fbpx
Wikipedia

Princeton University

"Princeton" redirects here. For the city in New Jersey, see Princeton, New Jersey. For other uses, see Princeton (disambiguation).

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, and then to the current site nine years later. It officially became a university in 1896 and was subsequently renamed Princeton University.

Princeton University
Princeton University shield
Latin: Universitas Princetoniensis
Former names
College of New Jersey
(1746–1896)
MottoDei Sub Numine Viget (Latin)
On seal: Vet[us] Nov[um] Testamentum (Latin)
Motto in English
Under God's Power She Flourishes
On seal: Old Testament and New Testament
TypePrivate research university
EstablishedJanuary 18, 1746; 275 years ago (1746-01-18)
AccreditationMSCHE
Academic affiliations
Endowment$26.6 billion (2020)
PresidentChristopher L. Eisgruber
ProvostDeborah Prentice
Academic staff
1,289
Total staff
7,300
Students8,419 (Fall 2019)
Undergraduates5,422 (Fall 2019)
Postgraduates2,997 (Fall 2019)
2,631 (Fall 2019)
Location,
United States

40°20′43″N74°39′22″W /40.34528°N 74.65611°W /40.34528; -74.65611Coordinates: 40°20′43″N74°39′22″W /40.34528°N 74.65611°W /40.34528; -74.65611
CampusSuburban/College town, 600 acres (2.4 km2)
(Main Campus)
NewspaperThe Daily Princetonian
ColorsOrange & Black
NicknameTigers
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division I FCS - Ivy League
ECAC Hockey
EARC
EIVA
MAISA
MascotThe Tiger
Websiteprinceton.edu

The university is governed by the Trustees of Princeton University and has an endowment of $26.6 billion, the largest endowment per student in the United States. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering to approximately 8,500 students on its 600 acres (2.4 km2) main campus. It offers postgraduate degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university also manages the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is home to the NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. It is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity" and has one of the largest university libraries in the world.

Princeton uses a residential college system and is known for its upperclassmen eating clubs. Students can choose from around 500 recognized student organizations on campus, like the nation's oldest debate union, the second oldest college daily student newspaper, the oldest touring musical-comedy theater group, or the oldest licensed college radio station. Princeton students embrace a wide variety of traditions from both the past and present. The university is a NCAA Division I school and competes in the Ivy League. The school's athletic team, the Princeton Tigers, has won the most titles in its conference and has sent many students and alumni to the Olympics.

As of May 2021, 69 Nobel laureates, 16 Fields Medalists and 16 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 11 National Humanities Medal recipients, 215 Rhodes Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars. Two U.S. Presidents, twelve U.S. Supreme Court Justices (three of whom currently serve on the court) and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many members of the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and two Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Contents

Founding

The Log College, an influential aspect of Princeton's development

Princeton University, founded as the College of New Jersey, was shaped much in its formative years by the "Log College", a seminary founded by the Reverend William Tennent at Neshaminy, Pennsylvania in about 1726. While no legal connection ever existed, many of the pupils and adherents from the Log College would go on to financially support and become substantially involved in the early years of the university. While early writers considered it as the predecessor of the university, the idea has been rebuked by Princeton historians.

The founding of the university itself originated from a split in the Presbyterian church following the Great Awakening. In 1741, New Light Presbyterians were expelled from the Synod of Philadelphia in defense of how the Log College ordained ministers. The four founders of Princeton, who were New Lights, were either expelled or withdrew from the Synod and devised a plan to establish a new college, for they were disappointed with Harvard and Yale's opposition to the Great Awakening and dissatisfied with the limited instruction at the Log College. They convinced three other Presbyterians to join them and decided on New Jersey for where to found the school, as at the time, there was no institution between Yale in New Haven, Connecticut and the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia; it was also where some of the founders preached. Although their initial request was rejected by the Anglican governor, Lewis Morrison, the acting governor after Morrison's death, John Hamilton, granted a charter for the College of New Jersey on October 22, 1746. In 1747, approximately five months after acquiring the charter, the trustees elected Jonathan Dickinson as president and opened in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where classes were held in Dickinson's residence. With its founding, it became the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, and one of nine colonial colleges charted before the American Revolution. Although initially founded with the goal to train ministers, the founders instead aimed to create a college of liberal arts and sciences. Though the school was open to those of any religious denomination, with many of the founders being of Presbyterian faith, the college became the educational and religious capital of Scotch-Irish Presbyterian America.

Colonial and early years

From 1760, the first picture of Nassau Hall

In 1747, due to the death of then President Jonathan Dickinson, the college moved from Elizabeth to Newark, New Jersey, as that was where presidential successor Aaron Burr Sr.'s parsonage was located. That same year, Princeton's first charter came under dispute by Anglicans, but on September 14, 1748, the recently appointed governor Jonathan Belcher granted a second charter. Belcher, a Congregationalist, had become alienated with his alma mater, Harvard, and decided to "adopt [the infant college]." Belcher would go on to raise funds for the college and donate his 474-volume library, making it one of the largest libraries in the colonies.

In 1756, the college moved again to its present campus in Princeton, New Jersey due to it being too close to New York. Princeton was chosen for its central location in New Jersey and by strong recommendation by Belcher. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal William III of England, a member of the House of Orange-Nassau. The trustees of the College of New Jersey initially suggested that Nassau Hall be named in recognition of Belcher because of his interest in the institution; though, the governor vetoed the request.

John Witherspoon, President of the college (1768–94) and signer of the Declaration of Independence

Burr, who would die in 1757, devised a curriculum for the school and increased the student body. Following the untimely death of Burr and the college's next three presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794. With his presidency, Witherspoon focused the college on preparing a new generation of both educated clergy and secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards, broadened the curriculum, solicited investment for the college, and grew its size.

A signer of the Declaration of Independence, Witherspoon and his leadership led the college to becoming influential to the American Revolution. In 1777, the college became the site for the Battle of Princeton. During the battle, British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall before eventually surrendering to American forces led by General George Washington. During the summer and fall of 1783, the Continental Congress and Washington met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months; in Nassau Hall is where Congress learned of the peace treaty between the colonies and the British. The college did suffer from the revolution, with a depreciated endowment and hefty repair bills for Nassau Hall.

19th Century

In 1795, President Samuel Stanhope Smith took office, the first alumnus to become president. Nassau Hall burned down in 1802, in which Smith blamed on rebellious students. The college raised enough funds for reconstruction, as well as the construction of two new buildings. In 1807, a large student riot occurred at Nassau Hall, spurred by underlying distrust of educational reforms by Smith away from the Church. Following Smith's mishandling of the situation, falling enrollment, and faculty resignations, the trustees of the university offered resignation to Smith, which he accepted. In 1812, Ashbel Green was unanimously elected by the trustees of the college to become the eighth president. After the liberal tenure of Smith, Green represented the conservative "Old Side," in which he introduced rigorous disciplinary rules and heavily embraced religion. Even so, believing the College wasn't religious enough, he took a prominent role in establishing the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. While student riots were a frequent occurrence during Green's tenure, enrollment did increase under his administration.

In 1823, James Carnahan became president, arriving as an unprepared and timid leader. With the College undertaken by conflicting views between students, faculty, and trustees, and enrollment hitting its lowest in years, Carnahan considered closing the university. Carnahan's successor, John Maclean Jr., who was only a professor at the time, recommended saving the university with the help of alumni; as a result, Princeton's alumni association, led by James Madison, was created and began raising funds. With Carnahan and Maclean, now vice-president, working as partners, enrollment and faculty increased, tensions decreased, and the College campus expanded. Maclean took over the presidency in 1854 and led the university through the American Civil War. When Nassau Hall burned down again in 1855, Maclean raised funds and used the money to rebuild Nassau Hall and run the university on an austerity budget during the war years. With a third of students from the College being from the South, enrollment fell. Once many of the Southerners left, the campus became a sharp proponent for the Union, even bestowing an honorary degree to President Lincoln.

James McCosh, President of the college (1868–88)

James McCosh became the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the war. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, recruited distinguished faculty, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh's tenure also saw the creation and rise of many extracurricular activities, like the Princeton Glee Club, the Triangle Club, the first intercollegiate football team, and the first permanent eating club, as well as the elimination of Greek life. In 1879, Princeton conferred its first doctorates to James F. Williamson and William Libby, both members of the Class of 1877.

Francis Patton took the presidency in 1888, and although his election was not met by unanimous enthusiasm, he was well-received by undergraduates. Patton's administration was marked with great change, for Princeton's enrollment and faculty had doubled. At the same time, the college underwent large expansion and social life was changing in reflection of the rise in eating clubs and burgeoning interest in athletics. In 1893, the honor system was established, allowing for unproctored exams. In 1896, the college officially became university, and as a result, it officially changed its name to Princeton University. In 1900, the Graduate School was formally established. Even with such accomplishments, Patton's administration remained lackluster with its administrative structure and towards its educational standards. Due to profile changes in the board of trustees and dissatisfaction with his administration, he was forced to resign in 1902.

20th Century

Woodrow Wilson, President of Princeton University (1902–10) and 28th president of the United States

Following Patton's resignation, Woodrow Wilson, an alumnus and popular professor, was elected the 13th president of the university. Noticing falling academic standards, Wilson orchestrated significant changes to the curriculum, where freshman and sophomores followed a unified curriculum while juniors and seniors concentrated study in one discipline. Ambitious seniors were allowed to undertake independent work, which would eventually shape Princeton's emphasis on the practice for the future. Wilson further reformed the educational system by introducing the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest. The changes brought about many new faculty and cemented Princeton's academics for the first half of the 20th century. Due to the tightening of academic standards, enrollment declined severely until 1907. In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie, and the university officially became nonsectarian. Before leaving office, Wilson strengthened the science program to focus on "pure" research and broke the Presbyterian lock on the board of trustees. However, he did fail in winning support for the permanent location of the Graduate School and the elimination of the eating clubs, which he proposed replacing with quadrangles, a precursor to the residential college system. Wilson also continued to keep Princeton closed off from accepting Black students. When an aspiring Black student wrote a letter to Wilson, he got his secretary to reply telling him to attend a university where he would be more welcome.

John Grier Hibben became president in 1912 and would remain in the post for two decades. On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Hibben allocated all available University resources to the government. As a result, military training schools opened on campus and laboratories and other facilities were used for research and operational programs. Overall, more than 6,000 students served in the armed forces, with 151 dying during the war. After the war, enrollment spiked and the trustees established the system of selective admission in 1922. From the 1920s to the 1930s, the student body featured many students from preparatory schools, zero Black students, and dwindling Jewish enrollment because of quotas. Aside from managing Princeton during WWI, Hibben introduced the senior thesis in 1923 as a part of The New Plan of Study. He also brought about great expansion to the university, with the creation of the School of Architecture in 1919, the School of Engineering in 1921, and the School of Public and International Affairs in 1930. By the end of his presidency, the endowment had increased by 374 percent, the total area of the campus doubled, the faculty experienced impressive growth, and the enrollment doubled.

Hibben's successor, Harold Willis Dodds would lead the university through the Great Depression, World War II, and the Korean Conflict. With the Great Depression, many students were forced to withdraw due to financial reasons. At the same time, Princeton's reputation in physics and mathematics surged as many European scientists left for the United States due to uneasy tension caused by Nazi Germany. In 1930, the Institute for Advanced Study was founded to provide a space for the influx of scientists, such as Albert Einstein. Many Princeton scientists would work on the Manhattan Project during the war, including the entire physics department. During World War II, Princeton offered an accelerated program for students to graduate early before entering the armed forces. Student enrollment fluctuated from month to month, and many faculty were forced to teach unfamiliar subjects. Still, Dodds maintained academic standards and would establish a program for servicemen, so they could resume their education once discharged.

Post-war to present

Post-war years saw scholars renewing broken bonds through numerous conventions, expansion of the campus, and the introduction of distribution requirements. The period saw the desegregation of Princeton, which was stimulated by changes to the New Jersey constitution. Princeton began undertaking a sharper focus towards research in the years after the war, with the construction of Firestone Library in 1948 and the establishment of the Forrestal Research Center in the 1950s. Government sponsored research increased sharply, particularly in the physics and engineering departments, with much of it occurring at the new Forrestal campus. Though, as the years progressed, scientific research at the Forrestal campus declined, and in 1973, some of the land was converted to commercial and residential spaces.

Robert Goheen would succeed Dodds by unanimous vote and serve as president until 1972. Goheen's presidency was characterized as being more liberal than previous presidents, and his presidency would see a rise in Black applicants, as well as the eventual coeducation of the university in 1969. During this period of rising diversity, the Third World Center (now known as the Carl A. Fields Center) was dedicated in 1971. Goheen also oversaw great expansion for the university, with square footage increasing by 80 percentage.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Princeton experienced unprecedented activism, with most of it centered on the Vietnam War. While Princeton activism initially remained relatively timid compared to other institutions, protests began to grow with the founding of a local chapter of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in 1965, which organized many of the later Princeton protests. In 1966, the SDS gained prominence on campus following picketing against a speech by President Lyndon B. Johnson, which gained frontpage coverage by the New York Times. A notable point of contention on campus was the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) and would feature multiple protests, some of which required police action. As the years went on, the protests' agenda broadened to investments in South Africa, environmental issues, and women's rights. In response to these broadening protests, the Council of the Princeton University Community (CPUC) was founded to serve as a method for greater student voice in governance. Activism culminated in 1970 with a student, faculty, and staff member strike, so the university could become an "institution against expansion of the war." Princeton's protests would taper off later that year, with The Daily Princetonian saying that, "Princeton 1970–71 was an emotionally burned out university."

In 1982, the residential college system was officially established under Goheen's successor William G. Bowen, who would serve until 1988. During his presidency, Princeton's endowment increased from $625 million to $2 billion, and a major fundraising drive known as "A Campaign for Princeton" was conducted. President Harold T. Shapiro would succeed Bowen and remain president until 2001. Shapiro would continue to increase the endowment, expand academic programs, raise student diversity, and oversaw the most renovations in Princeton's history. In 2001, Princeton shifted the financial aid policy to a system that replaced all loans with grants. That same year, Princeton elected its first female president, Shirley M. Tilghman. Before retiring in 2012, Tilghman expanded financial aid offerings and conducted several major construction projects.

Princeton's 20th and current president Christopher Eisgruber was elected in 2013. In 2017, Princeton University unveiled a large-scale public history and digital humanities investigation into its historical involvement with slavery called the Princeton & Slavery Project. The project saw the publication of hundreds of primary sources, 80 scholarly essays, a scholarly conference, a series of short plays, and an art project. In April 2018, university trustees announced that they would name two public spaces for James Collins Johnson and Betsey Stockton, enslaved people who lived and worked on Princeton's campus and whose stories were publicized by the project.

Coeducation

History of coeducation at the university dates back to the 19th century. Founded in 1887, the Evelyn College for Women in Princeton provided education to largely the daughters of professors and sisters of Princeton undergraduates. While no legal connection ever existed, many Princeton professors taught there and several Princeton administrations, like Francis Patton, were part of its board of trustees. It closed in 1897 following the death of its founder, Joshua McIlvaine.

Pyne Hall, where the first female students lived on campus.

Coeducation at Princeton wouldn't resume until the 20th century. In 1947, three female members of the library staff enrolled in beginner Russian courses to deal with an increase in Russian literature in the library. In 1961, Princeton admitted its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, who would go on to be the first woman to earn a master's degree. Eight more women would enroll next year at the Graduate School, and in 1964, T'sai-ying Cheng became the first woman at Princeton to receive a Ph.D. The first undergraduate female students came in 1963 when five women came to Princeton to study "critical languages." They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree. Following abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women's college to Princeton and merge it with the university in 1967, the administration commissioned a report on admitting women. The final report was issued in January 1969, supporting the idea. That same month, the trustees voted 24–8 in favor of coeducation and began preparing the institution for the transition. The university finished these plans in April 1969 and announced there would be coeducation in September. Ultimately, 101 female freshman and 70 female transfer students enrolled at Princeton on September 1969. Those admitted were housed in Pyne Hall, a fairly isolated dormitory; a security system were added, although the women deliberately broke it within a day.

In 1971, Mary St. John Douglas and Susan Savage Speers became the first female trustees, and in 1974 quotas for men and women were eliminated. Following a 1979 lawsuit, the eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991 after an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied. In 2001, Princeton elected its first female president.

The eastern side of the Washington Road Elm Allée, one of the entrances to the campus

The main campus consists of more than 200 buildings on 600 acres (2.4 km2) in Princeton, New Jersey. The James Forrestal Campus, a smaller location designed mainly as a research and instruction complex, is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia on the train. The university also owns more than 520 acres (2.1 km2) of property in West Windsor Township, and is where Princeton is planning to construct a graduate student housing complex, which will be known as "Lake Campus North".

The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of the campus facing Nassau Street. The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century. The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles, although many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place. At the end of the 19th century, much of Princeton's architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm (the same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St. Louis and University of Pennsylvania) resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which the university is known for today. Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter, and later enforced by the university's supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram, the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus until 1960. A flurry of construction projects in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received. Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library), I. M. Pei (Spelman Halls), Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project), Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown (Frist Campus Center, among several others), and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).

A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval with Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman). Richard Serra's The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.

At the southern edge of the campus is Lake Carnegie, an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake's construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend and his brother who were both Princeton alumni. Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered "not gentlemanly." The Shea Rowing Center on the lake's shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.

Princeton's grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943. Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her. Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild & Partners in 2000. In 2005, Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for Princeton's 2016 Campus Plan. Lynden B. Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton's consulting gardening architect, focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus.

Buildings

Nassau Hall

Nassau Hall, the university's oldest building and former capitol of the United States. Pictured in front is Cannon Green.

Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756, it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776, was involved in the Battle of Princeton in 1777, and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. Since 1911, the front entrance has been flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879, which replaced two lions previously given in 1889. Starting in 1922, commencement has been held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall when there is good weather. In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Nowadays, it houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices.

To the south of Nassau Hall lies a courtyard that is known as Cannon Green. Buried in the ground at the center is the "Big Cannon," which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick. In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. Two years later, it was moved to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students, and in 1840, it was buried in its current location. A second "Little Cannon" is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. The cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton. The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.

Art Museum

The Princeton University Art Museum, which holds over 112,000 objects

Though art collection at the university dates back to its very founding, the Princeton University Art Museum wasn't officially established till 1882 by President McCosh. Its establishment arose for a desire to provide direct access to works of art in a museum for a curriculum in the arts, an education system familiar to many European universities at the time. The museum took on the purposes of providing "exposure to original works of art and to teach the history of art through an encyclopedic collection of world art."

Numbering over 112,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and come from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The museum's art is divided into ten extensive curatorial areas. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch, as well as other art from the ancient Egyptian, Byzantium, and Islamic worlds. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with pieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including paintings such as Andy Warhol's Blue Marilyn.

The museum features a collection of Chinese and Japanese art, with holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy, as well as collections of Korean, Southeast, and Central Asian art. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan and Olmec art, and its indigenous art ranges from Chile to Alaska to Greenland. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings, and it has a comprehensive collection of over 20,000 photographs. Approximately 750 works of African art are represented. The Museum oversees the outside John B. Putnam, Jr., Memorial Collection of Sculpture.

University Chapel

Finished in 1928, the Princeton University Chapel seats 2,000 people.

The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928 at a cost of $2.3 million, approximately $34.7 million adjusted for inflation in 2020. Ralph Adams Cram, the university's supervising architect, designed the chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus. At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King's College Chapel, Cambridge. It underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002. The Chapel seats around 2,000 and serves as a site for religious services and local celebrations.

Measured on the exterior, the chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, trimmed with Indiana limestone, and the interior is made of limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes characteristics of an English church of the Middle Ages. The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.

Sustainability

Published in 2008, the Sustainability Action Plan was the first formal plan for sustainability enacted by the university. It focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, conservation of resources, and research, education, and civic engagement for sustainability through 10 year objectives. Since the 2008 plan, Princeton has aimed at reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels without the purchase of market offsets and predicts to meet the goal by 2026 (the former goal was by 2020 but COVID-19 requirements delayed this). Princeton released its second Sustainability Action Plan in 2019 on Earth Day with its main goal being reducing campus greenhouse gases to net zero by 2046 as well as other objectives building on those in the 2008 plan. In 2021, the university agreed to divest from thermal coal and tar sand segments of the fossil fuel industry and from companies that are involved in climate disinformation after student protest.

