active member of the Campaign for Real Ale CAMRA 92 His memoir Kind of Blue was published in October 2016 93 Honours Edit Insignia of Companion of Honour Made a Queen s Counsel QC in 1980 Made an Honorary Bencher of Gray s Inn in 1989 Made a Full Bencher in 1997 94 Sworn in as a Member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in 1985 This gave him the Honorific Title The Right Honourable for Life Made a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour CH in 2014 Honorary degree of Doctor of Laws LL D from the University of Nottingham in 1989 95 Honorary degree of Doctor of the University D Univ from University of Derby in November 2017 96 References Edit Parliamentary Secretary 1979 81 Mr Kenneth Clarke Hansard api parliament uk Retrieved 11 May 2021 Structure of the European Movement UK Archived from the original on 14 June 2009 Retrieved 22 October 2009 The Rt Hon Kenneth Clarke QC MP GOV UK Government of the United Kingdom Archived from the original on 18 July 2014 Retrieved 15 July 2014 My School Days Ken Clarke 9 June 2014 Archived from the original on 11 August 2014 Anthony Andrew 27 March 2005 Howard s way The Guardian London Archived from the original on 12 January 2006 Retrieved 24 September 2008 News in Brief The Times 55643 London 7 March 1963 col B p 5 Kenneth Clarke Conservative Party Archived from the original on 12 February 2013 Retrieved 19 January 2009 Artwork Portrait of Kenneth Clarke MP Archived from the original on 28 July 2014 Retrieved 28 July 2014 Murphy Joe 13 January 2014 MPs splash out 250 000 of public money on vanity portraits London Evening Standard Retrieved 13 January 2014 Rover Group Privatisation Hansard 29 March 1988 Archived from the original on 22 March 2014 Retrieved 22 March 2014 John Campbell Margaret Thatcher Volume Two The Iron Lady London Jonathan Cape 2003 p 552 Campbell p 552 a b c d e f Contender Kenneth Clarke BBC News 2 August 2005 Archived from the original on 23 September 2007 Retrieved 24 September 2008 Rawnsley Andrew 19 July 2014 Kenneth Clarke I had a lot of views but they didn t coincide with No 10 s The Observer London Archived from the original on 20 July 2014 Retrieved 20 July 2014 Malcolm Balen Kenneth Clarke London Fourth Estate 1994 p 166 Margaret Thatcher The Downing Street Years London HarperCollins 1993 p 614 Campbell pp 552 553 a b c d Campbell p 553 Campbell pp 553 554 a b Campbell p 554 Propper Carol Burgess Simon Green Katherine 1 July 2004 Does competition between hospitals improve the quality of care Hospital death rates and the NHS internal market Journal of Public Economics 88 7 8 1247 1272 doi 10 1016 S0047 2727 02 00216 5 ISSN 0047 2727 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Propper Carol Burgess Simon Gossage Denise 1 January 2008 Competition and Quality Evidence from the NHS Internal Market 1991 9 PDF The Economic Journal 118 525 138 170 doi 10 1111 j 1468 0297 2007 02107 x ISSN 1468 0297 S2CID 709809 Archived PDF from the original on 4 February 2007 Retrieved 14 September 2019 Hattenstone Simon 3 March 2018 Britain s contaminated blood scandal I need them to admit they killed our son The Guardian Archived from the original on 8 March 2018 Retrieved 7 March 2018 Contaminated blood cover up revealed in Cabinet papers Sky News Archived from the original on 8 March 2018 Retrieved 7 March 2018 Johnson Diana Contaminated Blood Hansard Online hansard parliament uk Archived from the original on 5 September 2017 Retrieved 7 March 2018 May Theresa PM statement on contaminated blood inquiry 11 July 2017 GOV UK www gov uk Archived from the original on 12 June 2018 Retrieved 7 March 2018 Home Infected Blood Inquiry Infected Blood Inquiry Archived from the original on 8 March 2018 Retrieved 7 March 2018 Health Lab tests under threat BBC News London 15 February 1999 Retrieved 27 July 2021 Thatcher Margaret 1993 The Downing Street Years New York HarperCollins p 914 ISBN 978 0 06 017056 1 Macintyre Donald Brown Colin 27 June 1995 PM assails malcontent Redwood The Independent London Archived from the original on 13 September 2017 Retrieved 2 September 2017 a b Clarke 2016 pp 369 372 Crick 1997 pp 431 433 Clarke is voter favourite poll BBC News 5 September 