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Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a Dutch-British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands, and incorporated in the United Kingdom as a public limited company. It is one of the oil and gas "supermajors" and, measured by 2020 revenues, the fifth-largest company in the world, the largest based in Europe, and the largest not based in either China or the United States. In the 2020 Forbes Global 2000, Shell was ranked as the 21st-largest public company in the world. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies; in that year its revenues were equivalent to 84% of the Dutch national $556 billion GDP. Since then, Shell has dropped to the 5th largest company on the Global 500, but is still the largest non state-owned energy corporation in the world and the second-largest non-Chinese corporation in the world, falling short only to Walmart.

Royal Dutch Shell plc
Shell world headquarters
in Haagse Hout, The Hague
TypePublic limited company
ISINGB00B03MLX29
IndustryEnergy: Oil and gas
Predecessors
  • Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.[a] (1890);
  • Shell Transport and Trading Co. of the United Kingdom (1897)
FoundedApril 1907; 114 years ago (1907-04) (original amalgamation)
20 July 2005; 16 years ago (2005-07-20) in Shell Centre, London (current entity)
FoundersMarcus & Samuel Samuel
(Shell Transport and Trading Co.)
Jean B.A. Kessler
Henri Deterding
Hugo Loudon
(Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.)
Headquarters
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products
Revenue US$180.5 billion (2020)
US$(22.9) billion (2020)
US$(21.5) billion (2020)
Total assets US$379.3 billion (2020)
Total equity US$158.5 billion (2020)
Number of employees
86,000 (2021)
Divisions
Subsidiaries
List
Websiteshell.com
Footnotes / references

  • a formerly known as "the Royal Dutch Company for the Exploitation of Petroleum Wells in the Dutch East Indies"

Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, transport, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation, and trading. It also has renewable energy activities, including biofuels, hydrogen and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has around 44,000 service stations worldwide. As of 31 December 2019, Shell had total proved reserves of 11.1 billion barrels (1.76×109 m3) of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its principal subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol.

Shell was formed in 1907 through the merger of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom. The combined company rapidly became the leading competitor of the American Standard Oil and by 1920 Shell was the largest producer of oil in the world. Shell first entered the chemicals industry in 1929. Shell was one of the "Seven Sisters" which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the mid-1970s. In 1964 Shell was a partner in the world's first commercial sea transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG). In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP. In recent decades gas has become an increasingly important part of Shell's business and Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the world's largest producer of LNG.

Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of £216 billion at the close of trading on 27 June 2019, by far the largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange. There are two types of shares: A (code RDSA) and B (code RDSB). Until its unification in 2005 the firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the British and Dutch companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. The Shell logo is known as the "pecten" after the sea shell Pecten maximus, on which its design is based; the current version of the logo was designed by Raymond Loewy in 1971.

As of February 2020, Shell's largest shareholder (A and B shares combined as a percent of the company) was the Netherlands Central Institute for Cashless Securities Transactions with 21.19%, ahead of Guaranty Nominees Limited in second with 18.03%, BlackRock Inc with 7.14%, and The Capital Group with 4.99%. According to the CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017, when taking into account its scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions (emissions caused by the public and other companies using its products), Shell was the ninth-largest corporate producer of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1988–2015. In 2018, Shell announced it hoped to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 or sooner.:2

Contents

Origins

Royal Dutch Petroleum dock in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia)
The oil well at Pangkalan Brandan, North Sumatra, is considered to be the origin of the Royal Dutch Shell.

The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in April 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies: the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company (Dutch: Koninklijke Nederlandse Petroleum Maatschappij) of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited of the United Kingdom. It was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Pangkalan Brandan, North Sumatra, and initially led by August Kessler, Hugo Loudon, and Henri Deterding. The "Shell" Transport and Trading Company (the quotation marks were part of the legal name) was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned an antique company in Houndsditch, London, which expanded in 1833 to import and sell seashells, after which the company "Shell" took its name.

For various reasons, the new firm operated as a dual-listed company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single-unit partnership for business purposes. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent stock ownership of the new group to Royal Dutch, and 40 percent to Shell. Both became holding companies for Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, containing the production and refining assets, and Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company, containing the transport and storage assets. National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production and manufacture. The British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products.

In 1912, Royal Dutch Shell purchased the Rothschilds' Russian oil assets in a stock deal. The Group's production portfolio then consisted of 53 percent from the East Indies, 29 percent from Russia, and 17 percent from Romania.

20th century

Shell benzine for Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, Antarctic Expedition 1915.
Shell tank truck from 1926 based on a Ford Model TT.
Advertising "L'Huile Aeroshell" from Francis Bernard (1932)
Vintage petrol pump (1952)

During the First World War, Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force. It was also the sole supplier of aviation fuel and supplied 80 percent of the British Army's TNT. It also volunteered all of its shipping to the British Admiralty.

The German invasion of Romania in 1916 saw 17% of the group's worldwide production destroyed.

In 1919, Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell-Mex Limited which marketed products under the "Shell" and "Eagle" brands in the United Kingdom. In 1929, Shell Chemicals was founded. By the end of the 1920s, Shell was the world's leading oil company, producing 11 percent of the world's crude oil supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage.