Princeton's Sustainability Action Plan also aims to have zero waste through recycling programs, sustainable purchasing, and behavioral and operational strategies.

Governance and structure

Christopher Eisgruber, the 20th and current president of the university

Princeton's 20th and current president is Christopher Eisgruber, who was appointed by the university's board of trustees in 2013. The board is responsible for the overall direction of the university. It consists of no fewer than 23 and no more than 40 members at any one time, with the president of the university and the Governor of New Jersey serving as ex officio members. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the university's endowment, and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies such as those in instructional programs and admission as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.

The university is composed of the Undergraduate College, the Graduate School, the School of Architecture, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, and the School of Public and International Affairs. Additionally, the school's Bendheim Center for Finance provides education for the area of money and finance in lieu of a business school. Princeton did host a Princeton Law School for a short period, before eventually closing in 1852 due to poor income. Princeton's lack of other professional schools can be attributed to a university focus on undergraduates.

The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, Rutgers University, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Universities Research Association, and the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. The university is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE), with its last reaffirmation in 2014.

Finances

Princeton University's endowment of $26.6 billion (per 2020 figures) was ranked as the fourth largest endowment in the United States, and it had the greatest per-student endowment in the world at over $3 million per student. The endowment is sustained through continued donations and is maintained by investment advisers. Princeton's operating budget is over $2 billion per year, with 50% going to academic departments and programs, 33% to administrative and student service departments, 10% to financial aid departments, and 7% to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

Undergraduate

McCosh 50, the largest lecture hall on campus

Princeton follows a liberal arts curriculum, and offers two bachelor's degrees to students: a Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) and a Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.). Typically, A.B. students choose a major (called a concentration) at the end of sophomore year while B.S.E students declare at the end of their freshman year. Students must complete distribution requirements, departmental requirements, and independent work to graduate with either degree. For A.B. students, they must complete distribution requirements in literature and the arts, science and engineering, social analysis, cultural difference, epistemology and cognition, ethical thought and moral values, historical analysis, and quantitative and computational reasoning; they must also have satisfactory ability in a foreign language. Additionally, they must complete two papers of independent work during their junior year—known as the junior papers—and craft a senior thesis to graduate. Both revolve around the concentration they are pursuing. B.S.E majors complete less courses in the humanities and social sciences and instead fulfill requirements in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and computer programming. Additionally, they must complete independent work; although, the junior paper isn't typically required, and they can complete an independent project or a senior thesis. A.B. majors must complete 31 courses while B.S.E majors must complete 36 courses.

Students can choose from either 36 concentrations or create their own. They can also participate in 55 interdisciplinary certificate programs; since Princeton does not offer an academic minor, the certificates effectively serve as one. Course structure is determined by the instructor and department. Classes vary in their format, ranging from small seminars to medium-sized lecture courses to large lecture courses. The latter two typically have precepts, which are extra weekly discussion sessions that are led by either the professor or a graduate student. The average class meeting time is 3–4 hours a week, although this can vary depending on the course. The student to faculty ratio is 5 to 1, and a majority of classes have fewer than 20 students. In the Fiske Guide to Colleges, academic culture is considered as "tight-knit, extremely hardworking, highly cooperative, and supportive."

Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student's suspension or expulsion. Violations pertaining to all other academic work fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.

Grade deflation policy

The first focus on issues of grade inflation by the Princeton administration began in 1998 when a university report was released showcasing a steady rise in undergraduate grades from 1973 to 1997. Subsequent reports and discussion from the report culminated to when in 2004, Nancy Weiss Malkiel, the Dean of the College, implemented a grade deflation policy to address the findings. Malkiel's reason for the policy was that an A was becoming devalued as a larger percentage of the student body received one. Following its introduction, the number of A's and average GPA on campus dropped, although A's and B's were still the most frequent grades awarded. The policy received mixed approval from both faculty and students when first instituted. Criticism for grade deflation continued through the years, with students alleging negative effects like increased competition and lack of willingness to choose challenging classes. Other criticism included job market and graduate school prospects, although Malkiel responded by saying that she sent 3,000 letters to numerous institutions and employers informing them. In 2009, transcripts began including a statement about the policy.

In October 2013, Princeton President Christopher Eisgruber created a faculty committee to review the deflation policy. In August 2014, the committee released a report recommending the removal of the policy and instead develop consistent standards for grading across individual departments. In October 2014, following a faculty vote, the numerical targets were removed in response to the report. In a 2020 analysis of undergraduate grades following the removal of a policy, there were no long-lasting effects, with the percent of students receiving A's higher than in 1998.

A picture of Cleveland Tower, part of the Graduate School at Princeton

Graduate

For the 2019–2020 academic year, the Graduate School enrolled 2,971 students. Approximately 40% of the students were female, 42% were international, and 35% of domestic students were a member of a U.S. minority group. The average time to complete a doctoral degree was 5.7 years. The university awarded 318 Ph.D. degrees and 174 final master's degrees for the 2019–2020 academic year.

The Graduate School offers degrees in 42 academic departments and programs, which span the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available for all departments while master's degrees are only available in the architecture, engineering, finance, and public policy departments. Doctoral education focuses on original, independent scholarship whereas master's degrees focus more on career preparation in both public life and professional practice. Graduate students can also concentrate in an interdisciplinary program and be granted a certificate. Joint degrees are available for several disciplines, as are dual M.D./Ph.D. or M.P.A./J.D. programs.

Students in the graduate school can participate in regional cross-registration agreements, domestic exchanges with other Ivy League schools and similar institutions, and in international partnerships and exchanges.

Rankings

Princeton ranked first in the 2021 U.S. News rankings for the tenth consecutive year. Princeton ranked fourth for undergrad teaching for 2021, falling from first place in the 2020 rankings. In the 2021 Times Higher Education assessment of the world's best universities, Princeton was ranked 9th. In the 2022 QS World University Rankings, it was ranked 20th overall in the world.

In the 2021 U.S. News & World Report "Graduate School Rankings," 13 of Princeton's 14 graduate programs were ranked in their respective top 10 (with Engineering 22nd), 7 of them in the top 5, and two in the top spot (Economics and Mathematics).

Research

Princeton is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." Based on data for the 2020 fiscal year, the university received approximately $250 million in sponsored research for its main campus, with 81.4% coming from the government, 12.1% from foundations, 5.5% from industry, and 1.0% from private and other. An additional $120 million in sponsored research was for the Plasma Physics Lab; the main campus and the lab combined totaled to $370 million for sponsored research. Based on 2017 data, the university ranked 72nd among 902 institutions for research expenditures.

Based on 2018 data, Princeton's National Academy Membership totaled to 126, ranking 9th in the nation. The university hosts 75 research institutes and centers and two national laboratories. Princeton is a member of the New Jersey Space Grant Consortium.

Library system

Firestone Library, the largest of Princeton's libraries

The Princeton University Library system houses over 13 million holdings through 11 buildings, including seven million bound volumes, making it one of the largest university libraries in the world. Built in 1948, the main campus library is Firestone Library and serves as the main repository for the humanities and social sciences. Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan's Long Telegram. In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and university archives, and the sciences. The library system provides access to subscription-based electronic resources and databases to students.

National laboratories

The Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) stemmed from Project Matterhorn, a top secret cold war project created in 1951 aimed at achieving controlled nuclear fusion. Princeton astrophysics professor Lyman Spitzer became the first director of the project and remained director until the lab's declassification in 1961 when it received its current name. Today, it is an institute for fusion energy research and plasma physics research.

Founded in 1955 and located at Princeton's Forrestal Campus since 1968, the NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) conducts climate research and modeling. Princeton faculty, research scientists, and graduate scientists can participate in research with the lab.

Admissions

Admissions statistics
2019 entering
classChange vs.
2014

Admit rate5.8%( −1.6)
Yield rate70.4%( +4.2)
Test scores middle 50%
SAT EBRW710–770
SAT Math750–800( +20 median)
ACT Composite33–35( +1.5 median)
High school GPA
Average3.91( no change)

Princeton offers several methods to apply: the Common Application, the Coalition Application, and the QuestBridge Application. Princeton's application requires several writing supplements and submitting a graded written paper.

Princeton's undergraduate program is highly selective, admitting 5.8% of undergraduate applicants in the 2019–2020 admissions cycle (for the Class of 2024). The middle 50% range of SAT scores was 1470–1560, the middle 50% range of the ACT composite score was 33–35, and the average high school GPA was a 3.91. For graduate admissions, in the 2021–2022 academic year, Princeton received 12,553 applications for admission and accepted 1,322 applicants, with a yield rate of 51%.

In the 1950s, Princeton used an ABC system to function as a precursory early program, where admission officers would visit feeder schools and assign A, B, or C ratings to students. From 1977 to 1995, Princeton employed an early action program, and in 1996, transitioned to an early decision program. In September 2006, the university announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool, ending the school's early decision program. In February 2011, following decisions by the University of Virginia and Harvard University to reinstate their early admissions programs, Princeton announced it would institute a single-choice early action option for applicants, which it still uses.

Princeton reinstated its transfer students program in 2018 after a three decades moratorium; the program encourages applicants from low-income families, the military, and community colleges.

Costs and financial aid

As of the 2021–2022 academic year, the total cost of attendance is $77,690. 61% of all undergraduates receive financial aid, with the average financial aid grant being $57,251. Tuition, room, and board is free for families making up to $65,000, and financial aid is offered to families making up to $180,000. In 2001, expanding on earlier reforms, Princeton became the first university to eliminate the use of student loans in financial aid, replacing them with grants. In addition, all admissions are need-blind, and financial aid meets 100% of demonstrated financial need. The university does not use academic or athletic merit scholarships.

Kiplinger magazine in 2019 ranked Princeton as the fifth best value school in a combined list comparing private universities, private liberal arts colleges, and public colleges, noting that the average graduating debt was $9,005. For its 2021 rankings, the U.S. News & World Report ranked it second in its category for "Best Value Schools."

Residential colleges

The university guarantees housing for students for all four years, with more than 98% of undergraduates living on campus. Freshman and sophomores are required to live on campus, specifically in one of the University's six residential colleges. Once put into a residential college, students have an upperclassmen residential college adviser to adjust to college life and a faculty academic adviser for academic guidance. Upperclassmen are given the option to keep living in the college or decide to move into upperclassmen dorms; upperclassmen still remain affiliated with their college even if they live somewhere else.

Each residential college has its own distinct layout and architecture. Additionally, each college has its own faculty head, dean, director of studies, and director of student life. The colleges feature various amenities, such as dining halls, common rooms, laundry rooms, academic spaces, and arts and entertainment resources. Three of the colleges house students from all classes while the other three house only underclassmen.

Princeton's residential college system dates back to when university president Woodrow Wilson's proposed the creation of quadrangles. While the plan was vetoed, it eventually made a resurgence with the creation of Wilson Lodge (now known as First College) in 1957 to provide an alternative to the eating clubs. Wilson Lodge was dedicated as Wilson College in 1968 and served as an experiment for the residential college system. When enrollment increased in the 1970s, a university report in 1979 recommended the establishment of five residential colleges. Funding was raised within a year, leading to the development of Rockerfeller College (1982), Mathey College (1983), Butler College (1983), and Forbes College (1984). Whitman College was founded and constructed in 2007 at a cost of $100 million. Butler's dorms were demolished in 2007 and a new complex was built in 2009. Butler and Mathey previously acted as only underclassmen colleges, but transitioned to four-year colleges in fall 2009. Princeton is scheduled to open up two new residential colleges—Perelman College and College 8—in time for the 2022–2023 academic year.

Princeton has one graduate residential college, known as the Graduate College, located on a hill about half a mile from the main campus. The location of the Graduate College was the result of a dispute between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the college; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus, and ultimately, he prevailed. The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a memorial tower for former Princeton trustee Grover Cleveland. The tower also has 67 carillon bells, making it one of the largest carillons in the world. The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style to the gothic Old Graduate College. Graduate students also have the option of living in student apartments.

Eating clubs and dining

Founded in 1879, Ivy Club is the oldest and wealthiest eating club on campus

Although each residential college has a dining hall for students in the college, they each vary in their environment and food served. Upperclassmen who no longer live in the college can choose from a variety of options: join an eating club and choose a shared meal plan; join a dining co-op, where groups of students eat, prepare, and cook food together; or organize their own dining. The university offers kosher dining through the Center for Jewish Life and halal dining options for Muslim students in the dining halls.

Social life takes place primarily on campus and is involved heavily with one's residential college or eating club. Residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities, ranging from Broadway show outings to regular barbecues. Eating clubs, while not affiliated with the university, are co-ed organizations that serve as social centers, host events, and invite guest speakers. Additionally, they serve as a place of community for upperclassmen. Five of the clubs have first-serve memberships called "sign-ins" and six clubs use a selective process, in which students must "bicker." This requires prospective members to undergo an interviewing process. Each eating club has a fee to join which ranges from around $9,000 to $10,000. As a result, Princeton increases financial aid for upperclassmen, and the eating clubs also offer financial assistance. Cumulatively, there is ten clubs located on Prospect Avenue—Cannon, Cap and Gown, Charter, Cloister, Colonial, Cottage, Ivy, Quadrangle, Tiger, and Tower—and one located on Washington Road—Terrace. 68% of upperclassmen are members of a club, with each one containing around 150 to 200 students

Campus organizations

Princeton hosts around 500 recognized student organizations and several campus centers.

The Undergraduate Student Government (USG) serves as Princeton's student government. The USG funds student organization events, sponsors campus events, and represents the undergraduate student body when convening with faculty and administration.

Whig Hall, where the American Whig-Cliosophic Society resides.

Founded in about 1765, the American Whig-Cliosophic Society is the nation's oldest collegiate political, literary, and debate society, and is the largest and oldest student organization on campus. The Whig-Clio Society has several subsidiary organizations, each specialized to different areas of politics: the Princeton Debate Panel, International Relations Council, Princeton Mock Trial, and Princeton Model Congress. The International Relations Council manages two Model United Nations conferences: the Princeton Diplomatic Invitational (PDI) for collegiate competition and the Princeton Model United Nations Conference (PMUNC) for high school competition.

There are several publications on campus and a radio station. Founded in 1876, The Daily Princetonian, otherwise known as The Prince, is the second oldest college daily student newspaper in the United States. Other publications include The Nassau Literary Review, the Princeton Tory, a campus journal of conservative thought, The Princeton Diplomat, the only student-run magazine on global affairs, the Princeton Political Review, the only multi-partisan political publication on campus, and the recently revived Princeton Progressive, the only left-leaning political publication on campus, among others. Princeton's WPRB (103.3 FM) radio station is the oldest licensed college radio station in the nation.

The McCarter Theatre, where the Princeton Triangle Club premiers its Triangle Show.

Princeton is home to a variety of performing arts and music groups. Many of the groups are represented by the Performing Arts Council. Dating back to 1883, the Princeton Triangle Club is America's oldest touring musical-comedy theater group. It performs its annual Triangle Show every fall at the 1,000 seat McCarter Theatre, as well as original musical comedies, revues, and other shows throughout campus. Princeton's oldest choir is the Glee Club, which began in 1874. The comedic scramble Tiger Band was formed in 1919 and plays at halftime shows and other events. Other groups include the Princeton University Orchestra, the flagship symphony orchestra group founded in 1896, and the Princeton Symphony Orchestra, both of which perform at Alexander Hall.

A cappella groups are a staple of campus life, with many holding concerts, informal shows, and arch sings. Arch sings are where a cappella performances are held in one of Princeton's many gothic arches. The oldest a cappella ensemble is the Nassoons, which were formed in 1941. All-male groups include the Tigertones (1946) and Footnotes (1959); all-female groups include the Tigerlilies (1971), Tigressions (1981), Wildcats (1987); the oldest coed a cappella group in the Ivy League is the Princeton Katzenjammers (1973), which was followed by the Roaring 20 (1983) and Shere Khan (1994).

Princeton features several campus centers for students that provide resources and information for students with certain identities. These include the Center for Jewish Life, the Davis International Center, the Carl A. Fields Center for Equality and Cultural Understanding, the Women's Center, and the LGBT Center. The Frist Campus Center and the Campus Club are additional facilities for the entire campus community that hold various activities and events.

Princeton features 15 chaplaincies and multiple religious student groups. The following faiths are represented on campus: Baha'i, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, Sikhism, and Unitarian Universalism.

Traditions

Princeton students partake in a wide variety of campus traditions, both past and present.

FitzRandolph Gates, which by tradition undergraduates do not exit until graduation.

Current traditions Princeton students celebrate include the ceremonial bonfire, which takes place on the Cannon Green behind Nassau Hall. It is held only if Princeton beats both Harvard University and Yale University at football in the same season. Another tradition is the use of traditional college cheers at events and reunions, like the "Locomotive", which dates back to before 1894. Princeton students abide by the tradition of never exiting the campus through FitzRandolph Gates until one graduates. According to tradition, anyone who exits campus before their graduation will not graduate. A more controversial tradition is Newman's Day, where some students attempt to drink 24 beers in the 24 hours of April 24. According to The New York Times, "the day got its name from an apocryphal quote attributed to Paul Newman: '24 beers in a case, 24 hours in a day. Coincidence? I think not.'" Newman has spoken out against the tradition. One of the biggest traditions celebrated annually are Reunions, which are massive annual gatherings of alumni. At Reunions, a traditional parade of alumni and their families, known as the "P-rade", process through the campus.

Princeton also has several traditions that have faded into the past. One of the them was clapper theft, the act of climbing to the top of Nassau Hall to steal the bell clapper, which rings to signal the start of classes on the first day of the school year. For safety reasons, the clapper was permanently removed. Another was the Nude Olympics, an annual nude and partially nude frolic in Holder Courtyard that used to take place during the first snow of the winter. Started in the early 1970s, the Nude Olympics went co-educational in 1979 and gained much notoriety with the American press. Due to issues of sexual harassment and safety reasons, the administration banned the Olympics in 2000 to the disappointment of students.

Alma mater


Problems playing this file? See .

"Old Nassau" has been Princeton University's school song since 1859, when it was written that year by freshman Harlan Page Peck. It was originally published in the Nassau Literary Magazine, where it won the magazine's prize for best college song. After an unsuccessful attempt at singing it to Auld Lang Syne's melody, Karl Langlotz, a Princeton professor, wrote the music for it. In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of "Old Nassau" to reflect the school's co-educational student body.

Transportation

Tiger Transit is the bus system of the university, mostly open to the public and linking university campuses and areas around Princeton. NJ Transit provides bus service on the 600, 606 and 609 lines and rail service on the Dinky, a small commuter train that provides service to the Princeton Junction Station. Coach USA, through their subsidiary Suburban Transit, provides bus service to New York City and other destinations in New Jersey.

Undergraduate racial demographics for the 2020–2021 academic year

White (39%)
Asian (29%)
Hispanic (12%)
Black (10%)
Multiracial (6%)
Unknown (4%)

Based on data from the 2019–2020 academic year, Princeton enrolled 5,422 undergraduates, 2,971 postgraduates, and 26 other graduates enrolled in credit courses, making a total school population of 8,419. Total enrollment was split 54% male and 46% female. For the 2020–2021 academic year, racial demographics for undergraduates was roughly 29% Asian, 10% Black, 12% Hispanic, 39% White, 6% Multiracial, and 4% Unknown. Master's and doctoral students followed relatively similar trends. According to the Fiske Guide of Colleges, the student body is considered racially and ethnically diverse, although some students consider there to be social stratification.

Princeton has made significant progress in expanding the diversity of its student body in recent years. The 2021 admitted freshman class was one of the most diverse in the school's history, with 68% of students identifying as students of color. The university has worked to increase its enrollment of first-generation and low-income students in recent years. The median family income of Princeton students is $186,100, with 72% of students coming from the top 20% highest-earning families. In 2017, 22% of freshman qualified for federal Pell Grants, above the 16% average for the top 150 schools ranked by the U.S. News & World Report; nationwide, the average was 44%. Based on data in a 2019 article in The Daily Princetonian, 10% of students hail from Bloomberg's 2018 list of "100 richest places", and that the top 20% of high schools send as many students to Princeton as the bottom 80%.