2005 Archived from the original on 13 December 2007 Retrieved 24 September 2008 Tories round on candidate Clarke BBC News 4 September 2005 Archived from the original on 11 September 2005 Retrieved 24 September 2008 Stadler Liliane 6 December 2016 Ken Clarke s Kind of Blue OxPol Archived from the original on 23 July 2018 Retrieved 23 July 2018 Clarke slams Cameron rights plan BBC News 27 June 2006 Retrieved 19 October 2009 Rayner Gordon 12 May 2009 MPs expenses Ken Clarke s council tax flip The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on 22 May 2010 Retrieved 9 April 2010 Winnett Robert 21 January 2009 Ken Clarke warns Barack Obama could see David Cameron as right wing nationalist The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on 24 January 2009 Retrieved 23 January 2009 Interactive graphics A Conservative Who s Who Financial Times London Archived from the original on 10 May 2010 Retrieved 19 June 2010 Election 2010 Live coverage General Election 2010 BBC News May 2010 Archived from the original on 13 March 2012 Retrieved 19 June 2010 Macintyre James 2010 Public service innovators Ethos Hook Hants Serco Archived from the original on 19 January 2012 Retrieved 17 January 2012 Whitehead Tom 30 June 2010 David Cameron insists short prison sentences to stay The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on 3 July 2010 Retrieved 14 July 2010 Stratton Allegra 21 February 2011 Kenneth Clarke offers hope to Tory critics of human rights court The Guardian London p 8 Archived from the original on 27 September 2016 Retrieved 12 December 2016 In full Ken Clarke interview on rape sentencing BBC News 18 May 2011 Archived from the original on 17 July 2018 Retrieved 20 June 2018 Rozenberg Joshua 16 November 2011 The justice and security green paper is an attack on liberty The Guardian London Archived from the original on 1 October 2013 Retrieved 2 June 2012 Ken Clarke s justice bill passed despite attacks BBC News 2 November 2011 Archived from the original on 21 March 2012 Retrieved 2 June 2012 A question of balance The Economist London 2 June 2012 Archived from the original on 2 June 2012 Retrieved 2 June 2012 Cobain Ian 9 April 2012 Special report Rendition ordeal that raises new questions about secret trials The Guardian London p 1 Archived from the original on 23 October 2013 Retrieved 9 April 2012 Chakrabarti Shami Davis David Kennedy Helena Macdonald Ken Mercer Nicholas Rose Dinah 6 March 2012 Secrets and scrutiny Letter The Guardian London p 35 Archived from the original on 2 January 2014 Retrieved 2 June 2012 Ken Clarke given trade envoy role BBC News 12 October 2012 Archived from the original on 5 January 2014 Retrieved 13 January 2014 Kenneth Clarke appointed to the Order of the Companions of Honour Prime Minister s Office Archived from the original on 26 July 2014 Retrieved 22 July 2014 Parkinson Justin 13 June 2013 Chasing Churchill Ken Clarke climbs ministerial long service chart BBC News Retrieved 13 January 2014 Goodenough Tom 16 February 2016 Which Tory MPs back Brexit who doesn t and who is still on the fence The Spectator London Archived from the original on 2 May 2019 Retrieved 11 October 2016 Sparrow Andrew 7 December 2016 MPs vote to demand Brexit plan and say article 50 should be triggered by end March The Guardian London Archived from the original on 7 December 2016 Retrieved 7 December 2016 Ken Clarke caught on camera ridiculing Conservative leadership candidates but Sky News face backlash after releasing footage The Telegraph London 5 July 2016 Archived from the original on 5 July 2016 Retrieved 5 July 2016 Mason Rowena Asthana Anushka 5 July 2016 Ken Clarke caught on camera ridiculing Conservative leadership candidates The Guardian London Archived from the original on 16 December 2016 Retrieved 12 December 2016 Austin Henry 13 December 2017 Brexit vote The 11 Tory rebel MPs who defeated the Government The Independent Archived from the original on 19 June 2018 Retrieved 19 June 2018 Walker Peter 9 June 2019 Tory leadership contest where do things stand The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Archived from the original on 9 June 2019 Retrieved 10 June 2019 Clarke I wouldn t rule out becoming PM 