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Robert Zoellick

Robert Bruce Zoellick (; German: ; born July 25, 1953) is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012. He was previously a managing director of Goldman Sachs, United States Deputy Secretary of State (resigning on July 7, 2006) and U.S. Trade Representative, from February 7, 2001 until February 22, 2005. Zoellick has been a senior fellow at Harvard's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs since ending his term with the World Bank. He is currently a Senior Counselor at Brunswick Group.

Robert Zoellick
11th President of the World Bank Group
In office
July 1, 2007 – July 1, 2012
Preceded byPaul Wolfowitz
Succeeded byJim Yong Kim
United States Deputy Secretary of State
In office
February 23, 2005 – June 19, 2006
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byRichard Armitage
Succeeded byJohn Negroponte
13th United States Trade Representative
In office
February 7, 2001 – February 22, 2005
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byCharlene Barshefsky
Succeeded byRob Portman
White House Deputy Chief of Staff
In office
August 23, 1992 – January 20, 1993
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded byHenson Moore
Succeeded byMark Gearan
Undersecretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs
In office
May 20, 1991 – August 23, 1992
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded byDick McCormack
Succeeded byJoan Spero
Counselor of the United States Department of State
In office
March 2, 1989 – August 23, 1992
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded byMax Kampelman
Succeeded byTim Wirth
Personal details
Born
Robert Bruce Zoellick
(1953-07-25)July 25, 1953 (age 68)
Naperville, Illinois, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Sherry Zoellick
EducationSwarthmore College (BA)
Harvard University (JD, MPP)

Contents

Robert Bruce Zoellick was born in Naperville, Illinois, the son of Gladys (Lenz) and William T. Zoellick. His ancestors were German and he was raised Lutheran. He graduated in 1971 from Naperville Central High School, graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1975 from Swarthmore College as an Honors history major and received his J.D. from Harvard Law School magna cum laude and a Master of Public Policy degree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government in 1981.

Judicial clerkship (1982–1983)

Upon graduation from Harvard Law School, Zoellick served as a law clerk for Judge Patricia Wald on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

Government service (1985–1992)

Zoellick served in various positions at the Department of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988. He held positions including Counselor to Secretary James Baker, Executive Secretary of the Department, and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions Policy.

During George H. W. Bush's presidency, Zoellick served with Baker, by then Secretary of State, as Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs, as well as Counselor to the Department (Under Secretary rank). Zoellick served as Bush's personal representative or "sherpa" for the G7 Economic Summits in 1991 and 1992. He led the US Delegation to the Two Plus Four talks on German reunification. For his achievements in this role, the Federal Republic of Germany awarded him in 1992 the Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit.

James A. Baker's book "The Politics of Diplomacy" notes that Zoellick was one of Secretary Baker's "inner circle"..."combin(ing) Midwest common sense with policy sophistication." He was a "superb manager, policy analyst, and writer," Baker's "second brain" and "gatekeeper" and his "right hand man on NAFTA", the North American Free Trade Agreement. </ref The Politics of Diplomacy, James A. Baker III> In August 1992, Zoellick was appointed White House Deputy Chief of Staff and Assistant to the President.

Business, academia, and politics (1993–2001)

After leaving government service, Zoellick served from 1993 to 1997 as an Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Fannie Mae. Afterwards, Zoellick was John M. Olin Professor of National Security at the U.S. Naval Academy (1997–98); Research Scholar at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F. Kennedy School of Government; and Senior International Advisor to Goldman Sachs.

From 1996 to 1999, he served as director of the Aspen Strategy Group. He served as an elected member of the board of the Council on Foreign Relations.

From fall 1998 to May 1999, Zoellick headed the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). He resigned when founder David Abshire chose not to retire.

In the 2000 presidential election campaign, Zoellick served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of a group, led by Condoleezza Rice, which she termed The Vulcans, after her home town of Birmingham, Alabama. James Baker designated him as his second-in-command—"a sort of chief operating officer or chief of staff"—in the 36-day battle over recounting the vote in Florida.

U.S. Trade Representative (2001–2005)

Zoellick was named U.S. Trade Representative in Bush's first term; he was a member of the Executive Office, with cabinet rank. According to the U.S. Trade Representative website, Zoellick completed negotiations to bring China and Taiwan into the World Trade Organization (WTO); developed a strategy to launch new global trade negotiations at the WTO meeting in Doha, Qatar; shepherded Congressional action on the Jordan Free Trade Agreement and the Vietnam Trade Agreement; and worked with Congress to pass the Trade Act of 2002, which included new Trade Promotion Authority. "Zoellick is indisputably one of the most successful members of the first Bush cabinet." </ref National Journal 12/4/04> He espoused "competitive liberalization"...and "trade openings at the bilateral, regional, and multilateral levels." At USTR, Zoellick also finalized "free trade deals with Australia, Bahrain, Chile, Morocco, Singapore, and five Central American economies and launched others."</ref>

Some groups claimed he promoted the Central American Free Trade Agreement over the objections of labor, environmental, and human rights groups.