Shell Mex House was completed in 1931, and was the head office for Shell's marketing activity worldwide. In 1932, partly in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times, Shell-Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of British Petroleum to create Shell-Mex and BP, a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975. Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.

The 1930s saw Shell's Mexican assets seized by the local government. After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940, the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao. In 1945 Shell's Danish headquarters in Copenhagen, at the time being used by the Gestapo, was bombed by Royal Air Force Mosquitoes in Operation Carthage.

Around 1952, Shell was the first company to purchase and use a computer in the Netherlands. The computer, a Ferranti Mark 1*, was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amsterdam. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton.

21st century

In November 2004, following a period of turmoil caused by the revelation that Shell had been overstating its oil reserves, it was announced that the Shell Group would move to a single capital structure, creating a new parent company to be named Royal Dutch Shell plc, with its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, its headquarters and tax residency in The Hague, Netherlands and its registered office in London. The unification was completed on 20 July 2005 and the original owners delisted their companies from the respective exchanges. On 20 July 2005, the Shell Transport & Trading Company plc was delisted from the LSE, whereas, Royal Dutch Petroleum Company from NYSE on 18 November 2005. The shares of the company were issued at a 60/40 advantage for the shareholders of Royal Dutch in line with the original ownership of the Shell Group.

During the 2009 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by Shell (45%) and which included Petronas (30%) was awarded a production contract for the "Majnoon field" in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 12.6 billion barrels (2.00×109 m3) of oil. The "West Qurna 1 field" production contract was awarded to a consortium led by ExxonMobil (60%) and included Shell (15%).

In February 2010 Shell and Cosan formed a 50:50 joint-venture, Raízen, comprising all of Cosan's Brazilian ethanol, energy generation, fuel distribution and sugar activities, and all of Shell's Brazilian retail fuel and aviation distribution businesses. In March 2010, Shell announced the sale of some of its assets, including its liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) business, to meet the cost of a planned $28bn capital spending programme. Shell invited buyers to submit indicative bids, due by 22 March, with a plan to raise $2–3bn from the sale. In June 2010, Royal Dutch Shell agreed to acquire all the business of East Resources for a cash consideration of $4.7 billion. The transaction included East Resources' tight gas fields.

Over the course of 2013, the corporation began the sale of its US shale gas assets and canceled a US$20 billion gas project that was to be constructed in the US state of Louisiana. A new CEO Ben van Beurden was appointed in January 2014, prior to the announcement that the corporation's overall performance in 2013 was 38 percent lower than in 2012—the value of Shell's shares fell by 3 percent as a result. Following the sale of the majority of its Australian assets in February 2014, the corporation plans to sell a further US$15 billion worth of assets in the period leading up to 2015, with deals announced in Australia, Brazil and Italy.

Royal Dutch Shell announced on 8 April 2015 it had agreed to buy BG Group for £47 billion (US$70 billion), subject to shareholder and regulatory approval. The acquisition was completed in February 2016, resulting in Shell surpassing Chevron Corporation and becoming the world's second largest non-state oil company.

On 7 June 2016, Royal Dutch Shell announced that it would build an ethane cracker plant near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, after spending several years doing an environmental cleanup of the proposed plant's site.

In January 2017, Royal Dutch Shell agreed to sell £2.46bn worth of North Sea assets to oil exploration firm Chrysaor. In 2017, Shell sold its oil sands assets to Canadian Natural Resources in exchange of approximately 8.8% stake in that company. In May 2017, it was reported that Shell plans to sell its shares in Canadian Natural Resources fully exiting the oil sands business.

On 30 April 2020, Royal Dutch Shell announced that it would cut its dividend for the first time since the Second World War, due to the oil price collapse following the reduction in oil demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Shell stated that their net income adjusted for the cost of supply dropped to US$2.9 billion in three months to 31 March. This compared with US$5.3 billion in the same period the previous year. On 30 September 2020, the company said that it would cut up to 9,000 jobs as a result of the economic effects caused by the pandemic and announced a "broad restructuring". In December 2020, Royal Dutch Shell forecast another write-down of $3.5-4.5 billion for the fourth quarter due to lower oil prices, following $16.8 billion of impairment in the second quarter.

In February 2021, Royal Dutch Shell announced a loss of $21.7 billion in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, despite reducing its operating expenses by 12%, or $4.5 billion, according to a Morningstar analysis cited by Barron's.

Environmental record

The presence of companies like Shell has led to extreme environmental issues in the Niger Delta. Many pipelines in the Niger Delta owned by Shell are old and corroded. Shell has acknowledged its responsibility for keeping the pipelines new but has also denied responsibility for environmental causes. This has led to mass protests from the Niger Delta inhabitants, Amnesty International, and Friends of the Earth the Netherlands against Shell. It has also led to action plans to boycott Shell by environmental groups, and human rights groups. In January 2013, a Dutch court rejected four out of five allegations brought against the firm over oil pollution in the Niger Delta but found a subsidiary guilty of one case of pollution, ordering compensation to be paid to a Nigerian farmer.