16 August 2019 Archived from the original on 21 August 2019 Retrieved 22 August 2019 https www theguardian com politics live 2019 sep 03 commons showdown looms in battle over no deal brexit live page with block 5d6ed2f58f0845a5dab7cc88 block 5d6ed2f58f0845a5dab7cc88 Archived 4 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine MPs back move to allow bill to block no deal Brexit by majority of 27 a b The Daily Telegraph Archived 5 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine Boris Johnson to strip 21 Tory MPs of the Tory whip in parliamentary bloodbath What is removing the whip filibustering and other Brexit jargon BBC Newsbeat 4 September 2019 Archived from the original on 4 September 2019 Retrieved 4 September 2019 https westbridgfordwire com kenneth clarke thrown out of the conservative party after voting against the government Archived 4 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine Kenneth Clarke thrown out of the Conservative Party after voting against the Government Whips Parliament uk Archived from the original on 22 July 2019 Retrieved 4 September 2019 Boris Johnson to seek election after rebel Tories deliver Commons defeat Archived from the original on 3 September 2019 Retrieved 4 September 2019 It s the Brexit Party rebadged Tory grandee Kenneth Clarke among 21 rebels ITV News 4 September 2019 Archived from the original on 4 September 2019 Retrieved 4 September 2019 Andrew Rawnsley Toby Helm Ken Clarke I am not sure yet but I may protest and vote Lib Dem The Observer 7 September 2019 https www theguardian com politics 2019 sep 07 ken clarke interview andrew rawnsley lost tory whip Archived 7 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine Syal Rajeev 5 November 2019 Speaker Hoyle promises humour and quiet words The Guardian Archived from the original on 10 November 2019 Retrieved 10 November 2019 Brexit critics Hammond and Clarke set for peerages BBC News 6 February 2020 Retrieved 6 February 2020 No 28388 The Edinburgh Gazette 8 September 2020 p 1470 Clarke Kenneth 28 September 2020 Maiden speech in the House of Lords hansard parliament uk Retrieved 21 October 2020 British American Tobacco dead link Monbiot George 23 August 2005 BAT role makes Clarke unfit for office The Guardian London Retrieved 19 January 2009 Hedge fund Centaurus appoints Ken Clarke as adviser Reuters 1 June 2007 Retrieved 24 September 2008 Agcapita Partners LP Farmland Investment Partnership Archived from the original on 7 January 2010 Retrieved 19 October 2009 Kenneth Clarke MP TheyWorkForYou Archived from the original on 3 July 2013 Retrieved 2 September 2017 Memorandum submitted by the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards Complaint against Mr Kenneth Clarke United Kingdom Parliament 11 July 1997 Archived from the original on 28 November 2016 Retrieved 2 September 2017 Mr Clarke subsequently explained that he and Mr Blair considered that they were attending the conference as representatives of the Government and the Opposition respectively and stated that I was quite confident that I was at the time meeting the rules applying to Ministers and it did not occur to me that the new rules concerning registration could apply to this visit Register of Members Interests United Kingdom Parliament Archived from the original on 3 February 2016 Retrieved 2 September 2017 His secret s out how Georgie met Kissinger London Evening Standard 15 August 2008 p 14 Ken Clarke Peter Mandelson and former mandarin Lord Kerr were also among the select group of British figures at the gathering of politicians and tycoons Duffy Jonathan 3 June 2004 Bilderberg The ultimate conspiracy theory BBC News Archived from the original on 26 December 2008 Retrieved 24 September 2008 The group which includes luminaries such as Henry Kissinger and former UK chancellor Kenneth Clarke does not even have a website Kenneth Clarke Full register of members interests The Guardian London Archived from the original on 24 July 2008 Retrieved 7 May 2010 5 8 June 2008 to Chantilly Virginia USA to attend Bilderberg Conference Hotel accommodation paid for by the conference sponsors I paid my travel costs Registered 12 June 2008 Register of Members Interests