In 1999, 10% of the student body was Jewish, a percentage lower than those at other Ivy League schools. 16% of the student body was Jewish in 1985; the number decreased by 40% from 1985 to 1999. This decline prompted The Daily Princetonian to write a series of articles on the decline and its reasons. The New York Observer wrote that Princeton was "long dogged by a reputation for anti-Semitism" and that this history as well as Princeton's elite status caused the university and its community to feel sensitivity towards the decrease of Jewish students. In the Observer, several theories are proposed for the drop, ranging from campus culture to changing admission policies to national patterns. As of 2021, according to the Center for Jewish Life on campus, the university has approximately 700 Jewish students.

Starting in 1967, African American enrollment surged from 1.7% to 10% but has stagnated ever since. Bruce M. Wright was admitted into the university in 1936 as the first African American, however, his admission was a mistake and when he got to campus he was asked to leave. Three years later Wright asked the dean for an explanation on his dismissal and the dean suggested to him that "a member of your race might feel very much alone" at Princeton University. Princeton wouldn't admit its first Black students till in 1945 when Princeton instituted the V-12 program on campus. In 1947, John L. Howard, one of the four naval cadets admitted to the program, would become the first Black student to graduate with a bachelor's degree.

Princeton's mascot is the tiger.

Princeton supports organized athletics at three levels: varsity intercollegiate, club intercollegiate, and intramural. It also provides "a variety of physical education and recreational programs" for members of the Princeton community. Most undergraduates participate in athletics at some level. Princeton's colors are orange and black. The school's athletes are known as the Tigers, and the mascot is a tiger. The Princeton administration considered naming the mascot in 2007, but the effort was dropped in the face of alumni opposition.

Varsity

Main article: Princeton Tigers
Princeton vs. Lehigh football, September 2007

Princeton hosts 37 men's and women's varsity sports. Princeton is an NCAA Division I school, with its athletic conference being the Ivy League. Its rowing teams compete in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges, and its men's volleyball team competes in the Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. Princeton's sailing team, though a club sport, competes at the varsity level in the MAISA conference of the Inter-Collegiate Sailing Association.

Princeton's football team competes in the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I with the rest of the Ivy League. Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U.S. on November 6, 1869; Rutgers won the game. As of 2021, Princeton claims 28 national football championships, which would make it the most of any school, although the NCAA only recognizes 15 of the wins. With its last win being in 2018, Princeton has won 12 Ivy League championships. In 1951, Dick Kazmaier won Princeton its only Heisman Trophy, the last to come from the Ivy League.

The men's basketball program is noted for its success under Pete Carril, the head coach from 1967 to 1996. During this time, Princeton won 13 Ivy League titles and made 11 NCAA tournament appearances. Carril introduced the Princeton offense, an offensive strategy that has since been adopted by a number of college and professional basketball teams. Carril's final victory at Princeton came when the Tigers beat UCLA, the defending national champion, in the opening round of the 1996 NCAA tournament. On December 14, 2005, Princeton tied the record for the fewest points in a Division I game since the institution of the three-point line in 1986–87, when the Tigers scored 21 points in a loss against Monmouth University.

Princeton women's soccer team advanced to the NCAA Division I Women's Soccer Championship semi-finals in 2004, becoming the first Ivy League team to do so in a 64 team setting. The men's soccer team was coached from 1984 to 1995 by Princeton alumnus and future United States men's national team manager Bob Bradley, who lead the Tigers to win two Ivy League titles and make an appearance at the NCAA Final Four in 1993. Princeton's men's lacrosse program undertook a period of notable success from 1992 to 2001, during which time it won six national championships. In 2012, its field hockey team became the first in the Ivy League to win a national championship.

Princeton has won at least one Ivy League title every year since 1957, and it became the first university in its conference to win over 500 Ivy League athletic championships. From 1896 to 2018, 113 athletes from Princeton have competed in the Olympics, winning 19 gold medals, 24 silver medals, and 23 bronze medals.

Club and intramural

The annual Cane Spree depicted in 1877

In addition to varsity sports, Princeton hosts 37 club sports teams, which are open to all Princeton students of any skill level. Teams compete against other collegiate teams both in the Northeast and nationally. The intramural sports program is also available on campus, which schedules competitions between residential colleges, eating clubs, independent groups, students, and faculty and staff. Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available.

In the fall, freshman and sophomores participate in the intramural athletic competition called Cane Spree. Although the event centers on cane wrestling, freshman and sophomores compete in other sports and competitions. This commemorates a time in the 1870s when sophomores, angry with the freshmen who strutted around with fancy canes, stole all of the canes from the freshmen, hitting them with their own canes in the process.

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Princeton University people.

Alumni

The Princeton University Class of 1879, which included Woodrow Wilson, Mahlon Pitney, Daniel Barringer, and Charles Talcott

U.S. Presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson and Vice Presidents George M. Dallas, John Breckinridge, and Aaron Burr graduated from Princeton, as did Michelle Obama, the former First Lady of the United States. Former Chief Justice of the United States Oliver Ellsworth was an alumnus, as are current U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justices Samuel Alito, Elena Kagan, and Sonia Sotomayor. Alumnus Jerome Powell was appointed as Chair of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board in 2018.

Princeton graduates played a major role in the American Revolution, including the first and last Colonels to die on the Patriot side Philip Johnston and Nathaniel Scudder, as well as the highest ranking civilian leader on the British side David Mathews.

Notable graduates of Princeton's School of Engineering and Applied Science include Apollo astronaut and commander of Apollo 12 Pete Conrad, Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos, former Chairman of Alphabet Inc. Eric Schmidt, and Lisa P. Jackson, former Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

Actors Jimmy Stewart, Wentworth Miller, José Ferrer, David Duchovny, and Brooke Shields graduated from Princeton as did composers Edward T. Cone and Milton Babbitt. Soccer-player alumna, Diana Matheson, scored the game-winning goal that earned Canada their Olympic bronze medal in 2012.

Writers Booth Tarkington, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Eugene O'Neill attended but did not graduate. Writer Selden Edwards and poet W. S. Merwin graduated from Princeton. American novelist Jodi Picoult and author David Remnick graduated. Pulitzer prize-winning journalists Barton Gellman and Lorraine Adams are Princeton alumni.

William P. Ross, Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation and founding editor of the Cherokee Advocate, graduated in 1844.

Notable graduate alumni include Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Thornton Wilder, Richard Feynman, Lee Iacocca, John Nash, Alonzo Church, Alan Turing, Terence Tao, Edward Witten, John Milnor, John Bardeen, Steven Weinberg, John Tate, and David Petraeus. Royals such as Prince Moulay Hicham of Morocco, Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud, and Queen Noor of Jordan have attended Princeton.

Faculty

As of 2021, notable current faculty members include Angus Deaton, Daniel Kahneman, Cornel West, Robert Keohane, Edward W. Felten, Anthony Grafton, Peter Singer, Jhumpa Lahiri, Jim Peebles, Manjul Bhargava, Brian Kernighan, and Robert P. George. Notable former faculty members include John Witherspoon, Walter Kaufmann, John von Neumann, Ben Bernanke, Paul Krugman, Joseph Henry, Toni Morrison, Joyce Carol Oates, Michael Mullen, Andrew Wiles, and alumnus Woodrow Wilson.

Albert Einstein, though on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study rather than at Princeton, came to be associated with the university through frequent lectures and visits on the campus.