On 15 January 1999, off the Argentinian town of Magdalena, Buenos Aires, the Shell tanker Estrella Pampeana collided with a German freighter, emptying its contents into the lake, polluting the environment, drinkable water, plants and animals. Over a decade after the spill, a referendum held in Magdalena determined the acceptance of a US$9.5 million compensatory payout from Shell. Shell denied responsibility for the spill, but an Argentine court ruled in 2002 that the corporation was responsible.

In 1989, Shell redesigned a $3-billion North Sea natural gas platform in the North Sea, raising its height one to two meters, to accommodate an anticipated sea level rise due to global warming. In 2013, Royal Dutch Shell PLC reportedCO
2
emissions of 81 million metric tonnes.

In 2020, the Northern Lights CCS project was announced, which is a joint project between Equinor, Shell and Total, operating in the European Union (Norway) and aiming to store liquidCO
2
beneath the seabed.

Shell is known to be processing oil from the Amazon region of South America, a large concern for environmentalists trying to protect the area. In the United States, the Martinez refinery (CA) and the Puget Sound Refinery (WA) carry Amazonian oil. In 2015, 14% of the Martinez refinery's gross, at 19,570 barrels per day, came from the Amazon.

In 2021, Shell was ranked as the 10th most environmentally responsible company out of 120 oil, gas, and mining companies involved in resource extraction north of the Arctic Circle in the Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index (AERI).

Climate change

In 2017, a public information film ("Climate of Concern") unseen for years resurfaced and showed Shell had clear grasp of global warming 26 years earlier but has not acted accordingly since, said critics.

Royal Dutch Shell is responsible for 1.67% of global industrial greenhouse gas emissions from 1988 to 2015. Shell wants to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 or sooner.

Management

On 4 August 2005, the board of directors announced the appointment of Jorma Ollila, chairman and CEO of Nokia at the time, to succeed Aad Jacobs as the company's non-executive chairman on 1 June 2006. Ollila is the first Shell chairman to be neither Dutch nor British. Other non-executive directors include Maarten van den Bergh, Wim Kok, Nina Henderson, Lord Kerr, Adelbert van Roxe, and Christine Morin-Postel.

Since 3 January 2014, Ben van Beurden is CEO of Shell. His Predecessor was Peter Voser who became CEO of Shell on 1 July 2009.

Following a career at the corporation, in locations such as Australia and Africa, Ann Pickard was appointed as the executive vice president of the Arctic at Royal Dutch Shell, a role that was publicized in an interview with McKinsey & Company in June 2014.

Board of directors

The Board of directors as of 16 May 2020 was as follows:

Name and logo

The name Shell is linked to The "Shell" Transport and Trading Company. In 1833, the founder's father, Marcus Samuel Sr., founded an import business to sell seashells to London collectors. When collecting seashell specimens in the Caspian Sea area in 1892, the younger Samuel realised there was potential in exporting lamp oil from the region and commissioned the world's first purpose-built oil tanker, the Murex (Latin for a type of snail shell), to enter this market; by 1907 the company had a fleet. Although for several decades the company had a refinery at Shell Haven on the Thames, there is no evidence of this having provided the name.

The Shell logo is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world. This logo is known as the "pecten" after the sea shell Pecten maximus (the giant scallop), on which its design is based. The yellow and red colours used are thought to relate to the colours of the flag of Spain, as Shell built early service stations in California, previously a Spanish colony. The current revision of the logo was designed by Raymond Loewy in 1971.

The slash was removed from the name "Royal Dutch/Shell" in 2005, concurrent with moves to merge the two legally separate companies (Royal Dutch and Shell) to the single legal entity which exists today.

Logo evolution

  • 1900–04

  • 1904–09

  • 1909–30

  • 1930–48

  • 1948–55

Business groupings

Oil platform

Shell is organised into four major business groupings:

  • Upstream – manages the upstream business. It searches for and recovers crude oil and natural gas and operates the upstream and midstream infrastructure necessary to deliver oil and gas to the market. Its activities are organised primarily within geographic units, although there are some activities that are managed across the business or provided through support units.
  • Integrated Gas and New Energies – manages to liquefy natural gas, converting gas to liquids and low-carbon opportunities.
  • Downstream – manages Shell's manufacturing, distribution, and marketing activities for oil products and chemicals. Manufacturing and supply include refinery, supply, and shipping of crude oil.
  • Projects and technology – manages the delivery of Shell's major projects, provides technical services and technology capability covering both upstream and downstream activities. It is also responsible for providing functional leadership across Shell in the areas of health, safety and environment, and contracting and procurement.

Oil and gas activities

Former Shell oil depot in Kowloon, Hong Kong, around the mid-1980s

Shell's primary business is the management of a vertically integrated oil company. The development of technical and commercial expertise in all stages of this vertical integration, from the initial search for oil (exploration) through its harvesting (production), transportation, refining and finally trading and marketing established the core competencies on which the company was founded. Similar competencies were required for natural gas, which has become one of the most important businesses in which Shell is involved, and which contributes a significant proportion of the company's profits. While the vertically integrated business model provided significant economies of scale and barriers to entry, each business now seeks to be a self-supporting unit without subsidies from other parts of the company.