Archived from the original on 9 March 2017 Retrieved 2 September 2017 Is there more to Ken the Bloke The Daily Telegraph London 23 July 2001 Archived from the original on 17 February 2015 Retrieved 15 July 2014 Gillian Clarke Historian political activist and quilt maker who stood at Ken Clarke s right hand for more than half a century The Independent London 14 July 2015 Archived from the original on 21 August 2015 Retrieved 4 August 2015 Naughton Philippe 14 May 2010 Ken Clarke sheds Hush Puppies for new job The Times London Archived from the original on 29 June 2011 Retrieved 10 February 2011 subscription required Kind of Blue Ken Clarke 2016 The Notts County Miscellany by David Clayton The History Press 17 March 2017 Chandhoke Harcharan 4 June 2001 Kenneth Clarke I was there when The Guardian Archived from the original on 2 February 2017 Retrieved 17 June 2017 Football Forest offer chair to Kenneth Clarke 23 June 1997 Retrieved 17 June 2017 Chandhoke Harcharan 4 June 2001 I was there when England won the World Cup The Guardian London Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 Retrieved 20 March 2015 Hall Sarah 6 August 2002 Campaign to include women in real ale round The Guardian London Archived from the original on 9 September 2014 Retrieved 24 September 2008 Clarke Ken 6 October 2016 Kind of Blue A Political Memoir Pan Macmillan ISBN 978 1 5098 3724 3 Archived copy Archived from the original on 30 August 2019 Retrieved 30 August 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy PDF Archived PDF from the original on 28 January 2019 Retrieved 30 August 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Kenneth Clarke Archived from the original on 30 August 2019 Retrieved 30 August 2019 Books EditKenneth Clarke Kind of Blue Macmillan 2016 ISBN 1 509 83719 1 his memoirs Michael Crick Michael Heseltine A Biography Hamish Hamilton 1997 ISBN 0 241 13691 1 External links EditWikiquote has quotations related to Ken ClarkeWikimedia Commons has media related to Kenneth Clarke Kenneth Clarke official Conservative Party profile Debrett s People of Today Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803 2005 Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Kenneth Clarke collected news and commentary The New York Times Appearances on C SPAN In full Ken Clarke says Dominic Cummings should vanish and warns BBC needs protectingArticlesSmoke and mirrors George Monbiot The Guardian 23 August 2005 Conservative Leadership Watch BBC News 30 September 2005 Lost leaders Kenneth Clarke Henry Smith New Statesman 5 March 2010Parliament of the United KingdomPreceded by Antony Gardner Member of Parliament for Rushcliffe 1970 2019 Succeeded by Ruth EdwardsPolitical officesPreceded by John Gummer Paymaster General 1985 1987 Succeeded by Peter BrookePreceded by Norman Tebbit Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1987 1988 Succeeded by Tony NewtonPreceded by John Moore Secretary of State for Health 1988 1990 Succeeded by William WaldegravePreceded by John MacGregor Secretary of State for Education and Science 1990 1992 Succeeded by John PattenPreceded by Kenneth Baker Home Secretary 1992 1993 Succeeded by Michael HowardPreceded by Norman Lamont Chancellor of the Exchequer 1993 1997 Succeeded by Gordon BrownSecond Lord of the Treasury 1993 1997Preceded by Gordon Brown Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer 1997 Succeeded by Peter LilleyPreceded by Alan Duncan as Shadow Secretary of State for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Shadow Secretary of State for Business Innovation and Skills 2009 2010 Succeeded by The Lord MandelsonPreceded by Jack Straw Secretary of State for Justice 2010 2012 Succeeded by Chris GraylingLord High Chancellor of Great Britain 2010 2012Honorary titlesPreceded by Sir Gerald Kaufman Father of the House of Commons 2017 2019 Succeeded by Sir Peter BottomleyOrders of precedence in the United KingdomPreceded by The Lord Walney Gentlemen Baron Clarke of Nottingham Followed by The Lord SarfrazRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Kenneth Clarke amp oldid 1040388388, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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