Zoellick and Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, 2005

Zoellick played a key role in the U.S.-WTO dispute against the European Union over genetically modified foods. The move sought to require that the European Union comply with international obligations to use science-based methods in continuing its moratorium on the approval of new genetically modified crops within the E.U.

Deputy Secretary of State (2005–2006)

Zoellick with then Premier of South Australia Mike Rann in November 2005
Zoellick (right) with Jan Pronk, the United Nations' special representative to Sudan.

On January 7, 2005, Bush nominated Zoellick to be Deputy Secretary of State. Zoellick assumed the office on February 22, 2005. Zoellick agreed to serve as Deputy Secretary of State for not less than one year.

He was seen as a major architect of the Bush administration's policies regarding China. In an important speech September 21, 2005, Zoellick challenged China "to become a 'responsible stakeholder' in the international system, contributing more actively than in the past to help shore up the stability of the international system from which it ha[d] benefited so greatly." In his "thoughtful and influential speech...Zoellick correctly argued that China had benefited greatly from the security and prosperity created by a stable, rule-based international economic and political order. But China had contributed a disproportionally small amount to maintain that order. Zoellick recognized that one of the great challenges facing diplomats in the United States, Europe, and Japan was to persuade China to do more to contribute to the global commons."

In addition, Zoellick chartered a new direction in the Darfur peace process. He made four trips to Sudan during his time as Deputy Secretary. He supported expanding a United Nations force in the Darfur region to replace African Union soldiers. He was involved in negotiating a peace accord between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army, signed in Abuja, Nigeria, in May 2006. Zoellick was seen by many as the administration's strongest voice on Darfur. His resignation catalyzed groups, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, to praise his record on human rights issues.

President of the World Bank (2007–2012)

On 30 May 2007, President George W. Bush nominated Zoellick to replace Paul Wolfowitz as President of the World Bank.

On 25 June 2007, Zoellick was approved by the World Bank's executive board.

On 1 July 2007, Zoellick officially took office as President of the World Bank.

In a major speech at the National Press Club in Washington on October 10, 2007, Zoellick formulated what he described as "six strategic themes in support of the goal of an inclusive and sustainable globalization" which he proposed should guide the future work of the World Bank:

First, the World Bank Group faces the challenge of helping to overcome poverty and spur sustainable growth in the poorest countries, especially in Africa...

Second, we need to address the special problems of states coming out of conflict or seeking to avoid the breakdown of the state...

Third, the World Bank Group needs a more differentiated business model for the middle income countries...

Fourth, the World Bank Group will need to play a more active role in fostering regional and global public goods that transcend national boundaries and benefit multiple countries and citizens...

Fifth, one of the most notable challenges of our time is how to support those seeking to advance development and opportunities in the Arab World...

Finally, while the World Bank Group has some of the attributes of a financial and development business, its calling is much broader. It is a unique and special institution of knowledge and learning. It collects and supplies valuable data. Yet this is not a university – rather it is a "brain trust" of applied experience that will help us to address the five other strategic themes.

During Zoellick's time at the World Bank, the institution's capital stock was expanded and lending volumes increased to help member countries deal with the global financial and economic crisis; assistance was stepped up to deal with the famine in the Horn of Africa; a major increase in resources was achieved for the institution's soft loan facility, the International Development Association (IDA), which lends to the poorest countries; and a reform was carried out to the World Bank's shareholding, Executive Board and voting structure, to increase the influence of developing and emerging economies in the World Bank's governance.

In "The Quiet Revolutionary who saved the World Bank", Financial Times commentator Sebastian Mallaby wrote that during his term Zoellick had "driven remarkable change... adapt[ing] nimbly to the new world that globalisation has wreaked." Zoellick made advances in the use of open data, promoted senior officials from developing countries, addressed climate change, expanded aid during the financial crisis and obtained a capital increase, with developing countries providing more than half.

Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School (2012–present)

After leaving the World Bank, Zoellick took up the position as a senior fellow at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs on July 1, 2012. From September 2013 through 2016, he served as Chairman of International Advisors to Goldman Sachs.[better source needed]

Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign

During the 2012 United States presidential election, Zoellick was appointed to lead the national security portion of Republican candidate Mitt Romney's transition team should he be elected President of the United States. Zoellick was considered a "heavyweight with impressive government experience" who was likely to be part of any Romney administration "economic brain trust."