Traditionally, Shell was a heavily decentralised business worldwide (especially in the downstream) with companies in over 100 countries, each of which operated with a high degree of independence. The upstream tended to be far more centralised with much of the technical and financial direction coming from the central offices in The Hague. The upstream oil sector is also commonly known as the "exploration and production" sector.

Downstream operations, which now also includes the chemicals business, generate the majority of Shell's profits worldwide and is known for its global network of more than 40,000 petrol stations and its various oil refineries. The downstream business, which in some countries also included oil refining, generally included a retail petrol station network, lubricants manufacture and marketing, industrial fuel and lubricants sales, and a host of other product/market sectors such as LPG and bitumen. The practice in Shell was that these businesses were essentially local and that they were best managed by local "operating companies" – often with middle and senior management reinforced by expatriates.

Sponsorships

Shell has a long history of motorsport sponsorship, most notably Scuderia Ferrari (1951–1964, 1966–1973 and 1996-present), BRM (1962–1966 and 1968–1972), Scuderia Toro Rosso (2007–2013 and 2016), McLaren (1967–1968 and 1984–1994), Lotus (1968–1971), Ducati Corse (since 1999), Team Penske (2011–present), Hyundai Motorsport (since 2005), AF Corse, Risi Competizione, BMW Motorsport (2015–2019 with also Pennzoil) and Dick Johnson Racing (1987-2004 and 2017–present).

Shell began drilling for oil in Africa during the 1950s. Shell operates in the upstream oil sector in Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Gabon (where the Rabi-Kounga oil field is found), Ghana, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia; and in the downstream sector in 16 other countries. In April 2010, Shell announced its intention to divest from downstream business of all African countries except South Africa and Egypt to Vitol and "Helios". In several countries such as Tunisia, protests and strikes broke out. Shell denied rumours of the sellout.

Nigeria

Shell began production in Nigeria in 1958. In Nigeria, Shell told US diplomats that it had placed staff in all the main ministries of the government. Shell continues however upstream activities/extracting crude oil in the oil-rich Niger Delta as well as downstream/commercial activities in South Africa. In June 2013, the company announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. In August 2014, the company disclosed it was in the process of finalizing the sale of its interests in four Nigerian oil fields. On 29 January 2021 a Dutch court ruled that Shell was responsible for multiple oil leaks in Nigeria.

A Shell gasoline station in Sabah, Malaysia

China

The company has upstream operations in unconventional oil and gas in China. Shell has a joint venture with PetroChina at the Changbei tight gas field in Shaanxi, which has produced natural gas since 2008. The company has also invested in exploring for shale oil in Sichuan. The other unconventional resource which Shell invested in in China was shale. The company was an early entrant in shale oil exploration in China but scaled down operations in 2014 due to difficulties with geology and population density. It has a joint venture to explore for oil shale in Jilin through a joint venture with Jilin Guangzheng Mineral Development Company Limited.

Hong Kong

Shell has been active in Hong Kong for a century, providing Retail, LPG, Commercial Fuel, Lubricants, Bitumen, Aviation, Marine and Chemicals services, and products. Shell also sponsored the first Hong Kong-built aircraft, Inspiration, for its around-the-world trip.

Malaysia

Shell discovered the first oil well in Malaysia in 1910, in Miri, Sarawak. Today the oil well is a state monument known as the Grand Old Lady. In 1914, following this discovery, Shell built Malaysia's first oil refinery and laid a submarine pipeline in Miri.

Brunei

Brunei Shell Petroleum is a joint venture between the Government of Brunei and Shell. The British Malayan Petroleum Company, owned by Royal Dutch Shell, first found commercial amounts of oil in 1929. It currently produces 350,000 barrels of oil and gas equivalent per day. BSP is the largest oil and gas company in Brunei, a sector which contributes 90% of government revenue.

Philippines

Shell oil depot (Poro Point, San Fernando, La Union, Philippines).

Royal Dutch Shell operates in the Philippines under its subsidiary, Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation. Its headquarters is in Makati and it has facilities in the Pandacan oil depot and other key locations.

In January 2010, the Bureau of Customs claimed 7.34 billion pesos worth of unpaid excise taxes against Pilipinas Shell for importing Catalytic cracked gasoline (CCG) and light catalytic cracked gasoline (LCCG) stating that those imports are bound for tariff charges.

In August 2016, Pilipinas Shell filed an application to sell US$629 million worth of primary and secondary shares to the investing public (registration statement) with the SEC. This was a prelude to filing its IPO listing application with the Philippine Stock Exchange. On 3 November 2016 the Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation was officially listed on the Philippine Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol SHLPH after they held its initial public offering on 19 to 25 October of the same year.

Singapore

Shell has a strong presence in Singapore, indeed Singapore is the main centre for Shell's petrochemical operations in the Asia Pacific region. Shell Eastern Petroleum limited (SEPL) have their refinery located in Singapore's Pulau Bukom island. They also operate as Shell Chemicals Seraya in Jurong Island. In November 2020, Shell announced that, as part of efforts to curtail pollution emissions, it will cut its oil-processing capacity in Singapore.