  1. Princeton is the fourth institution of higher learning to obtain a collegiate charter, conduct classes, or grant degrees, based upon dates that do not seem to be in dispute. Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania both claim the fourth oldest founding date and the University of Pennsylvania once claimed 1749 as its founding date, making it fifth oldest, but in 1899 its trustees adopted a resolution which asserted 1740 as the founding date. To further complicate the comparison of founding dates, a Log College was operated by William and Gilbert Tennent, the Presbyterian ministers, in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from 1726 until 1746 and it was once common to assert a formal connection between it and the College of New Jersey, which would justify Princeton pushing its founding date back to 1726. However, Princeton has never done so and a Princeton historian says that the facts "do not warrant" such an interpretation. Columbia University was chartered and began collegiate classes in 1754. Columbia considers itself to be the fifth institution of higher learning in the United States, based upon its charter date of 1754 and Penn's charter date of 1755.
  2. The strike was part of the broader Student Strike of 1970.
  3. 505 women applied to join the Princeton freshman class.
  4. The M.D./Ph.D. is granted in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and the Rutgers–New Brunswick Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. The M.P.A/J.D. program is offered in partnership with Columbia Law, New York University Law, Stanford Law, and Yale Law.
  5. Example feeder schools visited included Phillips Exeter Academy, Phillips Academy Andover, and Groton School, among others. Moreover, an A was likely admission, B was possible, and C was unlikely.
  6. As of 2021, there is no official name for the eighth college.
  7. The "Graduate College" refers to the residential and dining halls while the "Graduate School" refers to the academics.
  1. "Princeton Milestones". A Princeton Profile. Princeton University. 2020. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 21, 2021.
  2. Mukherji, Aniket (October 30, 2020). "Princeton endowment grows to $26.6 billion, earning a smaller return rate than previous years". The Daily Princetonian. RetrievedMarch 28, 2021.
  3. "Facts & Figures". Princeton University. RetrievedDecember 25, 2019.
  4. "About Princeton University". A Princeton Profile. Princeton University. 2020. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  5. "Common Data Set 2019-2020"(PDF). Princeton University. RetrievedMay 1, 2021.
  6. "Enrollment Statistics". The Graduate School. Princeton University. RetrievedJuly 21, 2021.
  7. "Princeton University". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  8. Guide to Princeton University's Graphic Identity(PDF). Princeton University Trademark Licensing. December 15, 2010. Archived from the original(PDF) on December 22, 2015. RetrievedMarch 14, 2017.
  9. "Colleges in the Colonial Times". The Harvard Crimson. April 20, 1883. RetrievedAugust 4, 2021.
  10. "History". Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. RetrievedJuly 3, 2021. ...Princeton is the fourth-oldest college in the United States.
  11. Thomas, George E. (September 2, 2002). "Building Penn's Brand". The Pennsylvania Gazette. Vol. 101. University of Pennsylvania. RetrievedJuly 3, 2021.
  12. Armstrong, April C (July 22, 2015). "Dear Mr. Mudd: Princeton vs. Penn: Which is the Older Institution?". Mudd Manuscript Library Blog. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 6, 2021.
  13. Leitch 1978, p. 291–292.
  14. "History". Columbia University. RetrievedJuly 3, 2021.
  15. "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held – ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 22". American Library Association. May 2009. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. RetrievedAugust 12, 2009.
  16. Salant, Jonathan D. (March 5, 2021). "Princeton political and debate society votes to strip Ted Cruz of prestigious honor for trying to overturn presidential election". NJ.com. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  17. "Atlantan Chosen to Head The Daily Princetonian". The New York Times. December 17, 1950. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  18. "Princeton Triangle Club takes to the rectangular screen with virtual show". NJ.com. January 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  19. Fiske & Lecuyer 2019, p. 567.
  20. Holland, J. G., ed. (March 1877). "Princeton College". Scribner's Monthly. XIII (5): 626 – via HathiTrust.
  21. Craven, Elijah R. (1902). "The Log College of Neshaminy and Princeton University". Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society. 1 (4): 308–314. JSTOR 23322482 – via JSTOR.
  22. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 11.
  23. Leitch 1978, p. 198.
  24. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 12.
  25. Leitch 1978, p. 199.
  26. "Jonathan Dickinson". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. RetrievedJuly 4, 2021.
  27. Morrison 2005, p. 47.
  28. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 15.
  29. Wertenbaker, Thomas J. (December 1958). "The College of New Jersey and the Presbyterians". Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society. 36 (4): 213. JSTOR 23325333 – via JSTOR.
  30. "Governor Jonathan Belcher". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. RetrievedJuly 4, 2021.
  31. Leitch 1978, p. 200.
  32. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 16.
  33. Gunning 2005, p. 443.
  34. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 18–19.
  35. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 19.
  36. Leitch 1978, p. 329.
  37. "Aaron Burr Sr". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. RetrievedJuly 4, 2021.
  38. Noll 2004, p. 17.
  39. "John Witherspoon". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. November 26, 2013. Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  40. Morrison 2005, p. 47–48.
  41. Leitch 1978, p. 525.
  42. Noll 2004, p. 29–30.
  43. Gunning 2005, p. 454.
  44. Tucker, Louis Leonard (1979). "Centers of Sedition: Colonial Colleges and the American Revolution". Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 91: 16–34. JSTOR 25080846 – via JSTOR.
  45. "Nassau Hall". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 4, 2021.
  46. "U.S. Senate: The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. RetrievedJune 18, 2021.
  47. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 23.
  48. Gunning 2005, p. 455.
  49. "Samuel Smith". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 4, 2021.
  50. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 31.
  51. Leitch 1978, p. 444.
  52. Lange, Gregg (March 21, 2007). "PAW Web Exclusives: Under the Ivy". Princeton Alumni Weekly. Princeton University. Archived from the original on January 4, 2020. RetrievedJuly 4, 2021.
  53. Lewis, Robert E. (September 1957). "ASHBEL GREEN, 1762—1848—PREACHER, EDUCATOR, EDITOR". Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society. 35 (3): 145–147. JSTOR 23325169 – via JSTOR.
  54. "Ashbel Green". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019. RetrievedJune 29, 2015.
  55. Leitch 1978, p. 229.
  56. Leitch 1978, p. 230.
  57. "James Carnahan". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 5, 2021.
  58. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 52.
  59. Leitch 1978, p. 81.
  60. "John Maclean". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 5, 2021.
  61. "3. The Fire of 1855". Princetoniana Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 5, 2021.
  62. Leitch 1978, p. 298.
  63. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 64.
  64. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 65.
  65. Leitch 1978, p. 301–304.
  66. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 72.
  67. "James McCosh". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. RetrievedJuly 5, 2021.
  68. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 82.
  69. "History". The Graduate School. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. RetrievedJune 18, 2021.
  70. "Francis Patton". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 5, 2021.
  71. Leitch 1978, p. 355.
  72. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 102.
  73. Fiske & Lecuyer 2019, p. 566.
  74. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 91.
  75. "Review of the Week". The Philadelphia Inquirer. October 25, 1896. p. 6. The name of the college was changed to Princeton University.
  76. Leitch 1978, p. 356.
  77. "Woodrow Wilson". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  78. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 96.
  79. Leitch 1978, p. 513.
  80. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 104.
  81. Griffin, Nathaniel (April 1910). "The Princeton Preceptorial System". The Sewanee Review. 18 (2): 169–176. JSTOR 27532370.
  82. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 107.
  83. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 268–269.
  84. Axtell 2006, p. 330.
  85. Heckscher, August (1991). Woodrow Wilson: A Biography. New York: Macmillan. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-684-19312-0.
  86. Axtell 2006, p. 1.
  87. O'Reilly, Kenneth (1997). "The Jim Crow Policies of Woodrow Wilson". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. The JBHE Foundation, Inc (17): 117–121. doi:10.2307/2963252. JSTOR 2963252 – via JSTOR.
  88. Bradley 2010, p. 112.
  89. "John Hibben". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  90. Leitch 1978, p. 252–253.
  91. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 117–118.
  92. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 119.
  93. Leitch 1978, p. 253–254.
  94. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 122.
  95. Leitch 1978, p. 254.
  96. Leitch 1978, p. 254–255.
  97. "Harold Dodds". The Presidents of Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  98. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 123.
  99. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 125.
  100. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 125–126.
  101. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 127.
  102. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 164.
  103. Leitch 1978, p. 138.
  104. Leitch 1978, p. 138–139.
  105. Leitch 1978, p. 139.
  106. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 137.
  107. Bradley 2010, p. 115.
  108. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 158.
  109. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 165–166.
  110. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 168.
  111. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 170.
  112. "Robert Goheen". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  113. Bradley 2010, p. 116.
  114. "Research Guides: Coeducation: History of Women at Princeton University". Princeton University Library. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 13, 2021. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  115. Leitch 1978, p. 466.
  116. Leitch 1978, p. 219.
  117. Anderson, James (November 15, 2019). "Peace in Palmer Square: A history of Vietnam War activism". The Daily Princetonian. RetrievedJuly 23, 2021.
  118. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 196.
  119. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 199.
  120. Sullivan, Ronald (May 12, 1966). "PRESIDENT URGES SCHOLARS TO BACK WAR IN VIETNAM; Replies to Fulbright Charge of 'Arrogance of Power' Speaks at Princeton 300 PICKET ON CAMPUS Plea for Understanding by 'Responsible' Intellectuals Is Heard by 3,000 PRESIDENT SEEKS AID OF SCHOLARS". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 23, 2021.
  121. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 209–211.
  122. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 202.
  123. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 204.
  124. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 207–209.
  125. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 269.
  126. "William Bowen". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  127. "Harold Shapiro". The Presidents of Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  128. Moroz, Jennifer (February 4, 2001). "Princeton Promises Undergraduates 'No Loan' Policy". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. RetrievedJuly 13, 2021.
  129. Horwitz, Stephen (2001). "Biologist becomes first woman to lead Princeton". Nature Medicine. 7 (6): 646. doi:10.1038/88993. S2CID 35267000.
  130. Kaminer, Ariel (September 22, 2012). "Princeton President Announces She Will Step Down". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  131. Yee, Vivian (April 21, 2013). "Princeton Chooses Its Provost to Become Its Next President". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  132. Schuessler, Jennifer (November 6, 2017). "Princeton Digs Deep Into Its Fraught Racial History". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedFebruary 22, 2019.
  133. Schuessler, Jennifer (April 17, 2018). "Princeton to Name Two Campus Spaces in Honor of Slaves". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedFebruary 22, 2019.
  134. Leitch 1978, p. 170–171.
  135. Markham, James M. (October 1, 1962). "Grad School Accepts...Eight Women and the End of a Monastery". The Daily Princetonian. RetrievedJuly 20, 2021.
  136. Folsom, Merrill (June 3, 1967). "SARAH LAWRENCE DECLINES MERGER; Talks With Princeton Fail, but Men Students Are Foreseen in Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 20, 2021.
  137. "Princeton's Board Backs Coeducation But Sets No Date". The New York Times. January 13, 1969. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 20, 2021.
  138. Leitch 1978, p. 530.
  139. Syken, Bill. "Princeton's First Female Students". Life. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  140. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 183.
  141. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 185.
  142. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 187.
  143. "Princeton Eating Club Loses Bid to Continue Ban on Women". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. January 23, 1991. ISSN 2165-1736. RetrievedJune 18, 2021.
  144. Muchhal, Siddharth (April 16, 2019). "Princeton University gearing up to develop Lake Campus in West Windsor". Community News. RetrievedMay 6, 2021.
  145. Leitch 1978, p. 328.
  146. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter II: The College Expands: 1802–1846". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  147. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter III: Princeton at Mid-Century, 1846–1868". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  148. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter IV: The McCosh Presidency, 1868–1888". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  149. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter V: The Rise of the Collegiate Gothic". Princeton University. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  150. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter VI: Spires and Gargoyles, The Princeton Campus 1900–1917". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  151. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter VII: Princeton Between the Wars, 1919–1939". Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  152. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter VIII: Princeton at Mid-Century: Campus Architecture, 1933–1960". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  153. "Princeton University: An Interactive Campus History. Chapter IX: The Sixties". Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  154. Lack, Kelly (September 11, 2008). "Lewis Library makes a grand debut". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. RetrievedOctober 16, 2015.
  155. Leitch 1978, p. 447.
  156. "Old is new at Princeton". World Architecture News. December 19, 2007. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  157. "Frist Campus Center Iconography". Princeton University. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  158. Pearson, Clifford A. (November 2003). "Carl Icahn Laboratory Lewis-Sigler Institute"(PDF). Architectural Record. Vol. 191 no. 11. p. 180. ISSN 0003-858X.
  159. Leitch 1978, p. 398.
  160. Peterson, Megan (June 16, 2011). "Princeton sculpture enriches beauty and character of campus". Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 19, 2021. RetrievedNovember 30, 2011.
  161. Leitch 1978, p. 82.
  162. "The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie. Philanthropy 101: Scourge of the Campus". American Experience. PBS. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. RetrievedJune 2, 2011.
  163. "Shea Rowing Center - Facilities". Princeton University Athletics. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 3, 2021.
  164. Aronson, Emily (February 5, 2019). "University to name courtyard for influential landscape architect Beatrix Farrand". Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. RetrievedJanuary 18, 2019.
  165. "PRINCETON UNIVERSITY MASTER PLAN Princeton, NJ (2005–2008)". Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates. Archived from the original on August 25, 2020. RetrievedJanuary 18, 2020.
  166. Bernstein, Mark F. (June 11, 2008). "Growing the campus". Princeton Alumni Weekly. RetrievedJanuary 18, 2020.
  167. Leitch 1978, p. 328–329.
  168. Bradner, Ryan (July 14, 2003). "Nassau Hall: National history, center of campus". The Daily Princetonian. In the beginning. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. RetrievedOctober 16, 2015.
  169. Leitch 1978, p. 330.
  170. "Buildings of the Department of State: Nassau Hall, Princeton, NJ". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. RetrievedJune 3, 2011.
  171. "Pair of tigers". Campus Art Princeton. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  172. "Commencement". Office of the President. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 1, 2021. RetrievedJune 18, 2021.
  173. "National Register of Historical Places - NEW JERSEY (NJ), Mercer County". National Register of Historic Places. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. RetrievedJune 3, 2011.
  174. "About The Office". Office of the President. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. RetrievedJuly 29, 2021.
  175. "Nassau Hall". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. RetrievedAugust 6, 2021.
  176. "Cannons". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. RetrievedJuly 21, 2021.
  177. Hageman, John Frelinghuysen (1879). History of Princeton and Its Institutions. 1 (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. p. 139. OCLC 3175821.
  178. Hageman, John Frelinghuysen (1879). History of Princeton and Its Institutions. 2 (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 317–319. OCLC 3175821.
  179. Carroll, Kate (October 5, 2006). "Vandals spraypaint campus Rutgers red". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. RetrievedOctober 16, 2015.
  180. Stamato, Linda (September 11, 2012). "Rutgers and Princeton: Tradition, rivalry and the cannon wars". NJ.com. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  181. "History". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  182. "Accessing the Collections". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  183. "Curatorial Areas". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  184. "Ancient, Byzantine, and Islamic Art". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  185. "European Art". Princeton University Art Museum. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  186. "Modern and Contemporary Art". Princeton University Art Museum. Archived from the original on May 12, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  187. "Asian Art". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  188. "Art of the Ancient Americas". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  189. "Prints and Drawings". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  190. "Photography". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  191. "African and Oceanic Art". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  192. "Campus Collections". Princeton University Art Museum. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  193. Bush, Sara. "The University Chapel". Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. RetrievedJune 6, 2011.
  194. Milliner, Matthew J. (Spring 2009). "Primus inter pares: Albert C. Friend and the Argument of the Princeton University Chapel". The Princeton University Library Chronicle. 70 (3): 471–517. doi:10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.70.3.0471. JSTOR 10.25290/prinunivlibrchro.70.3.0471 – via JSTOR.
  195. "Religion: Princeton's Chapel". Time. Vol. XI no. 24. June 11, 1928. p. 30. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on July 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 6, 2021.
  196. Greenwood, Kathryn Federici (March 13, 2002). "Features: Chapel gets facelift and a new dean". Princeton Alumni Weekly. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. RetrievedMarch 26, 2016.
  197. "Chapel". Princeton Mobile. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  198. Stillwell, Richard (1971). "The Present Chapel and ITS Predecessors". The Chapel of Princeton University. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 7–11. doi:10.2307/j.ctvxcrz68.7. ISBN 9780691195209. JSTOR j.ctvxcrz68.7. OCLC 472188116.
  199. "Overview". Office of Sustainability. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  200. Stevens, Ruth (February 21, 2008). "Plan sets aggressive goals for Princeton sustainability efforts". Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  201. Aronson, Emily (April 22, 2019). "Princeton University sustainability plan aims for net zero emissions by 2046". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 3, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  202. "Reduce Campus Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Net Zero". Office of Sustainability. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  203. Buch, Anika (June 4, 2021). "Princeton to divest from some sectors of the fossil fuel industry". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  204. "Reduce Waste and Expand Sustainable Purchasing". Office of Sustainability. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  205. "Board of Trustees". Office of the President. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  206. "Academic Life". A Princeton Profile. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  207. "About". Bendheim Center for Finance. Princeton University. November 23, 2020. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  208. Ravindran, Pavithran (January 4, 2016). "A Lawless University: The History Of Princeton Law". The Princeton Tory. RetrievedJuly 21, 2021.
  209. Fiske & Lecuyer 2019, p. 564.
  210. "Frequently Asked Questions". Institute for Advanced Study. November 24, 2015. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021. The Institute is a private, independent academic institution that enjoys close, collaborative ties with Princeton University...
  211. "Cross-Registration Programs". Office of the Dean of the College. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  212. "Our Members". Association of American Universities. Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  213. "Member Universities". Universities Research Association. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  214. "NAICU - Membership Directory". NAICU. Archived from the original on November 25, 2020. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  215. "Princeton University". Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 18, 2021.
  216. Kowarski, Ilana (September 22, 2020). "10 Universities With the Biggest Endowments". US News & World Report. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  217. Burns, Hilary (January 28, 2021). "Campus Rejects". American City Business Journals. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  218. Arenson, Karen W. (April 20, 2008). "Big Spender". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  219. "Operating Budget Overview". Office of Finance and Treasury. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  220. "When and how do I choose a major?". Your Path to Princeton. Princeton University. May 6, 2021. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 18, 2021.
  221. Gullickson, Cricket (January 4, 2014). "The Junior Paper". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  222. Fiske & Lecuyer 2019, p. 565.
  223. "Independent Work". Office of Undergraduate Research. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  224. Bogucki, Peter. "Princeton Degrees Explained". Your Path to Princeton. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 17, 2015. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  225. "Certificate Programs". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. September 15, 2016. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  226. Lestition, Steve. "How do classes at Princeton work?". Your Path to Princeton. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  227. "The Precept System". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. October 12, 2016. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  228. "The Undergraduate Honor System". Undergraduate Announcement. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  229. "About Us". Honor Committee. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 15, 2021. RetrievedOctober 19, 2015.
  230. "Committees". Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  231. "Academic Integrity". Office of the Dean of the College. Princeton University. February 2019. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedOctober 23, 2015.
  232. "Grade inflation plan passes". The Daily Princetonian. April 2004. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  233. Foderaro, Lisa W. (January 29, 2010). "Type-A-Plus Students Chafe at Grade Deflation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  234. "On grade deflation". The Daily Princetonian. December 2, 2009. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. RetrievedJune 24, 2010.
  235. Supiano, Beckie (January 17, 2020). "The Real Problem With Grade Inflation". The Chronicle of Higher Education. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  236. Arenson, Karen W. (April 8, 2004). "Princeton Tries To Put a Cap On Giving A's". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  237. Strauss, Valerie (August 9, 2014). "Why Princeton students who deserve A's can't get them — report". The Washington Post. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  238. Levenson, Eric (October 7, 2013). "The End of Princeton's Grade Deflation Experiment?". The Atlantic. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  239. Mulvaney, Nicole (August 7, 2014). "No more A quotas: Faculty committee recommends Princeton University change its grading policy". NJ.com. RetrievedJune 5, 2015.
  240. Windemuth, Anna (October 6, 2014). "After faculty vote, grade deflation policy officially dead". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. RetrievedJune 5, 2015.
  241. O'Connor, Liam (January 12, 2020). "The decline and fall of grade deflation". The Daily Princetonian. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  242. "Admission and Costs". A Princeton Profile. Princeton University. 2021. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. RetrievedJuly 13, 2021.
  243. "Fields of Study". The Graduate School. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. RetrievedJuly 19, 2021.
  244. "Partnerships, Exchanges, and Cross-Registration". The Graduate School. Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  245. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020: National/Regional Rank". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. RetrievedAugust 15, 2020.
  246. "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. RetrievedAugust 15, 2019.
  247. "Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings 2021". The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. RetrievedOctober 20, 2020.
  248. "2021 Best National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. RetrievedSeptember 24, 2020.
  249. "2020 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. RetrievedAugust 31, 2020.
  250. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2020. RetrievedAugust 15, 2020.
  251. "QS World University Rankings 2022". Quacquarelli Symonds. RetrievedJune 18, 2021.
  252. "World University Rankings 2021". Times Higher Education. RetrievedSeptember 2, 2020.
  253. "2021 Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. RetrievedOctober 20, 2020.
  254. Moody, Josh (September 14, 2021). "Princeton, Williams Top 2021 Best Colleges Rankings". U.S. News and World Report. RetrievedJanuary 2, 2021.
  255. Sheinerman, Marie-Rose (September 14, 2020). "U. ranked No. 1 American university by U.S. News for 10th consecutive year". The Daily Princetonian. RetrievedJune 21, 2021.
  256. "World University Rankings 2021". World University Rankings. Times Higher Education. August 25, 2020. RetrievedSeptember 2, 2020.
  257. "QS World University Rankings 2022". Top Universities. May 8, 2021. RetrievedMay 8, 2021.
  258. "Princeton University - Overall Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2021. RetrievedJune 21, 2021.
  259. "Carnegie Classifications | Institution Lookup". The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. RetrievedJuly 6, 2021.
  260. Annual Report of the University Research Board (URB) and the Office of Research and Project Administration (ORPA) Fiscal Year 2019–2020(PDF) (Report). Princeton University. 2020. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 9, 2021. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  261. "NSF – NCSES Academic Institution Profiles – Princeton University". National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on July 11, 2021. RetrievedJuly 6, 2021.
  262. Lombardi, John V.; Abbey, Craig W.; Craig, Diane D. (2020). The Top American Research Universities: 2019 Annual Report(PDF) (Report). Amherst, Mass.: Center for Measuring University Performance. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-9856170-9-7. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
  263. "Research Profile". Office of the Dean for Research. Princeton University. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 6, 2021.