Anonymous sources supposedly affiliated with Romney's transition project claimed he hoped to be appointed as Romney's United States Secretary of State. This speculation was also fueled by Politico in August 2012, when it was reported that 'in diplomatic circles it is seen as very likely' that Zoellick "could get the top job" as Secretary of State in a potential Romney cabinet. However, other anonymous "former Romney advisers" stated to Foreign Policy that foreign policy transition team members would not necessarily receive certain jobs in Romney's potential administration. This speculation about Zoellick's possible role in a Romney administration was moot when Romney lost the election to incumbent Barack Obama.

Board memberships and honors

Zoellick has served as a board member for a number of private and public organizations, including Alliance Capital, Said Holdings, Rolls Royce, the Precursor Group, and Laureate International Universities. Since 2013, he has been a member of the board of directors of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, and since 2018 of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Jack Dorsey announced on July 19, 2018 that Zoellick would be a member of Twitter's Board of Directors. He is an independent director of Robinhood and a trustee of the Wildlife Conservation Society He is also a member of Washington D.C. based think tank, The Inter-American Dialogue. He chairs the Global Tiger Initiative and is a member of the Global Leadership Council of Mercy Corps, a global humanitarian agency.He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Since 2 August 2013, Zoellick has been a board member of Temasek Holdings - Singapore's Sovereign Wealth Fund.

Previously, he was a member of the advisory board of AXA, of Viventures, a venture fund, and a director of the Aspen Institute's Strategy Group.He has also served on the boards of the German Marshall Fund and the European Institute and on the World Wildlife Fund Advisory Council. He was a member of Secretary William Cohen's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee.

He is a recipient of the Distinguished Service Award, the Department of State's highest honor, the Alexander Hamilton Award of the Department of the Treasury, and the Medal for Distinguished Public Service of the Department of Defense.

In 1992, he received the Knight Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany for his eminent achievements in the course of German reunification. In 2002, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana. The Mexican and Chilean governments awarded him their highest honors for non-citizens, the Aztec Eagle and the Order of Merit, for recognition of his work on free trade, development, and the environment.

In 2016, he received the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Excellence in Diplomacy Award.

In 2017, he was a recipient of the Economic Club of Minnesota's Bill Frenzel Champion of Free Trade Award.

Served as non-executive chairman of the board of AllianceBernstein, May 2017-May 2019.

Robert Zoellick with Shinzo Abe in January 2006

In March 2016, Zoellick signed an "open letter" in which GOP national security leaders outlined their reasons not to support a ticket headed by Donald Trump. In August, Zoellick signed a letter from fifty GOP national security officials calling Trump a national security risk. Zoellick was one of three Cabinet-level Republican officials to oppose Trump's candidacy. In an interview with Deutsche Welle(DW)Nov.1, 2016, Zoellick said "My belief differences with Trump were not only placed on policy -- his protectionism, his infatuation with authoritarian leaders and Vladimir Putin. But also that I think he is a narcissistic, ego-driven person and that he would be dangerous. I have had the good fortune to serve a number of different presidents and I know the importance of that job and I don't want him in the Oval Office."

Zoellick has written extensively on foreign policy and international economics. He is a proponent of free trade. In a September 2017 article, he urged Congress to assert its constitutional powers over trade before Trump's policies "unravel vital ties across the Asia-Pacific region, hurt an ally facing a security crisis, destroy a North American partnership ... and subvert confidence in the U.S. around the world." He contributes opinion pieces to the Financial Times, Washington Post and the Wall Street Journal. Zoellick is the author of America in the World.

In Australia's New Left Review, Gavan McCormack claimed that USTR Zoellick intervened during a 2004 privatization issue in Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's re-election campaign. McCormack wrote, "The office of the U.S. Trade Representative has played an active part in drafting the Japan Post privatization law. An October 2004 letter from Robert Zoellick to Japan's Finance Minister Takenaka Heizo, tabled in the Diet on August 2, 2005, included a handwritten note from Zoellick commending Takenaka. Challenged to explain this apparent U.S. government intervention in a domestic matter, Koizumi merely expressed his satisfaction that Takenaka had been befriended by such an important figure… It is hard to overestimate the scale of the opportunity offered to U.S. and global finance capital by the privatization of the Postal Savings System."

In a January 2000 Foreign Affairs essay entitled "Campaign 2000: A Republican Foreign Policy," he noted five Republican principles (respect for power, building and sustaining coalitions and alliances, recognizing common interests with international agreements and institutions, embracing new technologies for global politics and security, and the continuing presence of bad actors. "[T]here is still evil in the world—people who hate America and the ideas for which it stands. Today, we face enemies who are hard at work to develop nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, along with the missiles to deliver them. The United States must remain vigilant and have the strength to defeat its enemies. People driven by enmity or by a need to dominate will not respond to reason or goodwill. They will manipulate civilized rules for uncivilized ends." Much of the essay stresses the links between power and economics "The United States needs a strategic economic-negotiating agenda that combines regional agreements with the development of global rules for an open economy." The same essay praises the idealism" of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.