India

Shell India has inaugurated its new lubricants laboratory at its Technology Centre in Bangalore.

Ireland

Shell first started trading in Ireland in 1902. Shell E&P Ireland (SEPIL) (previously Enterprise Energy Ireland) is an Irish exploration and production subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. Its headquarters are on Leeson Street in Dublin. It was acquired in May 2002. Its main project is the Corrib gas project, a large gas field off the northwest coast, for which Shell has encountered controversy and protests in relation to the onshore pipeline and licence terms.

In 2005 Shell disposed of its entire retail and commercial fuels business in Ireland to Topaz Energy Group. This included depots, company-owned petrol stations and supply agreements stations throughout the island of Ireland. The retail outlets were re-branded as Topaz in 2008/9.

The Topaz fuel network was subsequently acquired in 2015 by Couchetard and these stations began re-branding to Circle K in 2018.

Nordic countries

On 27 August 2007, Royal Dutch Shell and Reitan Group, the owner of the 7-Eleven brand in Scandinavia, announced an agreement to re-brand some 269 service stations across Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark, subject to obtaining regulatory approvals under the different competition laws in each country. In April 2010 Shell announced that the corporation is in process of trying to find a potential buyer for all of its operations in Finland and is doing similar market research concerning Swedish operations. In October 2010 Shell's gas stations and the heavy vehicle fuel supply networks in Finland and Sweden, along with a refinery located in Gothenburg, Sweden were sold to St1, a Finnish energy company, more precisely to its major shareholding parent company Keele Oy.

United Kingdom

In the UK sector of the North Sea Shell employs around 4,500 staff in Scotland as well as an additional 1,000 service contractors: however in August 2014 it announced it was laying off 250 of them, mainly in Aberdeen.

Main articles: Shell Oil Company and Shell Canada
Shell Station by Gas Land Petroleum
Shell gasoline station sign in Phoenix, Arizona
Shell gasoline station in Canada

Through most of Shell's early history, the Shell Oil Company business in the United States was substantially independent. Its stock was traded on the NYSE, and the group's central office had little direct involvement in running the operation. However, in 1984, Royal Dutch Shell made a bid to purchase those shares of Shell Oil Company it did not own (around 30%) and, despite opposition from some minority shareholders which led to a court case, Shell completed the buyout for a sum of $5.7 billion.

On 20 May 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's final investment decision for the world's first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) facility was finalized following the discovery of the remote offshore Prelude field—located off Australia's northwestern coast and estimated to contain about 3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas equivalent reserves—in 2007. FLNG technology is based on liquefied natural gas (LNG) developments that were pioneered in the mid-20th century and facilitates the exploitation of untapped natural gas reserves located in remote areas, often too small to extract any other way.

The floating vessel to be used for the Prelude field, known as Prelude FLNG, is promoted as the longest floating structure in the world and will take in the equivalent of 110,000 barrels of oil per day in natural gas—at a location 200 km (125 miles) off the coast of Western Australia—and cool it into liquefied natural gas for transport and sale in Asia. The Prelude is expected to start producing LNG in 2017—analysts estimated the total cost of construction at more thanUS$12 billion.

Following the decision by the Royal Dutch Shell fuel corporation to close its Geelong, Australia refinery in April 2013, a third consecutive annual loss was recorded for Shell's Australian refining and fuel marketing assets. Revealed in June 2013, the writedown is worth A$203 million and was preceded by a A$638m writedown in 2012 and a A$407m writedown in 2011, after the closure of the Clyde refinery in Sydney, Australia.

In February 2014, Shell sold its Australian refinery and petrol stations for US$2.6 billion (A$2.9 billion) to Vitol, a Geneva-based company. Vitol stated that the Geelong refinery will remain open, as the company plans to expand further into the Australian market. At the time of the sale, Royal Dutch Shell was expected to continue investment into the Australian market, with projects that involve Chevron Corp., Woodside Petroleum and Prelude.

Shell sold 9.5% of its 23.1% stake in Woodside Petroleum in June 2014 and advised that it had reached an agreement for Woodside to buy back 9.5% of its shares at a later stage. Shell became a major shareholder in Woodside after a 2001 takeover attempt was blocked by then federal Treasurer Peter Costello and the corporation has been open about its intention to sell its stake in Woodside as part of its target to shed assets. At a general body meeting, held on 1 August 2014, 72 percent of shareholders voted to approve the buy-back, short of the 75 percent vote that was required for approval. A statement from Shell read: "Royal Dutch Shell acknowledges the outcome of Woodside Petroleum Limited's shareholders' negative vote on the selective buy-back proposal. Shell is reviewing its options in relation to its remaining 13.6 percent holding."

In the early 2000s Shell moved into alternative energy and there is now an embryonic "Renewables" business that has made investments in solar power, wind power, hydrogen, and forestry. The forestry business went the way of nuclear, coal, metals and electricity generation, and was disposed of in 2003. In 2006 Shell paid SolarWorld to take over its entire solar business and in 2008, the company withdrew from the London Array which when built was the world's largest offshore wind farm.