  264. "NJSGC Affiliates and Partner Organizations". New Jersey Space Grant Consortium. Archived from the original on December 2, 2020. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  265. "Firestone Library". Facilities. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJune 21, 2021.
  266. Skemer, Don (May 24, 2013). "'The Great Gatsby' manuscript and galleys now online through Princeton University Digital Library". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  267. "Telegram to Secretary of State, Washington, The Long Telegram, 1946 February 22". Princeton University Library Finding Aids. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  268. "Libraries". Princeton University Library. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  269. "Databases". Princeton University Library. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  270. "Project Matterhorn". Nuclear Princeton. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  271. "About". Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 25, 2021. RetrievedJune 21, 2021.
  272. "About GFDL". Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. Archived from the original on July 6, 2021. RetrievedJuly 6, 2021.
  273. Quiñones, Eric (September 29, 2005). "Pioneering meteorologist Smagorinsky dies". Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 1, 2021. RetrievedJuly 7, 2021.
  274. "Common Data Set 2019-2020"(PDF). Princeton University. RetrievedMay 1, 2021.
  275. "Common Data Set 2014-2015"(PDF). Princeton University. RetrievedMay 1, 2021.
  276. "How to Apply". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. August 9, 2016. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  277. "QuestBridge". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. August 31, 2020. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  278. Fallows, James (September 2001). "The Early-Decision Racket". The Atlantic. RetrievedJune 20, 2021.
  279. "Princeton to reinstate early admission program". Princeton University. February 24, 2011. Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. RetrievedOctober 25, 2015.
  280. "Princeton to end early admission". Princeton University. September 18, 2006. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. RetrievedOctober 25, 2015.
  281. Hotchkiss, Michael (May 9, 2018). "Princeton offers admission to 13 students in reinstated transfer program". Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 25, 2021. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  282. Nadworny, Elissa (December 4, 2018). "Top Colleges Seeking Diversity From A New Source: Transfer Students". NPR. RetrievedJuly 22, 2021.
  283. "Fees & Payment Options". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. September 19, 2016. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  284. "Financial Aid by the Numbers". Undergrad Admission. Princeton University. September 27, 2016. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  285. "Cost & Aid". Princeton University Admission. Princeton University. August 30, 2016. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. RetrievedJuly 6, 2021.
  286. "How Princeton's Aid Program Works". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. September 19, 2016. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 14, 2021.
  287. Pitsker, Kaitlin (July 26, 2019). "20 Best College Values in the U.S., 2019". Kiplinger. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 13, 2021.
  288. "Housing". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. September 27, 2016. Archived from the original on June 28, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  289. "Campus Life". A Princeton Profile. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 15, 2021. RetrievedJune 21, 2021.
  290. "About Residential Colleges". Housing & Real Estate Services. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  291. "Housing & Dining". Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  292. "History of the Colleges". Office of the Dean of the College. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  293. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 236–238.
  294. Oberdorfer 1995, p. 239.
  295. Hu, Winnie (July 29, 2007). "More Than a Meal Plan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  296. "Butler College". Housing & Real Estate Services. Princeton University. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. RetrievedMarch 29, 2020.
  297. Quiñones, Eric (September 20, 2007). "Residential life remodeled: Princeton moves into new four-year college system". Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  298. Agarwal, Anika (April 15, 2021). "Lydia and Bill Addy '82 gift will name residence hall in Perelman College". The Daily Princetonian. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  299. "Graduate College History". The Graduate School. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  300. Leitch 1978, p. 223.
  301. Leitch 1978, p. 502–503.
  302. "TAFT PAYS TRIBUTE TO PRINCETON'S SAGE; Glowing Appreciation of Grover Cleveland Marks Speech at Dedication Exercises". The New York Times. October 23, 1913. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  303. Leitch 1978, p. 131.
  304. Tanner, Pat (July 11, 2016). "Towering Sounds with the Carillon Bells of Princeton". New Jersey Monthly. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021.
  305. "New Graduate College". Housing & Real Estate Services. Princeton University. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. RetrievedMarch 29, 2020.
  306. "General Information". Housing and Real Estate. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  307. "Dining Options". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. September 16, 2016. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  308. Salas, Mia (April 16, 2020). "Your Complete Guide to the Residential College Dining Halls". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  309. "Eating Clubs". Undergraduate Admission. Princeton University. September 16, 2016. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. RetrievedMarch 14, 2020.
  310. "What's an Eating Club?". The Eating Clubs of Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  311. Miller, Jennifer (December 12, 2019). "Takeover at Princeton's Quadrangle". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJune 22, 2021.
  312. "Junior/Senior Dining Options". Princeton University Admission. December 15, 2016. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  313. "Fees & Financial Aid". The Eating Clubs of Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  314. "Explore the Eating Clubs". Princeton Eating Clubs. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021. RetrievedMarch 29, 2020.
  315. "Student Government". Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  316. "About". The American Whig-Cliosophic Society. Princeton University. January 28, 2016. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  317. "Subsidiaries". The American Whig-Cliosophic Society. Princeton University. January 27, 2016. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  318. "International Relations Council". The American Whig-Cliosophic Society. January 27, 2016. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  319. "The Daily Princetonian". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  320. "About". The Nassau Literary Review. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  321. "About". Princeton Tory. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  322. "About". The Princeton Diplomat. October 28, 2019. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  323. "Princeton Political Review". Princeton Political Review. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  324. "About Us". The Princeton Progressive. Archived from the original on July 15, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  325. Leitch 1978, p. 294.
  326. "About Us". Performing Arts Council. Princeton University. March 20, 2016. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  327. "Triangle Club". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  328. "The Princeton Triangle Club". The Princeton Triangle Club. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  329. "Singing Groups". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  330. "Princeton University Band". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  331. "The Princeton University Orchestra – Since 1896". Princeton University Orchestra. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  332. "Who We Are". Princeton Symphony Orchestra. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  333. "Richardson Auditorium". Princeton Symphony Orchestra. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  334. Aronson, Emily; Luk, Matilda (June 23, 2011). "A tradition of voice: A cappella at Princeton". Princeton University. Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  335. "Religious Life". Princeton University. Archived from the original on July 16, 2021. RetrievedJuly 16, 2021.
  336. "Traditions". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. RetrievedSeptember 7, 2020.
  337. Pryor, Maddy (November 19, 2018). "Bonfire celebrates Princeton football's wins over Harvard, Yale and perfect season". Princeton University. Archived from the original on April 6, 2021. RetrievedJune 19, 2021.
  338. "Reunions History". Princeton Reunions. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. RetrievedSeptember 7, 2020.
  339. "Cheers". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. RetrievedSeptember 7, 2020.
  340. Spano, Susan (October 13, 1996). "In Princeton, a Brief Ivy Interlude". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJune 22, 2021. Fearing dire consequences (like the flu during finals), undergraduates never walk out of FitzRandolph Gate on Nassau Street at the north side of campus, separating gown from town. Passage is reserved for graduating seniors, for whom it is a rite symbolizing entrance into the real world.
  341. O'Toole, Christine H. (May 14, 2008). "Princeton Review; For Those Majoring in Sightseeing, Admission Is a Two-Wheel Breeze". The Washington Post. RetrievedJuly 17, 2021. We leave campus through the FitzRandolph Gates. Superstition keeps undergraduates from walking through to Nassau Street until graduation, but since that's not an issue for us, we cycle carefully across Nassau Street.
  342. Cheng, Jonathan (April 22, 2004). "Film Legend Bothered by Use of Name in Stunt at Princeton". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJune 22, 2021.
  343. "Reunions". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. RetrievedJuly 15, 2021.
  344. "The P-rade". Princetoniana. Princeton University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. RetrievedJune 22, 2021.
  345. "Princeton Decrees an End to a Freshman Tradition". The New York Times. September 15, 1984. ISSN 0362-4331. RetrievedJuly 8, 2021.
princeton, university, language, watch, edit, princeton, redirects, here, city, jersey, princeton, jersey, other, uses, princeton, disambiguation, private, league, research, university, princeton, jersey, founded, 1746, elizabeth, college, jersey, princeton, f. Princeton University Language Watch Edit Princeton redirects here For the city in New Jersey see Princeton New Jersey For other uses see Princeton disambiguation Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton New Jersey Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey Princeton is the fourth oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution 9 10 a The institution moved to Newark in 1747 and then to the current site nine years later It officially became a university in 1896 and was subsequently renamed Princeton University Princeton UniversityPrinceton University shieldLatin Universitas PrincetoniensisFormer namesCollege of New Jersey 1746 1896 MottoDei Sub Numine Viget Latin 1 On seal Vet us Nov um Testamentum Latin Motto in EnglishUnder God s Power She Flourishes 1 On seal Old Testament and New TestamentTypePrivate research universityEstablishedJanuary 18 1746 275 years ago 1746 01 18 AccreditationMSCHEAcademic affiliationsAAUURANAICUSpace grantEndowment 26 6 billion 2020 2 PresidentChristopher L EisgruberProvostDeborah PrenticeAcademic staff1 289 3 Total staff7 300 4 Students8 419 Fall 2019 5 Undergraduates5 422 Fall 2019 5 Postgraduates2 997 Fall 2019 5 Doctoral students2 631 Fall 2019 6 LocationPrinceton New Jersey United States 40 20 43 N 74 39 22 W 40 34528 N 74 65611 W 40 34528 74 65611 Coordinates 40 20 43 N 74 39 22 W 40 34528 N 74 65611 W 40 34528 74 65611 7 CampusSuburban College town 600 acres 2 4 km2 Main Campus 4 NewspaperThe Daily PrincetonianColorsOrange amp Black 8 NicknameTigersSporting affiliationsNCAA Division I FCS Ivy League ECAC Hockey EARC EIVA MAISAMascotThe TigerWebsiteprinceton wbr edu The university is governed by the Trustees of Princeton University and has an endowment of 26 6 billion the largest endowment per student in the United States Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities social sciences natural sciences and engineering to approximately 8 500 students on its 600 acres 2 4 km2 main campus It offers postgraduate degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs the School of Engineering and Applied Science the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance The university also manages the Department of Energy s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is home to the NOAA s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory It is classified among R1 Doctoral Universities Very high research activity and has one of the largest university libraries in the world 15 Princeton uses a residential college system and is known for its upperclassmen eating clubs Students can choose from around 500 recognized student organizations on campus like the nation s oldest debate union 16 the second oldest college daily student newspaper 17 the oldest touring musical comedy theater group 18 or the oldest licensed college radio station 19 Princeton students embrace a wide variety of traditions from both the past and present The university is a NCAA Division I school and competes in the Ivy League The school s athletic team the Princeton Tigers has won the most titles in its conference and has sent many students and alumni to the Olympics As of May 2021 69 Nobel laureates 16 Fields Medalists and 16 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni faculty members or researchers In addition Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners 5 Abel Prize winners 11 National Humanities Medal recipients 215 Rhodes Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars Two U S Presidents twelve U S Supreme Court Justices three of whom currently serve on the court and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton s alumni body Princeton has graduated many members of the U S Congress and the U S Cabinet including eight Secretaries of State three Secretaries of Defense and two Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Contents 1 History 1 1 Founding 1 2 Colonial and early years 1 3 19th Century 1 4 20th Century 1 5 Post war to present 1 5 1 Coeducation 2 Campus 2 1 Buildings 2 1 1 Nassau Hall 2 1 2 Art Museum 2 1 3 University Chapel 2 2 Sustainability 3 Organization and administration 3 1 Governance and structure 3 2 Finances 4 Academics 4 1 Undergraduate 4 1 1 Grade deflation policy 4 2 Graduate 4 3 Rankings 4 4 Research 4 4 1 Library system 4 4 2 National laboratories 5 Admissions and financial aid 5 1 Admissions 5 2 Costs and financial aid 6 Student life and culture 6 1 Residential colleges 6 2 Eating clubs and dining 6 3 Campus organizations 6 4 Traditions 6 5 Alma mater 6 6 Transportation 7 Student body 8 Athletics 8 1 Varsity 8 2 Club and intramural 9 Notable people 9 1 Alumni 9 2 Faculty 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 12 1 Works Cited 13 Further reading 14 External linksHistory EditMain article History of Princeton University Founding Edit The Log College an influential aspect of Princeton s development Princeton University founded as the College of New Jersey was shaped much in its formative years by the Log College a seminary founded by the Reverend William Tennent at Neshaminy Pennsylvania in about 1726 While no legal connection ever existed many of the pupils and adherents from the Log College would go on to financially support and become substantially involved in the early years of the university 13 While early writers considered it as the predecessor of the university 20 the idea has been rebuked by Princeton historians 21 13 The founding of the university itself originated from a split in the Presbyterian church following the Great Awakening 22 In 1741 New Light Presbyterians were expelled from the Synod of Philadelphia in defense of how the Log College ordained ministers 23 The four founders of Princeton who were New Lights were either expelled or withdrew from the Synod and devised a plan to establish a new college for they were disappointed with Harvard and Yale s opposition to the Great Awakening and dissatisfied with the limited instruction at the Log College 23 22 They convinced three other Presbyterians to join them and decided on New Jersey for where to found the school as at the time there was no institution between Yale in New Haven Connecticut and the College of William amp Mary in Williamsburg Virginia it was also where some of the founders preached 24 Although their initial request was rejected by the Anglican governor Lewis Morrison the acting governor after Morrison s death John Hamilton granted a charter for the College of New Jersey on October 22 1746 25 24 In 1747 approximately five months after acquiring the charter the trustees elected Jonathan Dickinson as president and opened in Elizabeth New Jersey 25 where classes were held in Dickinson s residence 26 With its founding it became the fourth oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of nine colonial colleges charted before the American Revolution 9 10 Although initially founded with the goal to train ministers the founders instead aimed to create a college of liberal arts and sciences 27 25 Though the school was open to those of any religious denomination 28 with many of the founders being of Presbyterian faith the college became the educational and religious capital of Scotch Irish Presbyterian America 29 Colonial and early years Edit From 1760 the first picture of Nassau Hall In 1747 due to the death of then President Jonathan Dickinson the college moved from Elizabeth to Newark New Jersey as that was where presidential successor Aaron Burr Sr s parsonage was located 25 That same year Princeton s first charter came under dispute by Anglicans but on September 14 1748 the recently appointed governor Jonathan Belcher granted a second charter 30 31 Belcher a Congregationalist had become alienated with his alma mater Harvard and decided to adopt the infant college 30 28 Belcher would go on to raise funds for the college and donate his 474 volume library making it one of the largest libraries in the colonies 30 32 In 1756 the college moved again to its present campus in Princeton New Jersey due to it being too close to New York 33 34 Princeton was chosen for its central location in New Jersey and by strong recommendation by Belcher 30 35 Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall named for the royal William III of England a member of the House of Orange Nassau 36 The trustees of the College of New Jersey initially suggested that Nassau Hall be named in recognition of Belcher because of his interest in the institution though the governor vetoed the request 30 John Witherspoon President of the college 1768 94 and signer of the Declaration of Independence Burr who would die in 1757 devised a curriculum for the school and increased the student body 37 Following the untimely death of Burr and the college s next three presidents 38 John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794 39 With his presidency Witherspoon focused the college on preparing a new generation of both educated clergy and secular leadership in the new American nation 40 41 To this end he tightened academic standards broadened the curriculum solicited investment for the college and grew its size 42 41 A signer of the Declaration of Independence Witherspoon and his leadership led the college to becoming influential to the American Revolution 39 43 44 In 1777 the college became the site for the Battle of Princeton 39 During the battle British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall before eventually surrendering to American forces led by General George Washington 45 During the summer and fall of 1783 the Continental Congress and Washington met in Nassau Hall making Princeton the country s capital for four months in Nassau Hall is where Congress learned of the peace treaty between the colonies and the British 46 47 The college did suffer from the revolution with a depreciated endowment and hefty repair bills for Nassau Hall 48 19th Century Edit In 1795 President Samuel Stanhope Smith took office the first alumnus to become president 49 Nassau Hall burned down in 1802 in which Smith blamed on rebellious students 50 The college raised enough funds for reconstruction as well as the construction of two new buildings 51 In 1807 a large student riot occurred at Nassau Hall spurred by underlying distrust of educational reforms by Smith away from the Church 49 52 Following Smith s mishandling of the situation falling enrollment and faculty resignations the trustees of the university offered resignation to Smith which he accepted 51 In 1812 Ashbel Green was unanimously elected by the trustees of the college to become the eighth president 53 After the liberal tenure of Smith Green represented the conservative Old Side in which he introduced rigorous disciplinary rules and heavily embraced religion 54 55 Even so believing the College wasn t religious enough he took a prominent role in establishing the Princeton Theological Seminary next door 54 53 While student riots were a frequent occurrence during Green s tenure enrollment did increase under his administration 56 In 1823 James Carnahan became president arriving as an unprepared and timid leader 57 58 With the College undertaken by conflicting views between students faculty and trustees and enrollment hitting its lowest in years Carnahan considered closing the university 57 Carnahan s successor John Maclean Jr who was only a professor at the time recommended saving the university with the help of alumni as a result Princeton s alumni association led by James Madison was created and began raising funds 57 59 With Carnahan and Maclean now vice president working as partners enrollment and faculty increased tensions decreased and the College campus expanded 59 Maclean took over the presidency in 1854 and led the university through the American Civil War 60 When Nassau Hall burned down again in 1855 61 Maclean raised funds and used the money to rebuild Nassau Hall and run the university on an austerity budget during the war years 60 With a third of students from the College being from the South enrollment fell 62 Once many of the Southerners left the campus became a sharp proponent for the Union 63 even bestowing an honorary degree to President Lincoln 64 James McCosh President of the college 1868 88 James McCosh became the college s president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the war 65 During his two decades of service he overhauled the curriculum oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences recruited distinguished faculty and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus 65 66 McCosh s tenure also saw the creation and rise of many extracurricular activities like the Princeton Glee Club the Triangle Club the first intercollegiate football team and the first permanent eating club 67 as well as the elimination of Greek life 68 In 1879 Princeton conferred its first doctorates to James F Williamson and William Libby both members of the Class of 1877 69 Francis Patton took the presidency in 1888 and although his election was not met by unanimous enthusiasm he was well received by undergraduates 70 Patton s administration was marked with great change for Princeton s enrollment and faculty had doubled At the same time the college underwent large expansion and social life was changing in reflection of the rise in eating clubs and burgeoning interest in athletics 71 In 1893 the honor system was established allowing for unproctored exams 72 73 In 1896 the college officially became university 74 and as a result it officially changed its name to Princeton University 75 In 1900 the Graduate School was formally established 74 Even with such accomplishments Patton s administration remained lackluster with its administrative structure 76 and towards its educational standards 72 Due to profile changes in the board of trustees and dissatisfaction with his administration he was forced to resign in 1902 76 20th Century Edit Woodrow Wilson President of Princeton University 1902 10 and 28th president of the United States Following Patton s resignation Woodrow Wilson an alumnus and popular professor was elected the 13th president of the university 77 78 Noticing falling academic standards Wilson orchestrated significant changes to the curriculum where freshman and sophomores followed a unified curriculum while juniors and seniors concentrated study in one discipline 79 Ambitious seniors were allowed to undertake independent work which would eventually shape Princeton s emphasis on the practice for the future 80 Wilson further reformed the educational system by introducing the preceptorial system in 1905 79 a then unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students or precepts could interact with a single instructor or preceptor in their field of interest 81 The changes brought about many new faculty and cemented Princeton s academics for the first half of the 20th century 82 Due to the tightening of academic standards enrollment declined severely until 1907 79 In 1906 the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie 83 and the university officially became nonsectarian 84 Before leaving office Wilson strengthened the science program to focus on pure research and broke the Presbyterian lock on the board of trustees 77 85 However he did fail in winning support for the permanent location of the Graduate School and the elimination of the eating clubs which he proposed replacing with quadrangles a precursor to the residential college system 86 Wilson also continued to keep Princeton closed off from accepting Black students 87 When an aspiring Black student wrote a letter to Wilson he got his secretary to reply telling him to attend a university where he would be more welcome 88 John Grier Hibben became president in 1912 and would remain in the post for two decades 89 On October 2 1913 the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated 83 When the United States entered World War I in 1917 Hibben allocated all available University resources to the government As a result military training schools opened on campus and laboratories and other facilities were used for research and operational programs Overall more than 6 000 students served in the armed forces with 151 dying during the war 90 After the war enrollment spiked and the trustees established the system of selective admission in 1922 91 From the 1920s to the 1930s the student body featured many students from preparatory schools zero Black students and dwindling Jewish enrollment because of quotas 92 Aside from managing Princeton during WWI Hibben introduced the senior thesis in 1923 as a part of The New Plan of Study 93 94 He also brought about great expansion to the university with the creation of the School of Architecture in 1919 the School of Engineering in 1921 and the School of Public and International Affairs in 1930 95 By the end of his presidency the endowment had increased by 374 percent the total area of the campus doubled the faculty experienced impressive growth and the enrollment doubled 96 94 Hibben s successor Harold Willis Dodds would lead the university through the Great Depression World War II and the Korean Conflict 97 With the Great Depression many students were forced to withdraw due to financial reasons 98 At the same time Princeton s reputation in physics and mathematics surged as many European scientists left for the United States due to uneasy tension caused by Nazi Germany 99 In 1930 the Institute for Advanced Study was founded to provide a space for the influx of scientists such as Albert Einstein 100 Many Princeton scientists would work on the Manhattan Project during the war 101 including the entire physics department 102 During World War II Princeton offered an accelerated program for students to graduate early before entering the armed forces 103 Student enrollment fluctuated from month to month and many faculty were forced to teach unfamiliar subjects Still Dodds maintained academic standards and would establish a program for servicemen so they could resume their education once discharged 104 Post war to present Edit Post war years saw scholars renewing broken bonds through numerous conventions expansion of the campus and the introduction of distribution requirements 105 106 The period saw the desegregation of Princeton which was stimulated by changes to the New Jersey constitution 107 Princeton began undertaking a sharper focus towards research in the years after the war with the construction of Firestone Library in 1948 and the establishment of the Forrestal Research Center in the 1950s 108 Government sponsored research increased sharply particularly in the physics and engineering departments 109 with much of it occurring at the new Forrestal campus 110 Though as the years progressed scientific research at the Forrestal campus declined and in 1973 some of the land was converted to commercial and residential spaces 111 Robert Goheen would succeed Dodds by unanimous vote and serve as president until 1972 112 Goheen s presidency was characterized as being more liberal than previous presidents and his presidency would see a rise in Black applicants 113 as well as the eventual coeducation of the university in 1969 114 During this period of rising diversity the Third World Center now known as the Carl A Fields Center was dedicated in 1971 115 Goheen also oversaw great expansion for the university with square footage increasing by 80 percentage 116 Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Princeton experienced unprecedented activism with most of it centered on the Vietnam War 117 118 While Princeton activism initially remained relatively timid compared to other institutions 117 protests began to grow with the founding of a local chapter of Students for a Democratic Society SDS in 1965 which organized many of the later Princeton protests 117 In 1966 the SDS gained prominence on campus following picketing against a speech by President Lyndon B Johnson which gained frontpage coverage by the New York Times 119 120 A notable point of contention on campus was the Institute for Defense Analyses IDA and would feature multiple protests 117 some of which required police action 121 As the years went on the protests agenda broadened to investments in South Africa environmental issues and women s rights 117 122 In response to these broadening protests the Council of the Princeton University Community CPUC was founded to serve as a method for greater student voice in governance 123 Activism culminated in 1970 with a student faculty and staff member strike so the university could become an institution against expansion of the war 124 b Princeton s protests would taper off later that year with The Daily Princetonian saying that Princeton 1970 71 was an emotionally burned out university In 1982 the residential college system was officially established under Goheen s successor William G Bowen who would serve until 1988 125 126 During his presidency Princeton s endowment increased from 625 million to 2 billion and a major fundraising drive known as A Campaign for Princeton was conducted 126 President Harold T Shapiro would succeed Bowen and remain president until 2001 Shapiro would continue to increase the endowment expand academic programs raise student diversity and oversaw the most renovations in Princeton s history 127 In 2001 Princeton shifted the financial aid policy to a system that replaced all loans with grants 128 That same year Princeton elected its first female president Shirley M Tilghman 129 Before retiring in 2012 Tilghman expanded financial aid offerings and conducted several major construction projects 130 Princeton s 20th and current president Christopher Eisgruber was elected in 2013 131 In 2017 Princeton University unveiled a large scale public history and digital humanities investigation into its historical involvement with slavery called the Princeton amp Slavery Project The project saw the publication of hundreds of primary sources 80 scholarly essays a scholarly conference a series of short plays and an art project 132 In April 2018 university trustees announced that they would name two public spaces for James Collins Johnson and Betsey Stockton enslaved people who lived and worked on Princeton s campus and whose stories were publicized by the project 133 Coeducation Edit History of coeducation at the university dates back to the 19th century Founded in 1887 the Evelyn College for Women in Princeton provided education to largely the daughters of professors and sisters of Princeton undergraduates While no legal connection ever existed many Princeton professors taught there and several Princeton administrations like Francis Patton were part of its board of trustees It closed in 1897 following the death of its founder Joshua McIlvaine 134 Pyne Hall where the first female students lived on campus Coeducation at Princeton wouldn t resume until the 20th century In 1947 three female members of the library staff enrolled in beginner Russian courses to deal with an increase in Russian literature in the library 114 In 1961 Princeton admitted its first female graduate student Sabra Follett Meservey 135 who would go on to be the first woman to earn a master s degree 114 Eight more women would enroll next year at the Graduate School 135 and in 1964 T sai ying Cheng became the first woman at Princeton to receive a Ph D The first undergraduate female students came in 1963 when five women came to Princeton to study critical languages They were considered regular students for their year on campus but were not candidates for a Princeton degree 114 Following abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women s college to Princeton and merge it with the university in 1967 136 the administration commissioned a report on admitting women The final report was issued in January 1969 supporting the idea 114 That same month the trustees voted 24 8 in favor of coeducation and began preparing the institution for the transition 137 The university finished these plans in April 1969 and announced there would be coeducation in September 138 Ultimately 101 female freshman and 70 female transfer students enrolled at Princeton on September 1969 139 138 c Those admitted were housed in Pyne Hall a fairly isolated dormitory a security system were added although the women deliberately broke it within a day 141 In 1971 Mary St John Douglas and Susan Savage Speers became the first female trustees 114 and in 1974 quotas for men and women were eliminated 142 Following a 1979 lawsuit the eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991 after an appeal to the U S Supreme Court was denied 143 In 2001 Princeton elected its first female president 129 Campus Edit The eastern side of the Washington Road Elm Allee one of the entrances to the campus The main campus consists of more than 200 buildings on 600 acres 2 4 km2 in Princeton New Jersey 4 The James Forrestal Campus a smaller location designed mainly as a research and instruction complex is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia on the train 19 The university also owns more than 520 acres 2 1 km2 of property in West Windsor Township 4 and is where Princeton is planning to construct a graduate student housing complex which will be known as Lake Campus North 144 The first building on campus was Nassau Hall completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of the campus facing Nassau Street 145 The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century 146 147 The McCosh presidency 1868 88 saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles although many of them are now gone leaving the remaining few to appear out of place 148 At the end of the 19th century much of Princeton s architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm the same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St Louis and University of Pennsylvania resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which the university is known for today 149 Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter 149 and later enforced by the university s supervising architect Ralph Adams Cram 150 the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus until 1960 151 152 A flurry of construction projects in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus many of which have been poorly received 153 Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions including Frank Gehry Lewis Library 154 I M Pei Spelman Halls 155 Demetri Porphyrios Whitman College a Collegiate Gothic project 156 Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown Frist Campus Center among several others 157 and Rafael Vinoly Carl Icahn Laboratory 158 A group of 20th century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture It includes works by Alexander Calder Five Disks One Empty Jacob Epstein Albert Einstein Henry Moore Oval with Points Isamu Noguchi White Sun and Pablo Picasso Head of a Woman 159 Richard Serra s The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library 160 At the southern edge of the campus is Lake Carnegie an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie Carnegie financed the lake s construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend and his brother who were both Princeton alumni 161 Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football which he considered not gentlemanly 162 The Shea Rowing Center on the lake s shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing 163 Princeton s grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943 Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her 164 Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild amp Partners in 2000 In 2005 Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for Princeton s 2016 Campus Plan 165 Lynden B Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton s consulting gardening architect focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus 166 Buildings Edit Nassau Hall Edit Nassau Hall the university s oldest building and former capitol of the United States Pictured in front is Cannon Green Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756 167 it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776 168 was involved in the Battle of Princeton in 1777 169 and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation and thus capitol of the United States from June 30 1783 to November 4 1783 170 Since 1911 the front entrance has been flanked by two bronze tigers a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879 which replaced two lions previously given in 1889 171 Starting in 1922 commencement has been held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall when there is good weather 172 In 1966 Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places 173 Nowadays it houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices 174 175 To the south of Nassau Hall lies a courtyard that is known as Cannon Green 176 Buried in the ground at the center is the Big Cannon which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812 when it was taken to New Brunswick 177 In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town Two years later it was moved to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students and in 1840 it was buried in its current location 178 A second Little Cannon is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall The cannon which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875 The theft ignited the Rutgers Princeton Cannon War A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton 178 The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute 179 180 Art Museum Edit The Princeton University Art Museum which holds over 112 000 objects Though art collection at the university dates back to its very founding the Princeton University Art Museum wasn t officially established till 1882 by President McCosh Its establishment arose for a desire to provide direct access to works of art in a museum for a curriculum in the arts an education system familiar to many European universities at the time The museum took on the purposes of providing exposure to original works of art and to teach the history of art through an encyclopedic collection of world art 181 Numbering over 112 000 objects the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and come from Europe Asia Africa and the Americas 182 The museum s art is divided into ten extensive curatorial areas 183 There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities including ceramics marbles bronzes and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch as well as other art from the ancient Egyptian Byzantium and Islamic worlds 184 Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture metalwork and stained glass The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century with pieces by Monet Cezanne and Van Gogh 185 and features a growing collection of 20th century and contemporary art including paintings such as Andy Warhol s Blue Marilyn 186 The museum features a collection of Chinese and Japanese art with holdings in bronzes tomb figurines painting and calligraphy as well as collections of Korean Southeast and Central Asian art 187 Its collection of pre Columbian art includes examples of Mayan and Olmec art and its indigenous art ranges from Chile to Alaska to Greenland 188 The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings 189 and it has a comprehensive collection of over 20 000 photographs 190 Approximately 750 works of African art are represented 191 The Museum oversees the outside John B Putnam Jr Memorial Collection of Sculpture 192 University Chapel Edit Finished in 1928 the Princeton University Chapel seats 2 000 people The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus near Nassau Street It was built between 1924 and 1928 at a cost of 2 3 million 193 approximately 34 7 million adjusted for inflation in 2020 Ralph Adams Cram the university s supervising architect designed the chapel which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus 194 At the time of its construction it was the second largest university chapel in the world after King s College Chapel Cambridge 195 It underwent a two year 10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002 196 The Chapel seats around 2 000 and serves as a site for religious services and local celebrations 197 Measured on the exterior the chapel is 277 feet 84 m long 76 feet 23 m wide at its transepts and 121 feet 37 m high 198 The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone trimmed with Indiana limestone and the interior is made of limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone 198 The design evokes characteristics of an English church of the Middle Ages 198 The extensive iconography in stained glass stonework and wood carvings has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship 194 Sustainability Edit Published in 2008 the Sustainability Action Plan was the first formal plan for sustainability enacted by the university 199 It focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions conservation of resources and research education and civic engagement for sustainability through 10 year objectives 200 201 Since the 2008 plan Princeton has aimed at reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels without the purchase of market offsets and predicts to meet the goal by 2026 the former goal was by 2020 but COVID 19 requirements delayed this 202 Princeton released its second Sustainability Action Plan in 2019 on Earth Day with its main goal being reducing campus greenhouse gases to net zero by 2046 as well as other objectives building on those in the 2008 plan 201 202 In 2021 the university agreed to divest from thermal coal and tar sand segments of the fossil fuel industry and from companies that are involved in climate disinformation after student protest 203 Princeton s Sustainability Action Plan also aims to have zero waste through recycling programs sustainable purchasing and behavioral and operational strategies 204 Organization and administration EditGovernance and structure Edit Christopher Eisgruber the 20th and current president of the university Princeton s 20th and current president is Christopher Eisgruber who was appointed by the university s board of trustees in 2013 131 The board is responsible for the overall direction of the university It consists of no fewer than 23 and no more than 40 members at any one time with the president of the university and the Governor of New Jersey serving as ex officio members It approves the operating and capital budgets supervises the investment of the university s endowment and oversees campus real estate and long range physical planning The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies such as those in instructional programs and admission as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members 205 The university is composed of the Undergraduate College the Graduate School the School of Architecture the School of Engineering and Applied Science and the School of Public and International Affairs 206 Additionally the school s Bendheim Center for Finance provides education for the area of money and finance in lieu of a business school 207 Princeton did host a Princeton Law School for a short period before eventually closing in 1852 due to poor income 208 Princeton s lack of other professional schools can be attributed to a university focus on undergraduates 209 The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study 210 Princeton Theological Seminary Rutgers University and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University 211 Princeton is a member of the Association of American Universities 212 the Universities Research Association 213 and the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities 214 The university is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education MSCHE with its last reaffirmation in 2014 215 Finances Edit Princeton University s endowment of 26 6 billion per 2020 figures was ranked as the fourth largest endowment in the United States 2 216 and it had the greatest per student endowment in the world at over 3 million per student 217 The endowment is sustained through continued donations and is maintained by investment advisers 218 Princeton s operating budget is over 2 billion per year with 50 going to academic departments and programs 33 to administrative and student service departments 10 to financial aid departments and 7 to the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 219 Academics EditUndergraduate Edit McCosh 50 the largest lecture hall on campus Princeton follows a liberal arts curriculum 209 and offers two bachelor s degrees to students a Bachelor of Arts A B and a Bachelor of Science in Engineering B S E 206 Typically A B students choose a major called a concentration at the end of sophomore year while B S E students declare at the end of their freshman year 220 Students must complete distribution requirements departmental requirements and independent work to graduate with either degree 209 206 For A B students they must complete distribution requirements in literature and the arts science and engineering social analysis cultural difference epistemology and cognition ethical thought and moral values historical analysis and quantitative and computational reasoning they must also have satisfactory ability in a foreign language 206 Additionally they must complete two papers of independent work during their junior year known as the junior papers and craft a senior thesis to graduate 221 222 Both revolve around the concentration they are pursuing 223 B S E majors complete less courses in the humanities and social sciences and instead fulfill requirements in mathematics physics chemistry and computer programming 206 Additionally they must complete independent work although the junior paper isn t typically required and they can complete an independent project or a senior thesis 221 223 A B majors must complete 31 courses while B S E majors must complete 36 courses 224 Students can choose from either 36 concentrations or create their own They can also participate in 55 interdisciplinary certificate programs 206 since Princeton does not offer an academic minor the certificates effectively serve as one 225 Course structure is determined by the instructor and department Classes vary in their format ranging from small seminars to medium sized lecture courses to large lecture courses 226 The latter two typically have precepts which are extra weekly discussion sessions that are led by either the professor or a graduate student 226 227 The average class meeting time is 3 4 hours a week although this can vary depending on the course 226 The student to faculty ratio is 5 to 1 227 and a majority of classes have fewer than 20 students 222 In the Fiske Guide to Colleges academic culture is considered as tight knit extremely hardworking highly cooperative and supportive 73 Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code Under the Honor Code faculty do not proctor examinations instead the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates 228 The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing a conviction results in the student s suspension or expulsion 229 Violations pertaining to all other academic work fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty Student Committee on Discipline 230 Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work 231 Grade deflation policy Edit The first focus on issues of grade inflation by the Princeton administration began in 1998 when a university report was released showcasing a steady rise in undergraduate grades from 1973 to 1997 232 233 Subsequent reports and discussion from the report culminated to when in 2004 232 Nancy Weiss Malkiel the Dean of the College implemented a grade deflation policy to address the findings 234 Malkiel s reason for the policy was that an A was becoming devalued as a larger percentage of the student body received one 234 Following its introduction the number of A s and average GPA on campus dropped although A s and B s were still the most frequent grades awarded 233 235 The policy received mixed approval from both faculty and students when first instituted 232 236 Criticism for grade deflation continued through the years with students alleging negative effects like increased competition and lack of willingness to choose challenging classes 234 237 Other criticism included job market and graduate school prospects although Malkiel responded by saying that she sent 3 000 letters to numerous institutions and employers informing them 233 234 In 2009 transcripts began including a statement about the policy 238 In October 2013 Princeton President Christopher Eisgruber created a faculty committee to review the deflation policy 238 In August 2014 the committee released a report recommending the removal of the policy and instead develop consistent standards for grading across individual departments 239 In October 2014 following a faculty vote the numerical targets were removed in response to the report 240 In a 2020 analysis of undergraduate grades following the removal of a policy there were no long lasting effects with the percent of students receiving A s higher than in 1998 241 A picture of Cleveland Tower part of the Graduate School at Princeton Graduate Edit For the 2019 2020 academic year the Graduate School enrolled 2 971 students Approximately 40 of the students were female 42 were international and 35 of domestic students were a member of a U S minority group The average time to complete a doctoral degree was 5 7 years 242 The university awarded 318 Ph D degrees and 174 final master s degrees for the 2019 2020 academic year 242 The Graduate School offers degrees in 42 academic departments and programs which span the humanities social sciences natural sciences and engineering 242 206 Doctoral education is available for all departments while master s degrees are only available in the architecture engineering finance and public policy departments 243 Doctoral education focuses on original independent scholarship whereas master s degrees focus more on career preparation in both public life and professional practice Graduate students can also concentrate in an interdisciplinary program and be granted a certificate Joint degrees are available for several disciplines as are dual M D Ph D or M P A J D programs 206 d Students in the graduate school can participate in regional cross registration agreements domestic exchanges with other Ivy League schools and similar institutions and in international partnerships and exchanges 244 Rankings Edit Academic rankingsNationalARWU 245 5Forbes 246 5THE WSJ 247 7U S News amp World Report 248 1Washington Monthly 249 5GlobalARWU 250 6QS 251 20THE 252 9U S News amp World Report 253 11 Princeton ranked first in the 2021 U S News rankings for the tenth consecutive year 254 255 Princeton ranked fourth for undergrad teaching for 2021 falling from first place in the 2020 rankings 255 In the 2021 Times Higher Education assessment of the world s best universities Princeton was ranked 9th 256 In the 2022 QS World University Rankings it was ranked 20th overall in the world 257 In the 2021 U S News amp World Report Graduate School Rankings 13 of Princeton s 14 graduate programs were ranked in their respective top 10 with Engineering 22nd 7 of them in the top 5 and two in the top spot Economics and Mathematics 258 Research Edit Princeton is classified among R1 Doctoral Universities Very high research activity 259 Based on data for the 2020 fiscal year the university received approximately 250 million in sponsored research for its main campus with 81 4 coming from the government 12 1 from foundations 5 5 from industry and 1 0 from private and other An additional 120 million in sponsored research was for the Plasma Physics Lab the main campus and the lab combined totaled to 370 million for sponsored research 260 Based on 2017 data the university ranked 72nd among 902 institutions for research expenditures 261 Based on 2018 data Princeton s National Academy Membership totaled to 126 ranking 9th in the nation 262 The university hosts 75 research institutes and centers and two national laboratories 263 Princeton is a member of the New Jersey Space Grant Consortium 264 Library system Edit Firestone Library the largest of Princeton s libraries The Princeton University Library system houses over 13 million holdings through 11 buildings 265 including seven million bound volumes making it one of the largest university libraries in the world 15 Built in 1948 the main campus library is Firestone Library and serves as the main repository for the humanities and social sciences 265 Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby 266 and George F Kennan s Long Telegram 267 In addition to Firestone library specialized libraries exist for architecture art and archaeology East Asian studies engineering music public and international affairs public policy and university archives and the sciences 268 The library system provides access to subscription based electronic resources and databases to students 269 National laboratories Edit The Department of Energy s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory PPPL stemmed from Project Matterhorn a top secret cold war project created in 1951 aimed at achieving controlled nuclear fusion 270 Princeton astrophysics professor Lyman Spitzer became the first director of the project and remained director until the lab s declassification in 1961 when it received its current name 270 Today it is an institute for fusion energy research and plasma physics research 271 Founded in 1955 and located at Princeton s Forrestal Campus since 1968 the NOAA s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GFDL conducts climate research and modeling 272 273 Princeton faculty research scientists and graduate scientists can participate in research with the lab 272 Admissions and financial aid EditAdmissions Edit Admissions statistics2019 entering class 274 Change vs 2014 275 Admit rate5 8 1 6 Yield rate70 4 4 2 Test scores middle 50 SAT EBRW710 770SAT Math750 800 20 median ACT Composite33 35 1 5 median High school GPAAverage3 91 no change Princeton offers several methods to apply the Common Application the Coalition Application and the QuestBridge Application 276 277 Princeton s application requires several writing supplements and submitting a graded written paper 276 Princeton s undergraduate program is highly selective admitting 5 8 of undergraduate applicants in the 2019 2020 admissions cycle for the Class of 2024 5 The middle 50 range of SAT scores was 1470 1560 the middle 50 range of the ACT composite score was 33 35 and the average high school GPA was a 3 91 5 For graduate admissions in the 2021 2022 academic year Princeton received 12 553 applications for admission and accepted 1 322 applicants with a yield rate of 51 242 In the 1950s Princeton used an ABC system to function as a precursory early program where admission officers would visit feeder schools and assign A B or C ratings to students 278 e From 1977 to 1995 Princeton employed an early action program and in 1996 transitioned to an early decision program 279 In September 2006 the university announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool ending the school s early decision program 280 In February 2011 following decisions by the University of Virginia and Harvard University to reinstate their early admissions programs Princeton announced it would institute a single choice early action option for applicants 279 which it still uses 276 Princeton reinstated its transfer students program in 2018 after a three decades moratorium the program encourages applicants from low income families the military and community colleges 281 282 Costs and financial aid Edit As of the 2021 2022 academic year the total cost of attendance is 77 690 283 61 of all undergraduates receive financial aid with the average financial aid grant being 57 251 5 Tuition room and board is free for families making up to 65 000 and financial aid is offered to families making up to 180 000 284 In 2001 expanding on earlier reforms Princeton became the first university to eliminate the use of student loans in financial aid replacing them with grants 128 73 In addition all admissions are need blind and financial aid meets 100 of demonstrated financial need 285 The university does not use academic or athletic merit scholarships 286 Kiplinger magazine in 2019 ranked Princeton as the fifth best value school in a combined list comparing private universities private liberal arts colleges and public colleges noting that the average graduating debt was 9 005 287 For its 2021 rankings the U S News amp World Report ranked it second in its category for Best Value Schools 255 Student life and culture EditResidential colleges Edit The university guarantees housing for students for all four years 288 with more than 98 of undergraduates living on campus 289 Freshman and sophomores are required to live on campus specifically in one of the University s six residential colleges Once put into a residential college students have an upperclassmen residential college adviser to adjust to college life and a faculty academic adviser for academic guidance 290 Upperclassmen are given the option to keep living in the college or decide to move into upperclassmen dorms 289 upperclassmen still remain affiliated with their college even if they live somewhere else 73 Each residential college has its own distinct layout and architecture 290 Additionally each college has its own faculty head dean director of studies and director of student life The colleges feature various amenities such as dining halls common rooms laundry rooms academic spaces and arts and entertainment resources Three of the colleges house students from all classes while the other three house only underclassmen 291 Princeton s residential college system dates back to when university president Woodrow Wilson s proposed the creation of quadrangles 86 While the plan was vetoed 86 it eventually made a resurgence with the creation of Wilson Lodge now known as First College in 