In the lead-up to the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit and in the immediate wake of the U.S. elections and subsequent Fed QE2 monetary-policy move, Zoellick published a suggestion for increased awareness of the function of gold in international currency markets. This was misinterpreted by many economists as a call for the return of some form of gold standard in a post-Bretton Woods II world. Zoellick's response was to point out the misinterpretation: he did not advocate a return to the gold standard, but a new role for gold in currency markets as an alternative monetary asset, which he termed "reference point gold".

Zoellick signed the January 26, 1998 letter to President Bill Clinton from Project for a New American Century (PNAC) that noted the "inadequacy of relying on Saddam Hussein's cooperation" in refraining from the use of weapons of mass destruction and urged a strategy aimed at the removal of Saddam Hussein's regime from power in Iraq. The letter pressed President Clinton to employ a "full complement of diplomatic, political and military efforts."

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Robert Zoellick
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Robert Zoellick Language Watch Edit Robert Bruce Zoellick ˈ z ɛ l ɪ k German ˈtsœlɪk born July 25 1953 is an American public official and lawyer who was the eleventh president of the World Bank a position he held from July 1 2007 to June 30 2012 1 He was previously a managing director of Goldman Sachs 2 United States Deputy Secretary of State resigning on July 7 2006 and U S Trade Representative from February 7 2001 until February 22 2005 Zoellick has been a senior fellow at Harvard s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs since ending his term with the World Bank 3 He is currently a Senior Counselor at Brunswick Group 4 Robert Zoellick11th President of the World Bank GroupIn office July 1 2007 July 1 2012Preceded byPaul WolfowitzSucceeded byJim Yong KimUnited States Deputy Secretary of StateIn office February 23 2005 June 19 2006PresidentGeorge W BushPreceded byRichard ArmitageSucceeded byJohn Negroponte13th United States Trade RepresentativeIn office February 7 2001 February 22 2005PresidentGeorge W BushPreceded byCharlene BarshefskySucceeded byRob PortmanWhite House Deputy Chief of StaffIn office August 23 1992 January 20 1993PresidentGeorge H W BushPreceded byHenson MooreSucceeded byMark GearanUndersecretary of State for Economic and Agricultural AffairsIn office May 20 1991 August 23 1992PresidentGeorge H W BushPreceded byDick McCormackSucceeded byJoan SperoCounselor of the United States Department of StateIn office March 2 1989 August 23 1992PresidentGeorge H W BushPreceded byMax KampelmanSucceeded byTim WirthPersonal detailsBornRobert Bruce Zoellick 1953 07 25 July 25 1953 age 68 Naperville Illinois U S Political partyRepublicanSpouse s Sherry ZoellickEducationSwarthmore College BA Harvard University JD MPP Contents 1 Background 2 Career 2 1 Judicial clerkship 1982 1983 2 2 Government service 1985 1992 2 3 U S Trade Representative 2001 2005 2 4 Deputy Secretary of State 2005 2006 2 5 President of the World Bank 2007 2012 2 6 Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School 2012 present 2 7 Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign 2 8 Board memberships and honors 3 Views 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBackground EditRobert Bruce Zoellick was born in Naperville Illinois the son of Gladys Lenz and William T Zoellick 5 6 His ancestors were German 7 8 and he was raised Lutheran 9 He graduated in 1971 from Naperville Central High School graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1975 from Swarthmore College as an Honors history major 10 and received his J D from Harvard Law School magna cum laude and a Master of Public Policy degree from Harvard University s John F Kennedy School of Government in 1981 11 12 13 Career EditJudicial clerkship 1982 1983 Edit Upon graduation from Harvard Law School Zoellick served as a law clerk for Judge Patricia Wald on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit Government service 1985 1992 Edit Zoellick served in various positions at the Department of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 He held positions including Counselor to Secretary James Baker Executive Secretary of the Department and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions Policy During George H W Bush s presidency Zoellick served with Baker by then Secretary of State as Under Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs as well as Counselor to the Department Under Secretary rank Zoellick served as Bush s personal representative or sherpa for the G7 Economic Summits in 1991 and 1992 He led the US Delegation to the Two Plus Four talks on German reunification 14 For his achievements in this role the Federal Republic of Germany awarded him in 1992 the Knight Commander s Cross of the Order of Merit James A Baker s book The Politics of Diplomacy notes that Zoellick was one of Secretary Baker s inner circle combin ing Midwest common sense with policy sophistication He was a superb manager policy analyst and writer Baker s second brain and gatekeeper and his right hand man on NAFTA the North American Free Trade Agreement lt ref The Politics of Diplomacy James A Baker III gt In August 1992 Zoellick was appointed White House Deputy Chief of Staff and Assistant to the President 11 Business academia and politics 1993 2001 After leaving government service Zoellick served from 1993 to 1997 as an Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Fannie Mae Afterwards Zoellick