Shell also is involved in large-scale hydrogen projects. HydrogenForecast.com describes Shell's approach thus far as consisting of "baby steps", but with an underlying message of "extreme optimism". In 2015, the company announced plans to install hydrogen fuel pumps across Germany, planning on having 400 locations in operation by 2023.

Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Brazilian sugarcane producer Cosan which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol. In 2015, the company partnered with Brazilian start-up company Insolar to install solar panels in Rio de Janeiro to deliver electricity to the Santa Marta neighbourhood.

Shell is the operator and major shareholder of The Shell Canada Quest Energy project, based within the Athabasca Oil Sands Project, located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. It holds a 60% share, alongside Chevron Canada Limited, which holds 20%, and Marathon Canadian Oil Sands Holding Limited, which holds the final 20%. Commercial operations launched in November 2015. It was the world's first commercial-scale oil and sand carbon capture storage (CCS) project. It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions in Canada by 1.08 million tonnes per year.

In December 2016, Shell won the auction for the 700 MW Borssele III & IV offshore wind farms at a price of 5.45 c/kWh, beating 6 other consortia. In June 2018, it was announced that the company and its co-investor Partners Group had secured $1.5bn for the project, which also involves Eneco, Van Oord, and Mitsubishi/DGE.

In October 2017 it bought Europe's biggest vehicle charging network, "NewMotion."

In November 2017, Shell's CEO Ben van Beurden announced Shell's plan to cut half of its carbon emissions by 2050, and 20 percent by 2035. In this regard, Shell promised to spend $2 billion annually on renewable energy sources. Shell began to develop its wind energy segment in 2001, the company now operates six wind farms in the United States and is part of a plan to build two offshore wind farms in the Netherlands.

In December 2017, the company announced plans to buy UK household energy and broadband provider First Utility. In March 2019 it rebranded to Shell Energy and announced that all electricity would be supplied from renewable sources.

In December 2018, the company announced that it had partnered with SkyNRG to begin supplying sustainable aviation fuel to airlines operating out of San Francisco Airport (SFO), including KLM, SAS, and Finnair. In the same month, the company announced plans to double its renewable energy budget to investment in low-carbon energy to $4 billion US each year, with an aim to spend up to $2 billion US on renewable energy by 2021.

In January 2018, the company acquired a 44% interest in Silicon Ranch, a solar energy company run by Matt Kisber, as part of its global New Energies project. The company took over from Partners Group, paying up to an estimated $217 million for the minority interest.

In February 2019, the company acquired German solar battery company Sonnen. It first invested in the company in May 2018 as part of its New Energies project.

On 26 January 2021, Shell said it would buy 100 per cent of Ubitricity, owner of the largest public charging network for electric vehicles in the UK, as the company expands its presence along the power supply chain.

Arctic

Following the purchase of an offshore lease in 2005, Shell initiated its US$4.5 billion Arctic drilling program in 2006, after the corporation purchased the "Kulluk" oil rig and leased the Noble Discoverer drillship. At inception, the project was led by Pete Slaiby, a Shell executive who had previously worked in the North Sea. However, after the purchase of a second offshore lease in 2008, Shell only commenced drilling work in 2012, due to the refurbishment of rigs, permit delays from the relevant authorities and lawsuits. The plans to drill in the Arctic led to protests from environmental groups, particularly Greenpeace; furthermore, analysts in the energy field, as well as related industries, also expressed skepticism due to perceptions that drilling in the region is "too dangerous because of harsh conditions and remote locations".

Further problems hampered the Arctic project after the commencement of drilling in 2012, as Shell dealt with a series of issues that involved air permits, Coast Guard certification of a marine vessel, and severe damage to essential oil-spill equipment. Additionally, difficult weather conditions resulted in the delay of drilling during mid-2012 and the already dire situation was exacerbated by the "Kulluk" incident at the end of the year. Royal Dutch Shell had invested nearly US$5 billion by this stage of the project.

As the Kulluk oil rig was being towed to the American state of Washington to be serviced in preparation for the 2013 drilling season, a winter storm on 27 December 2012 caused the towing crews, as well as the rescue service, to lose control of the situation. As of 1 January 2013, the Kulluk was grounded off the coast Sitkalidak Island, near the eastern end of Kodiak Island. Following the accident, a Fortune magazine contacted Larry McKinney, the executive director at the Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies at Texas A&M, and he explained that "A two-month delay in the Arctic is not a two-month delay ... A two-month delay could wipe out the entire drilling season."

It was unclear if Shell would recommence drilling in mid-2013, following the "Kulluk" incident, and, in February 2013, the corporation stated that it would "pause" its closely watched drilling project off the Alaskan coast in 2013, and will instead prepare for future exploration. In January 2014, the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic, with chief executive van Beurden explaining that the project is "under review" due to both market and internal issues.

A June 2014 interview with Pickard indicated that, following a forensic analysis of the problems encountered in 2012, Royal Dutch Shell will continue with the project and Pickard stated that she perceives the future of the corporation activity in the Arctic region as a long-term "marathon". Pickard stated that the forensic "look back" revealed "there was an on/off switch" and further explained:

In other words, don't spend the money unless you're sure you're going to have the legal environment to go forward. Don't spend the money unless you're sure you're going to have the permit. No, I can't tell you that I'm going to have that permit until June, but we need to plan like we're going to have that permit in June. And so probably the biggest lesson is to make sure we could smooth out the on/off switches wherever we could and take control of our own destiny.