1957 to provide an alternative to the eating clubs 292 Wilson Lodge was dedicated as Wilson College in 1968 and served as an experiment for the residential college system When enrollment increased in the 1970s a university report in 1979 recommended the establishment of five residential colleges 293 Funding was raised within a year 294 leading to the development of Rockerfeller College 1982 Mathey College 1983 Butler College 1983 and Forbes College 1984 292 Whitman College was founded and constructed in 2007 at a cost of 100 million 295 Butler s dorms were demolished in 2007 and a new complex was built in 2009 296 Butler and Mathey previously acted as only underclassmen colleges but transitioned to four year colleges in fall 2009 297 Princeton is scheduled to open up two new residential colleges Perelman College and College 8 in time for the 2022 2023 academic year 298 f Princeton has one graduate residential college known as the Graduate College located on a hill about half a mile from the main campus 299 g The location of the Graduate College was the result of a dispute between Woodrow Wilson and then Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West Wilson preferred a central location for the college West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus and ultimately he prevailed 301 The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower 299 a memorial tower for former Princeton trustee Grover Cleveland 302 303 The tower also has 67 carillon bells making it one of the largest carillons in the world 304 The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style to the gothic Old Graduate College 305 Graduate students also have the option of living in student apartments 306 First College founded 1957 Forbes College founded 1984 Mathey College founded 1983 Rockefeller College founded 1982 Butler College founded 1983 Whitman College founded 2007 Eating clubs and dining Edit Founded in 1879 Ivy Club is the oldest and wealthiest eating club on campus Although each residential college has a dining hall for students in the college they each vary in their environment and food served 307 308 Upperclassmen who no longer live in the college can choose from a variety of options join an eating club and choose a shared meal plan join a dining co op where groups of students eat prepare and cook food together or organize their own dining 307 The university offers kosher dining through the Center for Jewish Life and halal dining options for Muslim students in the dining halls 307 Social life takes place primarily on campus and is involved heavily with one s residential college or eating club 288 19 Residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities ranging from Broadway show outings to regular barbecues 290 Eating clubs while not affiliated with the university are co ed organizations that serve as social centers host events and invite guest speakers 309 73 Additionally they serve as a place of community for upperclassmen 309 19 Five of the clubs have first serve memberships called sign ins and six clubs use a selective process in which students must bicker 310 This requires prospective members to undergo an interviewing process 311 Each eating club has a fee to join which ranges from around 9 000 to 10 000 As a result Princeton increases financial aid for upperclassmen and the eating clubs also offer financial assistance 312 313 Cumulatively there is ten clubs located on Prospect Avenue Cannon Cap and Gown Charter Cloister Colonial Cottage Ivy Quadrangle Tiger and Tower and one located on Washington Road Terrace 314 310 68 of upperclassmen are members of a club with each one containing around 150 to 200 students 310 Campus organizations Edit Princeton hosts around 500 recognized student organizations and several campus centers 289 The Undergraduate Student Government USG serves as Princeton s student government 315 The USG funds student organization events sponsors campus events and represents the undergraduate student body when convening with faculty and administration 315 Whig Hall where the American Whig Cliosophic Society resides Founded in about 1765 the American Whig Cliosophic Society is the nation s oldest collegiate political literary and debate society 16 19 and is the largest and oldest student organization on campus 316 The Whig Clio Society has several subsidiary organizations each specialized to different areas of politics the Princeton Debate Panel International Relations Council Princeton Mock Trial and Princeton Model Congress 317 The International Relations Council manages two Model United Nations conferences the Princeton Diplomatic Invitational PDI for collegiate competition and the Princeton Model United Nations Conference PMUNC for high school competition 318 There are several publications on campus and a radio station Founded in 1876 The Daily Princetonian otherwise known as The Prince is the second oldest college daily student newspaper in the United States 319 17 Other publications include The Nassau Literary Review 320 the Princeton Tory a campus journal of conservative thought 321 The Princeton Diplomat the only student run magazine on global affairs 322 the Princeton Political Review the only multi partisan political publication on campus 323 and the recently revived Princeton Progressive the only left leaning political publication on campus 324 among others Princeton s WPRB 103 3 FM radio station is the oldest licensed college radio station in the nation 19 The McCarter Theatre where the Princeton Triangle Club premiers its Triangle Show 325 Princeton is home to a variety of performing arts and music groups Many of the groups are represented by the Performing Arts Council 326 Dating back to 1883 the Princeton Triangle Club is America s oldest touring musical comedy theater group 18 327 It performs its annual Triangle Show every fall at the 1 000 seat McCarter Theatre 328 325 as well as original musical comedies revues and other shows throughout campus 327 Princeton s oldest choir is the Glee Club which began in 1874 329 The comedic scramble Tiger Band was formed in 1919 and plays at halftime shows and other events 330 Other groups include the Princeton University Orchestra the flagship symphony orchestra group founded in 1896 331 and the Princeton Symphony Orchestra 332 both of which perform at Alexander Hall 333 331 A cappella groups are a staple of campus life with many holding concerts informal shows and arch sings 329 334 Arch sings are where a cappella performances are held in one of Princeton s many gothic arches The oldest a cappella ensemble is the Nassoons which were formed in 1941 All male groups include the Tigertones 1946 and Footnotes 1959 all female groups include the Tigerlilies 1971 Tigressions 1981 Wildcats 1987 the oldest coed a cappella group in the Ivy League is the Princeton Katzenjammers 1973 which was followed by the Roaring 20 1983 and Shere Khan 1994 334 Princeton features several campus centers for students that provide resources and information for students with certain identities These include the Center for Jewish Life the Davis International Center the Carl A Fields Center for Equality and Cultural Understanding the Women s Center and the LGBT Center The Frist Campus Center and the Campus Club are additional facilities for the entire campus community that hold various activities and events 289 Princeton features 15 chaplaincies and multiple religious student groups The following faiths are represented on campus Baha i Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Judaism Islam Sikhism and Unitarian Universalism 335 Traditions Edit Princeton students partake in a wide variety of campus traditions both past and present 336 FitzRandolph Gates which by tradition undergraduates do not exit until graduation Current traditions Princeton students celebrate include the ceremonial bonfire which takes place on the Cannon Green behind Nassau Hall It is held only if Princeton beats both Harvard University and Yale University at football in the same season 337 Another tradition is the use of traditional college cheers at events and reunions like the Locomotive which dates back to before 1894 338 339 Princeton students abide by the tradition of never exiting the campus through FitzRandolph Gates until one graduates According to tradition anyone who exits campus before their graduation will not graduate 340 341 A more controversial tradition is Newman s Day where some students attempt to drink 24 beers in the 24 hours of April 24 According to The New York Times the day got its name from an apocryphal quote attributed to Paul Newman 24 beers in a case 24 hours in a day Coincidence I think not 342 Newman has spoken out against the tradition 342 One of the biggest traditions celebrated annually are Reunions which are massive annual gatherings of alumni 343 At Reunions a traditional parade of alumni and their families known as the P rade process through the campus 344 Princeton also has several traditions that have faded into the past One of the them was clapper theft the act of climbing to the top of Nassau Hall to steal the bell clapper which rings to signal the start of classes on the first day of the school year For safety reasons the clapper was permanently removed 345 Another was the Nude Olympics an annual nude and partially nude frolic in Holder Courtyard that used to take place during the first snow of the winter Started in the early 1970s the Nude Olympics went co educational in 1979 and gained much notoriety with the American press Due to issues of sexual harassment and safety reasons the administration banned the Olympics in 2000 to the disappointment of students 346 347 Alma mater Edit Old Nassau source source Problems playing this file See media help Old Nassau has been Princeton University s school song since 1859 when it was written that year by freshman Harlan Page Peck It was originally published in the Nassau Literary Magazine where it won the magazine s prize for best college song After an unsuccessful attempt at singing it to Auld Lang Syne s melody Karl Langlotz a Princeton professor wrote the music for it 348 In 1987 the university changed the gendered lyrics of Old Nassau to reflect the school s co educational student body 349 Transportation Edit Tiger Transit is the bus system of the university mostly open to the public and linking university campuses and areas around Princeton 350 NJ Transit provides bus service on the 600 606 and 609 lines and rail service on the Dinky a small commuter train that provides service to the Princeton Junction Station 351 Coach USA through their subsidiary Suburban Transit provides bus service to New York City and other destinations in New Jersey 351 Student body EditUndergraduate racial demographics for the 2020 2021 academic year 352 White 39 Asian 29 Hispanic 12 Black 10 Multiracial 6 Unknown 4 Based on data from the 2019 2020 academic year Princeton enrolled 5 422 undergraduates 2 971 postgraduates and 26 other graduates enrolled in credit courses making a total school population of 8 419 5 Total enrollment was split 54 male and 46 female 5 For the 2020 2021 academic year racial demographics for undergraduates was roughly 29 Asian 10 Black 12 Hispanic 39 White 6 Multiracial and 4 Unknown 352 Master s and doctoral students followed relatively similar trends 352 According to the Fiske Guide of Colleges the student body is considered racially and ethnically diverse although some students consider there to be social stratification 73 Princeton has made significant progress in expanding the diversity of its student body in recent years The 2021 admitted freshman class was one of the most diverse in the school s history with 68 of students identifying as students of color 353 The university has worked to increase its enrollment of first generation and low income students in recent years 354 The median family income of Princeton students is 186 100 with 72 of students coming from the top 20 highest earning families 355 In 2017 22 of freshman qualified for federal Pell Grants above the 16 average for the top 150 schools ranked by the U S News amp World Report nationwide the average was 44 356 Based on data in a 2019 article in The Daily Princetonian 10 of students hail from Bloomberg s 2018 list of 100 richest places and that the top 20 of high schools send as many students to Princeton as the bottom 80 357 In 1999 10 of the student body was Jewish a percentage lower than those at other Ivy League schools 16 of the student body was Jewish in 1985 the number decreased by 40 from 1985 to 1999 This decline prompted The Daily Princetonian to write a series of articles on the decline and its reasons The New York Observer wrote that Princeton was long dogged by a reputation for anti Semitism and that this history as well as Princeton s elite status caused the university and its community to feel sensitivity towards the decrease of Jewish students In the Observer several theories are proposed for the drop ranging from campus culture to changing admission policies to national patterns 358 As of 2021 according to the Center for Jewish Life on campus the university has approximately 700 Jewish students 359 Starting in 1967 African American enrollment surged from 1 7 to 10 but has stagnated ever since 360 Bruce M Wright was admitted into the university in 1936 as the first African American however his admission was a mistake and when he got to campus he was asked to leave Three years later Wright asked the dean for an explanation on his dismissal and the dean suggested to him that a member of your race might feel very much alone at Princeton University 361 Princeton wouldn t admit its first Black students till in 1945 when Princeton instituted the V 12 program on campus 362 In 1947 John L Howard one of the four naval cadets admitted to the program would become the first Black student to graduate with a bachelor s degree 363 364 Athletics Edit Princeton s mascot is the tiger Princeton supports organized athletics at three levels varsity intercollegiate club intercollegiate and intramural It also provides a variety of physical education and recreational programs for members of the Princeton community 365 Most undergraduates participate in athletics at some level 366 Princeton s colors are orange and black 367 The school s athletes are known as the Tigers and the mascot is a tiger 367 368 The Princeton administration considered naming the mascot in 2007 but the effort was dropped in the face of alumni opposition 369 Varsity Edit Main article Princeton Tigers Princeton vs Lehigh football September 2007 Princeton hosts 37 men s and women s varsity sports 366 Princeton is an NCAA Division I school with its athletic conference being the Ivy League 367 Its rowing teams compete in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges and its men s volleyball team competes in the Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association 370 Princeton s sailing team though a club sport competes at the varsity level in the MAISA conference of the Inter Collegiate Sailing Association 371 Princeton s football team competes in the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I with the rest of the Ivy League 372 Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U S on November 6 1869 Rutgers won the game 373 As of 2021 Princeton claims 28 national football championships which would make it the most of any school although the NCAA only recognizes 15 of the wins 374 375 With its last win being in 2018 Princeton has won 12 Ivy League championships 376 In 1951 Dick Kazmaier won Princeton its only Heisman Trophy the last to come from the Ivy League 377 The men s basketball program is noted for its success under Pete Carril the head coach from 1967 to 1996 During this time Princeton won 13 Ivy League titles and made 11 NCAA tournament appearances 378 Carril introduced the Princeton offense an offensive strategy that has since been adopted by a number of college and professional basketball teams 378 379 Carril s final victory at Princeton came when the Tigers beat UCLA the defending national champion in the opening round of the 1996 NCAA tournament 378 On December 14 2005 Princeton tied the record for the fewest points in a Division I game since the institution of the three point line in 1986 87 when the Tigers scored 21 points in a loss against Monmouth University 380 Princeton women s soccer team advanced to the NCAA Division I Women s Soccer Championship semi finals in 2004 becoming the first Ivy League team to do so in a 64 team setting 381 382 The men s soccer team was coached from 1984 to 1995 by Princeton alumnus and future United States men s national team manager Bob Bradley who lead the Tigers to win two Ivy League titles and make an appearance at the NCAA Final Four in 1993 383 Princeton s men s lacrosse program undertook a period of notable success from 1992 to 2001 during which time it won six national championships 384 In 2012 its field hockey team became the first in the Ivy League to win a national championship 385 Princeton has won at least one Ivy League title every year since 1957 and it became the first university in its conference to win over 500 Ivy League athletic championships 385 From 1896 to 2018 113 athletes from Princeton have competed in the Olympics winning 19 gold medals 24 silver medals and 23 bronze medals 386 Club and intramural Edit The annual Cane Spree depicted in 1877 In addition to varsity sports Princeton hosts 37 club sports teams which are open to all Princeton students of any skill level 387 Teams compete against other collegiate teams both in the Northeast and nationally 387 The intramural sports program is also available on campus which schedules competitions between residential colleges eating clubs independent groups students and faculty and staff 289 388 Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available 389 In the fall freshman and sophomores participate in the intramural athletic competition called Cane Spree Although the event centers on cane wrestling freshman and sophomores compete in other sports and competitions This commemorates a time in the 1870s when sophomores angry with the freshmen who strutted around with fancy canes stole all of the canes from the freshmen hitting them with their own canes in the process 390 Notable people EditFor a more comprehensive list see List of Princeton University people Alumni Edit Main category Princeton University alumni The Princeton University Class of 1879 which included Woodrow Wilson Mahlon Pitney Daniel Barringer and Charles Talcott U S Presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson and Vice Presidents George M Dallas John Breckinridge and Aaron Burr graduated from Princeton 391 as did Michelle Obama the former First Lady of the United States 392 Former Chief Justice of the United States Oliver Ellsworth was an alumnus as are current U S Supreme Court Associate Justices Samuel Alito Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor 393 Alumnus Jerome Powell was appointed as Chair of the U S Federal Reserve Board in 2018 394 Princeton graduates played a major role in the American Revolution including the first and last Colonels to die on the Patriot side Philip Johnston 395 and Nathaniel Scudder 396 as well as the highest ranking civilian leader on the British side David Mathews 397 Notable graduates of Princeton s School of Engineering and Applied Science include Apollo astronaut and commander of Apollo 12 Pete Conrad 398 Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos 399 former Chairman of Alphabet Inc Eric Schmidt 400 and Lisa P Jackson former Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency 401 Actors Jimmy Stewart 402 Wentworth Miller 403 Jose Ferrer 404 David Duchovny 405 and Brooke Shields 406 graduated from Princeton as did composers Edward T Cone and Milton Babbitt 407 Soccer player alumna Diana Matheson scored the game winning goal that earned Canada their Olympic bronze medal in 2012 408 Writers Booth Tarkington 409 F Scott Fitzgerald 410 and Eugene O Neill 411 attended but did not graduate Writer Selden Edwards 412 and poet W S Merwin 413 graduated from Princeton American novelist Jodi Picoult 414 and author David Remnick 415 graduated Pulitzer prize winning journalists Barton Gellman 416 and Lorraine Adams 417 are Princeton alumni William P Ross Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation and founding editor of the Cherokee Advocate graduated in 1844 418 Notable graduate alumni include Pedro Pablo Kuczynski 419 Thornton Wilder 420 Richard Feynman 421 Lee Iacocca 422 John Nash 423 Alonzo Church 424 Alan Turing 425 Terence Tao 426 Edward Witten 427 John Milnor 428 John Bardeen 429 Steven Weinberg 430 John Tate 431 and David Petraeus 432 Royals such as Prince Moulay Hicham of Morocco 433 Prince Turki bin Faisal Al Saud 434 and Queen Noor of Jordan 435 have attended Princeton Faculty Edit Main category Princeton University faculty As of 2021 notable current faculty members include Angus Deaton 436 Daniel Kahneman 437 Cornel West 438 Robert Keohane 439 Edward W Felten 440 Anthony Grafton 441 Peter Singer 442 Jhumpa Lahiri 443 Jim Peebles 444 Manjul Bhargava 445 Brian Kernighan 446 and Robert P George 447 Notable former faculty members include John Witherspoon 448 Walter Kaufmann 449 John von Neumann 450 Ben Bernanke 451 Paul Krugman 452 Joseph Henry 453 Toni Morrison 454 Joyce Carol Oates 455 Michael Mullen 456 Andrew Wiles 457 and alumnus Woodrow Wilson 391 Albert Einstein though on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study rather than at Princeton came to be associated with the university through frequent lectures and visits on the campus 458 See also EditHigher education in New Jersey Princeton University in popular culture Big Three colleges The Princeton University Summer Journalism Program Princeton University Department of PhysicsNotes Edit Princeton is the fourth institution of higher learning to obtain a collegiate charter conduct classes or grant degrees based upon dates that do not seem to be in dispute Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania both claim the fourth oldest founding date and the University of Pennsylvania once claimed 1749 as its founding date making it fifth oldest but in 1899 its trustees adopted a resolution which asserted 1740 as the founding date 11 12 To further complicate the comparison of founding dates a Log College was operated by William and Gilbert Tennent the Presbyterian ministers in Bucks County Pennsylvania from 1726 until 1746 and it was once common to assert a formal connection between it and the College of New Jersey which would justify Princeton pushing its founding date back to 1726 However Princeton has never done so and a Princeton historian says that the facts do not warrant such an interpretation 13 Columbia University was chartered and began collegiate classes in 1754 Columbia considers itself to be the fifth institution of higher learning in the United States based upon its charter date of 1754 and Penn s charter date of 1755 14 The strike was part of the broader Student Strike of 1970 505 women applied to join the Princeton freshman class 140 The M D Ph D is granted in partnership with the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and the Rutgers New Brunswick Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences The M P A J D program is offered in partnership with Columbia Law New York University Law Stanford Law and Yale Law 206 Example feeder schools visited included Phillips Exeter Academy Phillips Academy Andover and Groton School among others Moreover an A was likely admission B was possible and C was unlikely As of 2021 there is no official name for the eighth college The Graduate College refers to the residential and dining halls while the Graduate School refers to the academics 300 References Edit a b Princeton Milestones A Princeton Profile Princeton University 2020 Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 21 2021 a b Mukherji Aniket October 30 2020 Princeton endowment grows to 26 6 billion earning a smaller return rate than previous years The Daily Princetonian Retrieved March 28 2021 Facts amp Figures Princeton University Retrieved December 25 2019 a b c d About Princeton University A Princeton Profile Princeton University 2020 Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 a b c d e f g h Common Data Set 2019 2020 PDF Princeton University Retrieved May 1 2021 Enrollment Statistics The Graduate School Princeton University Retrieved July 21 2021 Princeton University Geographic Names Information System United States Geological Survey Guide to Princeton University s Graphic Identity PDF Princeton University Trademark Licensing December 15 2010 Archived from the original PDF on December 22 2015 Retrieved March 14 2017 a b Colleges in the Colonial Times The Harvard Crimson April 20 1883 Retrieved August 4 2021 a b History Princeton University Archived from the original on June 1 2021 Retrieved July 3 2021 Princeton is the fourth oldest college in the United States Thomas George E September 2 2002 Building Penn s Brand The Pennsylvania Gazette Vol 101 University of Pennsylvania Retrieved July 3 2021 Armstrong April C July 22 2015 Dear Mr Mudd Princeton vs Penn Which is the Older Institution Mudd Manuscript Library Blog Princeton University Archived from the original on March 6 2021 a b c Leitch 1978 p 291 292 History Columbia University Retrieved July 3 2021 a b The Nation s Largest Libraries A Listing By Volumes Held ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 22 American Library Association May 2009 Archived from the original on April 13 2009 Retrieved August 12 2009 a b Salant Jonathan D March 5 2021 Princeton political and debate society votes to strip Ted Cruz of prestigious honor for trying to overturn presidential election NJ com Retrieved July 16 2021 a b Atlantan Chosen to Head The Daily Princetonian The New York Times December 17 1950 ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 16 2021 a b Princeton Triangle Club takes to the rectangular screen with virtual show NJ com January 19 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 a b c d e f Fiske amp Lecuyer 2019 p 567 Holland J G ed March 1877 Princeton College Scribner s Monthly XIII 5 626 via HathiTrust Craven Elijah R 1902 The Log College of Neshaminy and Princeton University Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 1 4 308 314 JSTOR 23322482 via JSTOR a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 11 a b Leitch 1978 p 198 a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 12 a b c d Leitch 1978 p 199 Jonathan Dickinson The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on July 9 2021 Retrieved July 4 2021 Morrison 2005 p 47 a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 15 Wertenbaker Thomas J December 1958 The College of New Jersey and the Presbyterians Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 36 4 213 JSTOR 23325333 via JSTOR a b c d e Governor Jonathan Belcher Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 14 2021 Retrieved July 4 2021 Leitch 1978 p 200 Oberdorfer 1995 p 16 Gunning 2005 p 443 Oberdorfer 1995 p 18 19 Oberdorfer 1995 p 19 Leitch 1978 p 329 Aaron Burr Sr The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 27 2021 Retrieved July 4 2021 Noll 2004 p 17 a b c John Witherspoon The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University November 26 2013 Archived from the original on March 21 2021 Retrieved June 20 2021 Morrison 2005 p 47 48 a b Leitch 1978 p 525 Noll 2004 p 29 30 Gunning 2005 p 454 Tucker Louis Leonard 1979 Centers of Sedition Colonial Colleges and the American Revolution Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 91 16 34 JSTOR 25080846 via JSTOR Nassau Hall Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on March 18 2021 Retrieved July 4 2021 U S Senate The Nine Capitals of the United States United States Senate Archived from the original on June 16 2021 Retrieved June 18 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 23 Gunning 2005 p 455 a b Samuel Smith The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 4 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 31 a b Leitch 1978 p 444 Lange Gregg March 21 2007 PAW Web Exclusives Under the Ivy Princeton Alumni Weekly Princeton University Archived from the original on January 4 2020 Retrieved July 4 2021 a b Lewis Robert E September 1957 ASHBEL GREEN 1762 1848 PREACHER EDUCATOR EDITOR Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 35 3 145 147 JSTOR 23325169 via JSTOR a b Ashbel Green The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on July 4 2019 Retrieved June 29 2015 Leitch 1978 p 229 Leitch 1978 p 230 a b c James Carnahan The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 5 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 52 a b Leitch 1978 p 81 a b John Maclean The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 5 2021 3 The Fire of 1855 Princetoniana Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on July 6 2021 Retrieved July 5 2021 Leitch 1978 p 298 Oberdorfer 1995 p 64 Oberdorfer 1995 p 65 a b Leitch 1978 p 301 304 Oberdorfer 1995 p 72 James McCosh The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 29 2021 Retrieved July 5 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 82 History The Graduate School Princeton University Archived from the original on March 16 2021 Retrieved June 18 2021 Francis Patton The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 5 2021 Leitch 1978 p 355 a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 102 a b c d e f Fiske amp Lecuyer 2019 p 566 a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 91 Review of the Week The Philadelphia Inquirer October 25 1896 p 6 The name of the college was changed to Princeton University a b Leitch 1978 p 356 a b Woodrow Wilson The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 27 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 96 a b c Leitch 1978 p 513 Oberdorfer 1995 p 104 Griffin Nathaniel April 1910 The Princeton Preceptorial System The Sewanee Review 18 2 169 176 JSTOR 27532370 Oberdorfer 1995 p 107 a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 268 269 Axtell 2006 p 330 Heckscher August 1991 Woodrow Wilson A Biography New York Macmillan p 155 ISBN 978 0 684 19312 0 a b c Axtell 2006 p 1 O Reilly Kenneth 1997 The Jim Crow Policies of Woodrow Wilson The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education The JBHE Foundation Inc 17 117 121 doi 10 2307 2963252 JSTOR 2963252 via JSTOR Bradley 2010 p 112 John Hibben The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Leitch 1978 p 252 253 Oberdorfer 1995 p 117 118 Oberdorfer 1995 p 119 Leitch 1978 p 253 254 