was John M Olin Professor of National Security at the U S Naval Academy 1997 98 Research Scholar at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F Kennedy School of Government and Senior International Advisor to Goldman Sachs 15 From 1996 to 1999 he served as director of the Aspen Strategy Group 16 He served as an elected member of the board of the Council on Foreign Relations 17 From fall 1998 to May 1999 Zoellick headed the Center for Strategic and International Studies CSIS 18 He resigned when founder David Abshire chose not to retire In the 2000 presidential election campaign Zoellick served as a foreign policy advisor to George W Bush as part of a group led by Condoleezza Rice which she termed The Vulcans after her home town of Birmingham Alabama 19 James Baker designated him as his second in command a sort of chief operating officer or chief of staff in the 36 day battle over recounting the vote in Florida 20 U S Trade Representative 2001 2005 Edit Zoellick was named U S Trade Representative in Bush s first term he was a member of the Executive Office with cabinet rank According to the U S Trade Representative website Zoellick completed negotiations to bring China and Taiwan into the World Trade Organization WTO developed a strategy to launch new global trade negotiations at the WTO meeting in Doha Qatar shepherded Congressional action on the Jordan Free Trade Agreement and the Vietnam Trade Agreement and worked with Congress to pass the Trade Act of 2002 which included new Trade Promotion Authority 12 Zoellick is indisputably one of the most successful members of the first Bush cabinet lt ref National Journal 12 4 04 gt He espoused competitive liberalization and trade openings at the bilateral regional and multilateral levels At USTR Zoellick also finalized free trade deals with Australia Bahrain Chile Morocco Singapore and five Central American economies and launched others lt ref gt Some groups claimed he promoted the Central American Free Trade Agreement over the objections of labor environmental and human rights groups 21 Zoellick and Sudanese President Omar al Bashir 2005 Zoellick played a key role in the U S WTO dispute against the European Union over genetically modified foods The move sought to require that the European Union comply with international obligations to use science based methods in continuing its moratorium on the approval of new genetically modified crops within the E U 22 Deputy Secretary of State 2005 2006 Edit Zoellick with then Premier of South Australia Mike Rann in November 2005 Zoellick right with Jan Pronk the United Nations special representative to Sudan On January 7 2005 Bush nominated Zoellick to be Deputy Secretary of State 23 Zoellick assumed the office on February 22 2005 Zoellick agreed to serve as Deputy Secretary of State for not less than one year He was seen as a major architect of the Bush administration s policies regarding China In an important speech September 21 2005 Zoellick challenged China to become a responsible stakeholder in the international system contributing more actively than in the past to help shore up the stability of the international system from which it ha d benefited so greatly 24 In his thoughtful and influential speech Zoellick correctly argued that China had benefited greatly from the security and prosperity created by a stable rule based international economic and political order But China had contributed a disproportionally small amount to maintain that order Zoellick recognized that one of the great challenges facing diplomats in the United States Europe and Japan was to persuade China to do more to contribute to the global commons 24 In addition Zoellick chartered a new direction in the Darfur peace process 25 He made four trips to Sudan during his time as Deputy Secretary He supported expanding a United Nations force in the Darfur region to replace African Union soldiers He was involved in negotiating a peace accord between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Army signed in Abuja Nigeria in May 2006 Zoellick was seen by many as the administration s strongest voice on Darfur His resignation catalyzed groups such as the Genocide Intervention Network to praise his record on human rights issues 26 President of the World Bank 2007 2012 Edit On 30 May 2007 President George W Bush nominated Zoellick to replace Paul Wolfowitz as President of the World Bank 27 On 25 June 2007 Zoellick was approved by the World Bank s executive board 1 28 On 1 July 2007 Zoellick officially took office as President of the World Bank In a major speech at the National Press Club in Washington on October 10 2007 Zoellick formulated what he described as six strategic themes in support of the goal of an inclusive and sustainable globalization which he proposed should guide the future work of the World Bank First the World Bank Group faces the challenge of helping to overcome poverty and spur sustainable growth in the poorest countries especially in Africa Second we need to address the special problems of states coming out of conflict or seeking to avoid the breakdown of the state Third the World Bank Group needs a more differentiated business model for the middle income countries Fourth the World Bank Group will need to play a more active role in fostering regional and global public goods that transcend national boundaries and benefit multiple countries and citizens Fifth one of the most notable challenges of our time is how to support those seeking to advance development and opportunities in the Arab World Finally while the World Bank Group has some of the attributes of a financial and development business