Based upon the interview with Pickard, Shell is approaching the project as an investment that will reap energy resources with a lifespan of around 30 years.

Former Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam

Brent Spar platform

In the 1990s, protesters criticised the company's environmental record, particularly the possible pollution caused by the proposed disposal of the Brent Spar platform into the North Sea. Despite support from the UK government, Shell reversed the decision under public pressure but maintained that sinking the platform would have been environmentally better. Shell subsequently published an unequivocal commitment to sustainable development, supported by executive speeches reinforcing this commitment. Shell was subsequently criticised by the European Commission and five EU members after deciding to leave part of its decommissioned oil rigs standing in the North Sea. Shell argued that removing them would be too costly and risky. Germany said that the estimated 11,000 tonnes of raw oil and toxins remaining in the rigs would eventually seep into the sea, and called it a 'ticking timebomb'.

2004 overstatement of oil reserves

In 2004 Shell overstated its oil reserves, resulting in loss of confidence in the group, a £17 million fine by the Financial Services Authority and the departure of the chairman Philip Watts. A lawsuit resulted in the payment of $450 million to non-American shareholders in 2007.

As a result of the scandal, the corporate structure was simplified. Two classes of ordinary shares, A (code RDSA) and B (code RDSB), identical but for the tax treatment of dividends, were issued for the company.

Corporate communications

Shell Centre building in London, UK

Shell's advertising regarding its renewable energy business has been described as a greenwash by some environmental lobbies, leading to criticism from the British Advertising Standards Authority which ruled that Shell had misled the public in an advertisement when it claimed that a $10 billion oil sands project in Alberta, Canada was a "sustainable energy source".

Health and safety

A number of incidents over the years led to criticism of Shell's health and safety record, including repeated warnings by the UK Health and Safety Executive about the poor state of the company's North Sea platforms.

Human rights

In the beginning of 1996, several human rights groups brought cases to hold Shell accountable for alleged human rights violations in Nigeria, including summary execution, crimes against humanity, torture, inhumane treatment and arbitrary arrest and detention. In particular, Shell stood accused of collaborating in the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other leaders of the Ogoni tribe of southern Nigeria, who were hanged in 1995 by Nigeria's then military rulers. The lawsuits were brought against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson, the head of its Nigerian operation. In 2009, Shell agreed to pay $15.5m in a legal settlement. Shell has not accepted any liability over the allegations against it.

In 2009, Shell was the subject of an Amnesty International report into the deterioration of human rights as a consequence of Shell's activities in the Niger Delta. In particular, Amnesty criticised the continuation of gas flaring and Shell's slow response to oil spills. In 1998, on its first public report on community and environmental issues in Nigeria, Shell promised "to end the practice of gas flaring in ten years, while pledging to establish a youth training scheme in Ogoniland".

In 2010, a leaked cable revealed that Shell claims to have inserted staff into all the main ministries of the Nigerian government and know "everything that was being done in those ministries", according to Shell's top executive in Nigeria. The same executive also boasted that the Nigerian government had forgotten about the extent of Shell's infiltration. Documents released in 2009 (but not used in the court case) reveal that Shell regularly made payments to the Nigerian military in order to prevent protests.

Arctic project

According to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management report in 2015 the chances of a major spill in a deep-sea Arctic drilling is 75% before century's end.

Kodiak

In 2010 Greenpeace activists painted "No Arctic Drilling" with spilled BP oil on the side of a ship in the Gulf of Mexico that was en route to explore for Arctic oil for Shell. At the protest, Phil Radford of Greenpeace called for "President Obama [to] ban all offshore oil drilling and call for an end to the use of oil in our cars by 2030."

On 16 March 2012, 52 Greenpeace activists from five different countries boarded Fennica and Nordica, multipurpose icebreakers chartered to support Shell's drilling rigs near Alaska. Around the same time period, a reporter for Fortune magazine spoke with Edward Itta, an Inupiat leader and the former mayor of the North Slope Borough, who expressed that he was conflicted about Shell's plans in the Arctic, as he was concerned that an oil spill could destroy the Inupiat peoples hunting-and-fishing culture, but his borough also received major tax revenue from oil and gas production; additionally, further revenue from energy activity was considered crucial to the future of the living standard in Itta's community.

In July 2012, Greenpeace activists shut down 53 Shell petrol stations in Edinburgh and London in a protest against the company's plans to drill for oil in the Arctic. Greenpeace's "Save the Arctic" campaign aims to prevent oil drilling and industrial fishing in the Arctic by declaring the uninhabited area around the North Pole a global sanctuary.

A review was announced after the Kulluk oil rig ran aground near Kodiak Island in December 2012.