a b Oberdorfer 1995 p 122 Leitch 1978 p 254 Leitch 1978 p 254 255 Harold Dodds The Presidents of Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 123 Oberdorfer 1995 p 125 Oberdorfer 1995 p 125 126 Oberdorfer 1995 p 127 Oberdorfer 1995 p 164 Leitch 1978 p 138 Leitch 1978 p 138 139 Leitch 1978 p 139 Oberdorfer 1995 p 137 Bradley 2010 p 115 Oberdorfer 1995 p 158 Oberdorfer 1995 p 165 166 Oberdorfer 1995 p 168 Oberdorfer 1995 p 170 Robert Goheen The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on July 2 2020 Retrieved July 22 2021 Bradley 2010 p 116 a b c d e f Research Guides Coeducation History of Women at Princeton University Princeton University Library Princeton University Archived from the original on May 13 2021 Retrieved June 20 2021 Leitch 1978 p 466 Leitch 1978 p 219 a b c d e Anderson James November 15 2019 Peace in Palmer Square A history of Vietnam War activism The Daily Princetonian Retrieved July 23 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 196 Oberdorfer 1995 p 199 Sullivan Ronald May 12 1966 PRESIDENT URGES SCHOLARS TO BACK WAR IN VIETNAM Replies to Fulbright Charge of Arrogance of Power Speaks at Princeton 300 PICKET ON CAMPUS Plea for Understanding by Responsible Intellectuals Is Heard by 3 000 PRESIDENT SEEKS AID OF SCHOLARS The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 23 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 209 211 Oberdorfer 1995 p 202 Oberdorfer 1995 p 204 Oberdorfer 1995 p 207 209 Oberdorfer 1995 p 269 a b William Bowen The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 29 2021 Retrieved July 22 2021 Harold Shapiro The Presidents of Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on June 27 2021 Retrieved July 22 2021 a b Moroz Jennifer February 4 2001 Princeton Promises Undergraduates No Loan Policy Washington Post ISSN 0190 8286 Retrieved July 13 2021 a b Horwitz Stephen 2001 Biologist becomes first woman to lead Princeton Nature Medicine 7 6 646 doi 10 1038 88993 S2CID 35267000 Kaminer Ariel September 22 2012 Princeton President Announces She Will Step Down The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 22 2021 a b Yee Vivian April 21 2013 Princeton Chooses Its Provost to Become Its Next President The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 22 2021 Schuessler Jennifer November 6 2017 Princeton Digs Deep Into Its Fraught Racial History The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved February 22 2019 Schuessler Jennifer April 17 2018 Princeton to Name Two Campus Spaces in Honor of Slaves The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved February 22 2019 Leitch 1978 p 170 171 a b Markham James M October 1 1962 Grad School Accepts Eight Women and the End of a Monastery The Daily Princetonian Retrieved July 20 2021 Folsom Merrill June 3 1967 SARAH LAWRENCE DECLINES MERGER Talks With Princeton Fail but Men Students Are Foreseen in Future The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 20 2021 Princeton s Board Backs Coeducation But Sets No Date The New York Times January 13 1969 ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 20 2021 a b Leitch 1978 p 530 Syken Bill Princeton s First Female Students Life Retrieved July 19 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 183 Oberdorfer 1995 p 185 Oberdorfer 1995 p 187 Princeton Eating Club Loses Bid to Continue Ban on Women Los Angeles Times Associated Press January 23 1991 ISSN 2165 1736 Retrieved June 18 2021 Muchhal Siddharth April 16 2019 Princeton University gearing up to develop Lake Campus in West Windsor Community News Retrieved May 6 2021 Leitch 1978 p 328 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter II The College Expands 1802 1846 Princeton University Archived from the original on May 14 2013 Retrieved June 2 2011 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter III Princeton at Mid Century 1846 1868 Princeton University Archived from the original on May 14 2013 Retrieved June 2 2011 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter IV The McCosh Presidency 1868 1888 Princeton University Archived from the original on May 9 2012 Retrieved June 2 2011 a b Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter V The Rise of the Collegiate Gothic Princeton University Archived from the original on January 22 2013 Retrieved June 2 2011 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter VI Spires and Gargoyles The Princeton Campus 1900 1917 Princeton University Archived from the original on May 3 2012 Retrieved June 2 2011 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter VII Princeton Between the Wars 1919 1939 Princeton University Archived from the original on March 14 2012 Retrieved June 2 2011 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter VIII Princeton at Mid Century Campus Architecture 1933 1960 Princeton University Archived from the original on May 14 2013 Retrieved June 2 2011 Princeton University An Interactive Campus History Chapter IX The Sixties Princeton University Archived from the original on March 14 2012 Retrieved June 2 2011 Lack Kelly September 11 2008 Lewis Library makes a grand debut The Daily Princetonian Archived from the original on October 17 2015 Retrieved October 16 2015 Leitch 1978 p 447 Old is new at Princeton World Architecture News December 19 2007 Archived from the original on January 20 2012 Retrieved June 2 2011 Frist Campus Center Iconography Princeton University Archived from the original on August 6 2020 Retrieved June 2 2011 Pearson Clifford A November 2003 Carl Icahn Laboratory Lewis Sigler Institute PDF Architectural Record Vol 191 no 11 p 180 ISSN 0003 858X Leitch 1978 p 398 Peterson Megan June 16 2011 Princeton sculpture enriches beauty and character of campus Princeton University Archived from the original on June 19 2021 Retrieved November 30 2011 Leitch 1978 p 82 The Richest Man in the World Andrew Carnegie Philanthropy 101 Scourge of the Campus American Experience PBS Archived from the original on November 14 2012 Retrieved June 2 2011 Shea Rowing Center Facilities Princeton University Athletics Princeton University Archived from the original on April 18 2021 Retrieved July 3 2021 Aronson Emily February 5 2019 University to name courtyard for influential landscape architect Beatrix Farrand Princeton University Archived from the original on April 20 2021 Retrieved January 18 2019 PRINCETON UNIVERSITY MASTER PLAN Princeton NJ 2005 2008 Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates Archived from the original on August 25 2020 Retrieved January 18 2020 Bernstein Mark F June 11 2008 Growing the campus Princeton Alumni Weekly Retrieved January 18 2020 Leitch 1978 p 328 329 Bradner Ryan July 14 2003 Nassau Hall National history center of campus The Daily Princetonian In the beginning Archived from the original on December 22 2015 Retrieved October 16 2015 Leitch 1978 p 330 Buildings of the Department of State Nassau Hall Princeton NJ United States Department of State Archived from the original on June 3 2021 Retrieved June 3 2011 Pair of tigers Campus Art Princeton Princeton University Archived from the original on April 20 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Commencement Office of the President Princeton University Archived from the original on April 1 2021 Retrieved June 18 2021 National Register of Historical Places NEW JERSEY NJ Mercer County National Register of Historic Places Archived from the original on August 6 2020 Retrieved June 3 2011 About The Office Office of the President Princeton University Archived from the original on June 27 2021 Retrieved July 29 2021 Nassau Hall Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on March 18 2021 Retrieved August 6 2021 Cannons Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on January 21 2021 Retrieved July 21 2021 Hageman John Frelinghuysen 1879 History of Princeton and Its Institutions 1 2nd ed Philadelphia J B Lippincott amp Co p 139 OCLC 3175821 a b Hageman John Frelinghuysen 1879 History of Princeton and Its Institutions 2 2nd ed Philadelphia J B Lippincott amp Co pp 317 319 OCLC 3175821 Carroll Kate October 5 2006 Vandals spraypaint campus Rutgers red The Daily Princetonian Archived from the original on December 22 2015 Retrieved October 16 2015 Stamato Linda September 11 2012 Rutgers and Princeton Tradition rivalry and the cannon wars NJ com Retrieved June 19 2021 History Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on April 28 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Accessing the Collections Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Curatorial Areas Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Ancient Byzantine and Islamic Art Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 European Art Princeton University Art Museum Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Modern and Contemporary Art Princeton University Art Museum Archived from the original on May 12 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Asian Art Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Art of the Ancient Americas Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 8 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Prints and Drawings Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 8 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Photography Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 African and Oceanic Art Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Campus Collections Princeton University Art Museum Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 Bush Sara The University Chapel Princeton University Archived from the original on March 14 2012 Retrieved June 6 2011 a b Milliner Matthew J Spring 2009 Primus inter pares Albert C Friend and the Argument of the Princeton University Chapel The Princeton University Library Chronicle 70 3 471 517 doi 10 25290 prinunivlibrchro 70 3 0471 JSTOR 10 25290 prinunivlibrchro 70 3 0471 via JSTOR Religion Princeton s Chapel Time Vol XI no 24 June 11 1928 p 30 ISSN 0040 781X Archived from the original on July 6 2021 Retrieved July 6 2021 Greenwood Kathryn Federici March 13 2002 Features Chapel gets facelift and a new dean Princeton Alumni Weekly Archived from the original on March 4 2016 Retrieved March 26 2016 Chapel Princeton Mobile Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 a b c Stillwell Richard 1971 The Present Chapel and ITS Predecessors The Chapel of Princeton University Princeton NJ Princeton University Press pp 7 11 doi 10 2307 j ctvxcrz68 7 ISBN 9780691195209 JSTOR j ctvxcrz68 7 OCLC 472188116 Overview Office of Sustainability Princeton University Archived from the original on March 15 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Stevens Ruth February 21 2008 Plan sets aggressive goals for Princeton sustainability efforts Princeton University Archived from the original on April 20 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 a b Aronson Emily April 22 2019 Princeton University sustainability plan aims for net zero emissions by 2046 Princeton University Archived from the original on May 3 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 a b Reduce Campus Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Net Zero Office of Sustainability Princeton University Archived from the original on March 15 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Buch Anika June 4 2021 Princeton to divest from some sectors of the fossil fuel industry The Daily Princetonian Archived from the original on June 5 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Reduce Waste and Expand Sustainable Purchasing Office of Sustainability Princeton University Archived from the original on March 15 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Board of Trustees Office of the President Princeton University Archived from the original on April 24 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 a b c d e f g h i Academic Life A Princeton Profile Princeton University Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 17 2021 About Bendheim Center for Finance Princeton University November 23 2020 Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 17 2021 Ravindran Pavithran January 4 2016 A Lawless University The History Of Princeton Law The Princeton Tory Retrieved July 21 2021 a b c Fiske amp Lecuyer 2019 p 564 Frequently Asked Questions Institute for Advanced Study November 24 2015 Archived from the original on June 27 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 The Institute is a private independent academic institution that enjoys close collaborative ties with Princeton University Cross Registration Programs Office of the Dean of the College Princeton University Archived from the original on April 13 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Our Members Association of American Universities Archived from the original on June 5 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 Member Universities Universities Research Association Archived from the original on July 4 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 NAICU Membership Directory NAICU Archived from the original on November 25 2020 Retrieved July 7 2021 Princeton University Middle States Commission on Higher Education Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 18 2021 Kowarski Ilana September 22 2020 10 Universities With the Biggest Endowments US News amp World Report Retrieved June 19 2021 Burns Hilary January 28 2021 Campus Rejects American City Business Journals Retrieved June 19 2021 Arenson Karen W April 20 2008 Big Spender The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved June 19 2021 Operating Budget Overview Office of Finance and Treasury Princeton University Archived from the original on March 15 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 When and how do I choose a major Your Path to Princeton Princeton University May 6 2021 Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 18 2021 a b Gullickson Cricket January 4 2014 The Junior Paper Undergraduate Admission Princeton University Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 a b Fiske amp Lecuyer 2019 p 565 a b Independent Work Office of Undergraduate Research Princeton University Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 Bogucki Peter Princeton Degrees Explained Your Path to Princeton Princeton University Archived from the original on May 17 2015 Retrieved July 19 2021 Certificate Programs Undergraduate Admission Princeton University September 15 2016 Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 a b c Lestition Steve How do classes at Princeton work Your Path to Princeton Princeton University Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 a b The Precept System Undergraduate Admission Princeton University October 12 2016 Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 The Undergraduate Honor System Undergraduate Announcement Princeton University Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 About Us Honor Committee Princeton University Archived from the original on May 15 2021 Retrieved October 19 2015 Committees Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students Princeton University Archived from the original on April 14 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Academic Integrity Office of the Dean of the College Princeton University February 2019 Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved October 23 2015 a b c Grade inflation plan passes The Daily Princetonian April 2004 Retrieved June 20 2021 a b c Foderaro Lisa W January 29 2010 Type A Plus Students Chafe at Grade Deflation The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved June 20 2021 a b c d On grade deflation The Daily Princetonian December 2 2009 Archived from the original on January 13 2010 Retrieved June 24 2010 Supiano Beckie January 17 2020 The Real Problem With Grade Inflation The Chronicle of Higher Education Retrieved June 20 2021 Arenson Karen W April 8 2004 Princeton Tries To Put a Cap On Giving A s The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved June 20 2021 Strauss Valerie August 9 2014 Why Princeton students who deserve A s can t get them report The Washington Post Retrieved June 20 2021 a b Levenson Eric October 7 2013 The End of Princeton s Grade Deflation Experiment The Atlantic Retrieved June 20 2021 Mulvaney Nicole August 7 2014 No more A quotas Faculty committee recommends Princeton University change its grading policy NJ com Retrieved June 5 2015 Windemuth Anna October 6 2014 After faculty vote grade deflation policy officially dead The Daily Princetonian Archived from the original on May 26 2015 Retrieved June 5 2015 O Connor Liam January 12 2020 The decline and fall of grade deflation The Daily Princetonian Retrieved June 20 2021 a b c d Admission and Costs A Princeton Profile Princeton University 2021 Archived from the original on June 29 2021 Retrieved July 13 2021 Fields of Study The Graduate School Princeton University Archived from the original on July 19 2021 Retrieved July 19 2021 Partnerships Exchanges and Cross Registration The Graduate School Princeton University Archived from the original on April 13 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020 National Regional Rank Shanghai Ranking Consultancy Retrieved August 15 2020 America s Top Colleges 2019 Forbes Retrieved August 15 2019 Wall Street Journal Times Higher Education College Rankings 2021 The Wall Street Journal Times Higher Education Retrieved October 20 2020 2021 Best National University Rankings U S News amp World Report Retrieved September 24 2020 2020 National University Rankings Washington Monthly Retrieved August 31 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020 Shanghai Ranking Consultancy 2020 Retrieved August 15 2020 QS World University Rankings 2022 Quacquarelli Symonds Retrieved June 18 2021 World University Rankings 2021 Times Higher Education Retrieved September 2 2020 2021 Best Global Universities Rankings U S News amp World Report Retrieved October 20 2020 Moody Josh September 14 2021 Princeton Williams Top 2021 Best Colleges Rankings U S News and World Report Retrieved January 2 2021 a b c Sheinerman Marie Rose September 14 2020 U ranked No 1 American university by U S News for 10th consecutive year The Daily Princetonian Retrieved June 21 2021 World University Rankings 2021 World University Rankings Times Higher Education August 25 2020 Retrieved September 2 2020 QS World University Rankings 2022 Top Universities May 8 2021 Retrieved May 8 2021 Princeton University Overall Rankings U S News amp World Report 2021 Retrieved June 21 2021 Carnegie Classifications Institution Lookup The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education Archived from the original on July 9 2021 Retrieved July 6 2021 Annual Report of the University Research Board URB and the Office of Research and Project Administration ORPA Fiscal Year 2019 2020 PDF Report Princeton University 2020 Archived from the original PDF on July 9 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 NSF NCSES Academic Institution Profiles Princeton University National Science Foundation Archived from the original on July 11 2021 Retrieved July 6 2021 Lombardi John V Abbey Craig W Craig Diane D 2020 The Top American Research Universities 2019 Annual Report PDF Report Amherst Mass Center for Measuring University Performance p 78 ISBN 978 0 9856170 9 7 Retrieved July 8 2021 Research Profile Office of the Dean for Research Princeton University Archived from the original on March 16 2021 Retrieved July 6 2021 NJSGC Affiliates and Partner Organizations New Jersey Space Grant Consortium Archived from the original on December 2 2020 Retrieved July 7 2021 a b Firestone Library Facilities Princeton University Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved June 21 2021 Skemer Don May 24 2013 The Great Gatsby manuscript and galleys now online through Princeton University Digital Library Princeton University Archived from the original on May 26 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 Telegram to Secretary of State Washington The Long Telegram 1946 February 22 Princeton University Library Finding Aids Princeton University Archived from the original on July 9 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 Libraries Princeton University Library Princeton University Archived from the original on July 4 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 Databases Princeton University Library Princeton University Archived from the original on June 27 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 a b Project Matterhorn Nuclear Princeton Princeton University Archived from the original on July 7 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 About Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton University Archived from the original on June 25 2021 Retrieved June 21 2021 a b About GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Archived from the original on July 6 2021 Retrieved July 6 2021 Quinones Eric September 29 2005 Pioneering meteorologist Smagorinsky dies Princeton University Archived from the original on April 1 2021 Retrieved July 7 2021 Common Data Set 2019 2020 PDF Princeton University Retrieved May 1 2021 Common Data Set 2014 2015 PDF Princeton University Retrieved May 1 2021 a b c How to Apply Undergraduate Admission Princeton University August 9 2016 Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 QuestBridge Undergraduate Admission Princeton University August 31 2020 Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Fallows James September 2001 The Early Decision Racket The Atlantic Retrieved June 20 2021 a b Princeton to reinstate early admission program Princeton University February 24 2011 Archived from the original on September 26 2020 Retrieved October 25 2015 Princeton to end early admission Princeton University September 18 2006 Archived from the original on March 18 2021 Retrieved October 25 2015 Hotchkiss Michael May 9 2018 Princeton offers admission to 13 students in reinstated transfer program Princeton University Archived from the original on May 25 2021 Retrieved July 22 2021 Nadworny Elissa December 4 2018 Top Colleges Seeking Diversity From A New Source Transfer Students NPR Retrieved July 22 2021 Fees amp Payment Options Undergraduate Admission Princeton University September 19 2016 Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Financial Aid by the Numbers Undergrad Admission Princeton University September 27 2016 Archived from the original on June 3 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Cost amp Aid Princeton University Admission Princeton University August 30 2016 Archived from the original on June 1 2021 Retrieved July 6 2021 How Princeton s Aid Program Works Undergraduate Admission Princeton University September 19 2016 Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 14 2021 Pitsker Kaitlin July 26 2019 20 Best College Values in the U S 2019 Kiplinger Archived from the original on March 18 2021 Retrieved July 13 2021 a b Housing Undergraduate Admission Princeton University September 27 2016 Archived from the original on June 28 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 a b c d e Campus Life A Princeton Profile Princeton University Archived from the original on May 15 2021 Retrieved June 21 2021 a b c About Residential Colleges Housing amp Real Estate Services Princeton University Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Housing amp Dining Princeton University Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 17 2021 a b History of the Colleges Office of the Dean of the College Princeton University Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 17 2021 Oberdorfer 1995 p 236 238 Oberdorfer 1995 p 239 Hu Winnie July 29 2007 More Than a Meal Plan The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 17 2021 Butler College Housing amp Real Estate Services Princeton University Archived from the original on October 1 2020 Retrieved March 29 2020 Quinones Eric September 20 2007 Residential life remodeled Princeton moves into new four year college system Princeton University Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 17 2021 Agarwal Anika April 15 2021 Lydia and Bill Addy 82 gift will name residence hall in Perelman College The Daily Princetonian Retrieved July 17 2021 a b Graduate College History The Graduate School Princeton University Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 17 2021 Leitch 1978 p 223 Leitch 1978 p 502 503 TAFT PAYS TRIBUTE TO PRINCETON S SAGE Glowing Appreciation of Grover Cleveland Marks Speech at Dedication Exercises The New York Times October 23 1913 ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 17 2021 Leitch 1978 p 131 Tanner Pat July 11 2016 Towering Sounds with the Carillon Bells of Princeton New Jersey Monthly Retrieved July 17 2021 New Graduate College Housing amp Real Estate Services Princeton University Archived from the original on August 6 2020 Retrieved March 29 2020 General Information Housing and Real Estate Princeton University Archived from the original on June 29 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 a b c Dining Options Undergraduate Admission Princeton University September 16 2016 Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Salas Mia April 16 2020 Your Complete Guide to the Residential College Dining Halls Undergraduate Admission Princeton University Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 a b Eating Clubs Undergraduate Admission Princeton University September 16 2016 Archived from the original on March 16 2021 Retrieved March 14 2020 a b c What s an Eating Club The Eating Clubs of Princeton University Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Miller Jennifer December 12 2019 Takeover at Princeton s Quadrangle The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved June 22 2021 Junior Senior Dining Options Princeton University Admission December 15 2016 Archived from the original on July 18 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Fees amp Financial Aid The Eating Clubs of Princeton University Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Explore the Eating Clubs Princeton Eating Clubs Archived from the original on April 13 2021 Retrieved March 29 2020 a b Student Government Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students Princeton University Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 About The American Whig Cliosophic Society Princeton University January 28 2016 Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Subsidiaries The American Whig Cliosophic Society Princeton University January 27 2016 Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 International Relations Council The American Whig Cliosophic Society January 27 2016 Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 The Daily Princetonian Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 1 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 About The Nassau Literary Review Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 About Princeton Tory Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 About The Princeton Diplomat October 28 2019 Archived from the original on July 17 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Princeton Political Review Princeton Political Review Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 About Us The Princeton Progressive Archived from the original on July 15 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 a b Leitch 1978 p 294 About Us Performing Arts Council Princeton University March 20 2016 Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 a b Triangle Club Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 1 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 The Princeton Triangle Club The Princeton Triangle Club Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 a b Singing Groups Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 2 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Princeton University Band Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 2 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 a b The Princeton University Orchestra Since 1896 Princeton University Orchestra Princeton University Archived from the original on July 18 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 Who We Are Princeton Symphony Orchestra Princeton University Archived from the original on July 18 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 Richardson Auditorium Princeton Symphony Orchestra Princeton University Archived from the original on July 18 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 a b Aronson Emily Luk Matilda June 23 2011 A tradition of voice A cappella at Princeton Princeton University Princeton University Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 Religious Life Princeton University Archived from the original on July 16 2021 Retrieved July 16 2021 Traditions Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 1 2021 Retrieved September 7 2020 Pryor Maddy November 19 2018 Bonfire celebrates Princeton football s wins over Harvard Yale and perfect season Princeton University Archived from the original on April 6 2021 Retrieved June 19 2021 Reunions History Princeton Reunions Princeton University Archived from the original on May 5 2021 Retrieved September 7 2020 Cheers Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on May 6 2021 Retrieved September 7 2020 Spano Susan October 13 1996 In Princeton a Brief Ivy Interlude The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved June 22 2021 Fearing dire consequences like the flu during finals undergraduates never walk out of FitzRandolph Gate on Nassau Street at the north side of campus separating gown from town Passage is reserved for graduating seniors for whom it is a rite symbolizing entrance into the real world O Toole Christine H May 14 2008 Princeton Review For Those Majoring in Sightseeing Admission Is a Two Wheel Breeze The Washington Post Retrieved July 17 2021 We leave campus through the FitzRandolph Gates Superstition keeps undergraduates from walking through to Nassau Street until graduation but since that s not an issue for us we cycle carefully across Nassau Street a b Cheng Jonathan April 22 2004 Film Legend Bothered by Use of Name in Stunt at Princeton The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved June 22 2021 Reunions Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on January 21 2021 Retrieved July 15 2021 The P rade Princetoniana Princeton University Archived from the original on June 1 2021 Retrieved June 22 2021 Princeton Decrees an End to a Freshman Tradition The New York Times September 15 1984 ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved July 8 2021 cite, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.