its calling is much broader It is a unique and special institution of knowledge and learning It collects and supplies valuable data Yet this is not a university rather it is a brain trust of applied experience that will help us to address the five other strategic themes 29 During Zoellick s time at the World Bank the institution s capital stock was expanded 30 and lending volumes increased to help member countries deal with the global financial and economic crisis 30 assistance was stepped up to deal with the famine in the Horn of Africa 31 a major increase in resources was achieved for the institution s soft loan facility the International Development Association IDA which lends to the poorest countries 32 and a reform was carried out to the World Bank s shareholding Executive Board and voting structure to increase the influence of developing and emerging economies in the World Bank s governance 33 In The Quiet Revolutionary who saved the World Bank Financial Times commentator Sebastian Mallaby wrote that during his term Zoellick had driven remarkable change adapt ing nimbly to the new world that globalisation has wreaked Zoellick made advances in the use of open data promoted senior officials from developing countries addressed climate change expanded aid during the financial crisis and obtained a capital increase with developing countries providing more than half 34 Senior Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School 2012 present Edit After leaving the World Bank Zoellick took up the position as a senior fellow at Harvard Kennedy School s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs on July 1 2012 35 From September 2013 through 2016 he served as Chairman of International Advisors to Goldman Sachs 36 better source needed Mitt Romney 2012 presidential campaign Edit During the 2012 United States presidential election Zoellick was appointed to lead the national security portion of Republican candidate Mitt Romney s transition team should he be elected President of the United States Zoellick was considered a heavyweight with impressive government experience who was likely to be part of any Romney administration economic brain trust 37 Anonymous sources supposedly affiliated with Romney s transition project 38 claimed he hoped to be appointed as Romney s United States Secretary of State This speculation was also fueled by Politico in August 2012 when it was reported that in diplomatic circles it is seen as very likely that Zoellick could get the top job as Secretary of State in a potential Romney cabinet 39 However other anonymous former Romney advisers stated to Foreign Policy that foreign policy transition team members would not necessarily receive certain jobs in Romney s potential administration 38 This speculation about Zoellick s possible role in a Romney administration was moot when Romney lost the election to incumbent Barack Obama 38 Board memberships and honors Edit Zoellick has served as a board member for a number of private and public organizations including Alliance Capital Said Holdings Rolls Royce the Precursor Group and Laureate International Universities Since 2013 he has been a member of the board of directors of the Peterson Institute for International Economics 40 and since 2018 of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 41 Jack Dorsey announced on July 19 2018 that Zoellick would be a member of Twitter s Board of Directors 42 He is an independent director of Robinhood 43 and a trustee of the Wildlife Conservation Society 44 He is also a member of Washington D C based think tank The Inter American Dialogue 45 He chairs the Global Tiger Initiative 46 and is a member of the Global Leadership Council of Mercy Corps a global humanitarian agency 47 He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations Since 2 August 2013 Zoellick has been a board member of Temasek Holdings Singapore s Sovereign Wealth Fund Previously he was a member of the advisory board of AXA of Viventures a venture fund and a director of the Aspen Institute s Strategy Group He has also served on the boards of the German Marshall Fund and the European Institute and on the World Wildlife Fund Advisory Council He was a member of Secretary William Cohen s Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee 48 He is a recipient of the Distinguished Service Award the Department of State s highest honor the Alexander Hamilton Award of the Department of the Treasury and the Medal for Distinguished Public Service of the Department of Defense In 1992 he received the Knight Commander s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany for his eminent achievements in the course of German reunification In 2002 he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Saint Joseph s College in Rensselaer Indiana The Mexican and Chilean governments awarded him their highest honors for non citizens the Aztec Eagle and the Order of Merit for recognition of his work on free trade development and the environment In 2016 he received the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Excellence in Diplomacy Award 49 In 2017 he was a recipient of the Economic Club of Minnesota s Bill Frenzel Champion of Free Trade Award 50 Served as non executive chairman of the board of AllianceBernstein May 2017 May 2019 51 Views Edit Robert Zoellick with Shinzo Abe in January 2006 In March 2016 Zoellick signed an open letter in which GOP national security leaders outlined their reasons not to support a ticket headed by Donald Trump 52 In August Zoellick signed a letter from fifty GOP national security officials calling Trump a national security risk 53 Zoellick was one of three Cabinet level Republican officials to oppose Trump s candidacy 54 In an interview with Deutsche Welle DW Nov 1 2016 Zoellick said My belief differences with Trump were not only placed on policy his protectionism his infatuation with authoritarian leaders and Vladimir Putin But also that I think he is a narcissistic ego driven person and that he would be dangerous I have had the good fortune to serve a number of different presidents and I know the importance of that job and I don t want him in the Oval Office 55 Zoellick has written extensively on foreign policy and international economics He is a proponent of free trade 56 57 In a September 2017 article he urged Congress to assert its constitutional powers over trade before Trump s policies unravel vital ties across the Asia Pacific region hurt an ally facing a security crisis destroy a North American partnership and subvert confidence in the U S around the world 58 He contributes opinion pieces to the Financial Times Washington Post and the Wall Street Journal Zoellick is the author of America in the World 59 In Australia s New Left Review Gavan McCormack claimed that USTR Zoellick intervened during a 2004 privatization issue in Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi s re election campaign McCormack wrote The office of the U S Trade Representative has played an active part in drafting the Japan Post privatization law An October 2004 letter from Robert Zoellick to Japan s Finance Minister Takenaka Heizo tabled in the Diet on August 2 2005 included a handwritten note from Zoellick commending Takenaka Challenged to explain this apparent U S government intervention in a domestic matter Koizumi merely expressed his satisfaction that Takenaka had been befriended by such an important figure It is hard to overestimate the scale of the opportunity offered to U S and global finance capital by the privatization of the Postal Savings System 60 In a January 2000 Foreign Affairs essay entitled Campaign 2000 A Republican Foreign Policy he noted five Republican principles respect for power building and sustaining coalitions and alliances recognizing common interests with international agreements and institutions embracing new technologies for global politics and security and the continuing presence of bad actors T here is still evil in the world people who hate America and the ideas for which it stands Today we face enemies who are hard at work to develop nuclear biological and chemical weapons along with the missiles to deliver them The United States must remain vigilant and have the strength to defeat its enemies People driven by enmity or by a need to dominate will not respond to reason or goodwill They will manipulate civilized rules for uncivilized ends 61 Much of the essay stresses the links between power and economics The United States needs a strategic economic negotiating agenda that combines regional agreements with the development of global rules for an open economy The same essay praises the idealism of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson 62 In the lead up to the 2010 G 20 Seoul summit and in the immediate wake of the U S elections and subsequent Fed QE2 monetary policy move Zoellick published a suggestion 63 for increased awareness of the function of gold in international currency markets This was misinterpreted by many economists as a call for the return of some form of gold standard in a post Bretton Woods II world 64 Zoellick s response was to point out the misinterpretation he did not advocate a return to the gold standard but a new role for gold in currency markets as an alternative monetary asset which he termed reference point gold 65 Zoellick signed the January 26 1998 letter 66 to President Bill Clinton from Project for a New American Century PNAC that noted the inadequacy of relying on Saddam Hussein s cooperation in refraining from the use of weapons of mass destruction and urged a strategy aimed at the removal of Saddam Hussein s regime from power in Iraq The letter pressed President Clinton to employ a full complement of diplomatic political and military efforts 67 See also EditDistinguished German American of the Year The Keynesian Resurgence of 2008 2009References Edit a b Press Release Regarding the Selection of Mr Robert B Zoellick as President of the World Bank World Bank Group June 25 2007 accessed June 26 2007 Reuters 2006 Goldman says Zoellick to be vice chairman intl Retrieved June 20 2006 Boston Globe June 28 2012 Robert Zoellick Brunswick Worldandnation Mom dishes on Zoellick Sptimes com 2007 05 31 Retrieved 2011 10 05 Gladys Lenz Zoellick 1923 2013 Find A Grave www findagrave com Distinguished German Americans 2011 Becker Elizabeth Edmund L Andrews 2003 02 08 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Performing a Free Trade Juggling Act Offstage The New York Times Retrieved 2010 01 23 St Clair Stacy 2001 01 12 Bush s trade post pick got start in Naperville Daily Herald Retrieved 2010 01 23 Whenever he is in Chicago on business he drives by his old school and Bethany Lutheran Church where his family worshipped Halcyon Swarthmore College 1975 pp 24 158 a b results gov Resources For The President s Team Archived 2004 08 26 at the Wayback Machine a b USTR gov Biography of Ambassador Robert B Zoellick Archived from the original on January 13 2005 Retrieved 2005 01 13 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link 30 September 2004 Swarthmore College Halcyon Yearbook Zelikow Philip 1995 Germany Unified and Europe Transformed Harvard University Press ROBERT B ZOELLICK USTDRC gov archived from the original on 2000 08 15 na permanent dead link Council on Foreign Relations Council on Foreign Relations Harwood John Zoellick Resigns From a Think Tank Amid Tension Over His Advice to Bush The Wall Street Journal Rice Condoleezza 2011 No Higher Honor Crown pp 4 5 Jeffrey Toobin Too Close to Call The Thirty Six Day Battle to Decide the 2000 Election New York Random House 2002 p 95 Nikolas Kozloff In Nicaragua a Chavez Wave Canadian Dimension permanent dead link EC Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products DS291 292 293 PDF World Trade Organization President Nominates Ambassador Zoellick as Deputy Secretary of State Archives gov 2005 01 07 a b Christensen Thomas 2015 The China Challenge W W Norton amp Company p 116 ISBN 978 0 393 08113 8 Times Online 2006 Zoellick quits State Department for Goldman Retrieved June 20 2006 Press release Genocide Intervention Network 2006 06 19 US nominates new World Bank chief BBC News May 30 2007 Retrieved May 22 2010 Zoellick Robert B www britannica com IPS Retrieved 2009 04 08 An Inclusive amp Sustainable Globalization Remarks by Robert B Zoellick at the National Press Club October 10 2007 Retrieved 2011 08 30 a b Development Committee Communique PDF April 25 2010 Retrieved 6 October 2011 Development Committee Communique PDF September 24 2011 Retrieved 6 October 2011 IDA16 Replenishment International Development Association IDA16 Replenishment PDF International Development Association Retrieved 6 October 2011 The quiet revolutionary who saved the World Bank Financial Times Subscription required 1 Harvard Kennedy School website Retrieved 2012 09 07 Robert B Zoellick to Serve Goldman Sachs as Chairman of International Advisors businesswire com Barnes Fred Summer 2012 Reading Romney s Mind The International Economy 18 21 56 a b c Rogin Josh 7 November 2012 The Romney national security transition team that might have been Foreign Policy Retrieved 17 April 2013 Who s on the inside track for a Romney Cabinet by MIKE ALLEN and JIM VANDEHEI Politico August 28 2012 Retrieved 2012 08 28 Peterson Institute for International Economics PIIE http www carnegieendowment org 2018 03 02robert b zoellick to join carnegie endowment for international peace board of trustees pub 75679 Jack Dorsey Tweet Twitter July 19 2018 Cite web url https robinhood com news 2021 6 1robinhood board of directors Cite web url https wcs org Inter American Dialogue Robert Zoellick www thedialogue org Retrieved 2017 04 13 Charter Members GTI Council Robert B Zoellick Mercy Corps ROBERT B ZOELLICK govinfo library unt edu Retrieved 2019 10 09 Walter and Leonore Annenberg Excellence in Diplomacy Award The American Academy of Diplomacy https ecomn org wp content uploads 2019 08 Annual Report 16 17 pdf Robert B Zoellick AB www alliancebernstein com Open Letter on Donald Trump 3 March 2016 Sanger David August 9 2016 50 from G O P Declare Trump a Security Risk The New York Times Zakaria Fareed June 16 2016 To the Republicans who have been silent on Trump your honor is at stake The Washington Post Ex World Bank chief believes Donald Trump is dangerous an ego driven narcissist DW 01 11 2016 DW COM Zoellick Robert September 19 2016 The Case for Trade and Why American Leaders Need to Make It Harvard Business Review Zoellick Robert August 8 2016 Trump Gets It Wrong Trade is a Winner for Americans The Wall Street Journal Zoellick Robert September 6 2017 Trump s Looming Trade Crack Up The Wall Street Journal Robert Zoellick Explains How The History Of US Diplomacy Can Shape Foreign Policy www wbur org McCormack Gavan September October 2005 Koizumi s coup New Left Review New Left Review II 35 Leonard Andrew 29 May 2007 Bush and the World Bank Bloody but unbowed Salon Salon Media Group Campaign 2000 A Republican Foreign Policy Foreign Affairs 79 1 71 Oliver Chris World Bank chief calls for new gold standard Marketwatch November 7 2010 Retrieved November 9 2010 Zoellick Robert The G20 must look beyond Bretton Woods II Financial Times November 7 2010 Retrieved November 9 2010 Zoellick Robert Zoellick urges G20 to heed gold price Financial Times November 10 2010 Retrieved November 10 2010 Letter to President Clinton on Iraq New American Century archived from the original on 2008 09 09 Iraq Clinton letter New American Century January 26 1998 Archived from the original on 2008 09 09 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Robert Zoellick World Bank biography State Department biography Zoellick in Zmag China and America Power and Responsibility An address by Zoellick to the Asia Society Annual Dinner in New York on February 25 2004 Robert Zoellick s list of federal campaign contributions Zoellick reports clippings and sources Profile of Zoellick in the Harvard Law Record Appearances on C SPAN Robert Zoellick on Charlie Rose Robert Zoellick at IMDb Robert Zoellick collected news and commentary The New York Times Works by or about Robert Zoellick in libraries WorldCat catalog Political officesPreceded by Max Kampelman Counselor of the United States Department of State 1989 1992 Succeeded by Tim WirthPreceded by Dick McCormack Undersecretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs 1991 1992 Succeeded by Joan SperoPreceded by Charlene Barshefsky United States Trade Representative 2001 2005 Succeeded by Rob PortmanPreceded by Richard Armitage United States Deputy Secretary of State 2005 2006 Succeeded by John NegroponteDiplomatic postsPreceded by Paul Wolfowitz President of the World Bank Group 2007 2012 Succeeded by Jim Yong KimRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Robert Zoellick amp oldid 1039867138, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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