In response, Shell filed lawsuits to seek injunctions from possible protests, and Benjamin Jealous of the NAACP and Radford argued that the legal action was "trampling Americans' rights." According to Greenpeace, Shell lodged a request with Google to take down video footage of a Greenpeace protest action that occurred at the Shell-sponsored Formula One (F1) Belgian Grand Prix on 25 August 2013, in which "SaveTheArctic.org" banners appear at the winners' podium ceremony. In the video, the banners rise up automatically—activists controlled their appearance with the use of four radio car antennas—revealing the website URL, alongside an image that consists of half of a polar bear's head and half of the Shell logo.

Royal Dutch Shell then announced a "pause" in the timeline of the project in early 2013 and, in September 2015, the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic.

Polar Pioneer

A June 2014 interview with the corporation's new executive vice president of the Arctic indicated that Royal Dutch Shell will continue with its activity in the region.

In Seattle protests began in May 2015 in response to the news that the Port of Seattle made an agreement with Shell to berth rigs at the Port's Terminal 5 during the off-season of oil exploration in Alaskan waters. The arrival of Shell's new Arctic drilling vessel, Polar Pioneer (IMO number: 8754140), a semi-submersible offshore drilling rig, was greeted by large numbers of environmental protesters paddling kayaks in Elliott Bay.

On 6 May 2015 it was reported that during a coast guard inspection of Polar Pioneer, a piece of anti-pollution gear failed, resulting in fines and delay of the operation. Oil executives from Total and Eni interviewed by the New York Times, expressed scepticism about Shell's new ambitions for offshore drilling in the Arctic, and cited economic and environmental hurdles. ConocoPhillips and Equinor (formerly Statoil) suspended Arctic drilling earlier, after Shell's failed attempt in 2012.

Oil spills

  • Shell was responsible for around 21,000 gallons of oil spilled near Tracy, California, in May 2016 due to a pipeline crack.
  • Shell was responsible for an 88,200-gallon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in May 2016.
  • Two ruptures in a Shell Oil Co. pipeline in Altamont, California – one in September 2015 and another in May 2016 – had some questioning whether the Office of the State Fire Marshal, charged with overseeing the pipeline, was doing an adequate job.
  • On 29 January 2021, a Dutch court ordered Royal Dutch Shell Plc's Nigerian unit to compensate for oil spills in two villages over 13 years ago. Shell Nigeria is liable for damages from pipeline leaks in the villages of Oruma and Goi, the Hague Court of Appeals said in a ruling. Shell said that it should not be liable, as the spills were the result of sabotage.

Paradise Papers

On 5 November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Argentine Energy Minister Juan José Aranguren was revealed to have managed the offshore companies 'Shell Western Supply and Trading Limited' and 'Sol Antilles y Guianas Limited', both subsidiaries of Shell. One is the main bidder for the purchase of diesel oil by the government through the state owned CAMMESA (Compañía Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico).

Nigeria corruption scandals

Royal Dutch Shell and Italy's Eni will stand trial in Italy over allegations of corruption in the 2011 purchase of a big offshore oil field in Nigeria known as OPL 245. Shell and Eni reportedly paid $1.3 billion in bribes. According to Barnaby Pace of campaign group Global Witness, "This trial should be a wake-up call to the oil industry. Some of the most senior executives at two of the biggest companies in the world could face prison sentences for a deal that was struck under their watch."

In March 2018, Royal Dutch Shell has filed a criminal complaint against Peter Robinson, a former vice president for sub-Saharan Africa. Shell said the two cases were unrelated.

Oman 1954 War

Further information: Jebel Akhdar War

In 1937, Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), 23.75 percent owned by Royal Dutch Shell, signed an oil concession agreement with the Sultan of Muscat. In 1952, IPC offered financial support to raise an armed force that would assist the Sultan in occupying the interior region of Oman, an area that geologists believed to be rich in oil. This led to the 1954 outbreak of Jebel Akhdar War in Oman that lasted for more than 5 years.

Climate case

On 5 April 2019, Milieudefensie (Dutch for "environmental defense"), together with six NGOs and more than 17,000 citizens, sued Shell, accusing the company of harming the climate despite knowing about global warming since 1986. In May 2021, the district court of The Hague ruled that Shell must reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 45% by 2030 (compared to 2019 levels).

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Royal Dutch Shell
royal, dutch, shell, language, watch, edit, commonly, known, shell, dutch, british, multinational, company, headquartered, hague, netherlands, incorporated, united, kingdom, public, limited, company, supermajors, measured, 2020, revenues, fifth, largest, compa. Royal Dutch Shell Language Watch Edit Royal Dutch Shell plc commonly known as Shell is a Dutch British 3 multinational oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom as a public limited company 4 5 It is one of the oil and gas supermajors and measured by 2020 revenues the fifth largest company in the world the largest based in Europe and the largest not based in either China or the United States 6 7 In the 2020 Forbes Global 2000 Shell was ranked as the 21st largest public company in the world 8 Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the world s largest companies 9 in that year its revenues were equivalent to 84 of the Dutch national 556 billion GDP 10 Since then Shell has dropped to the 5th largest company on the Global 500 but is still the largest non state owned energy corporation in the world and the second largest non Chinese corporation in the world falling short only to Walmart 11 Royal Dutch Shell plcShell world headquarters in Haagse Hout The HagueTypePublic limited companyTraded asLSE RDSA 1 Euronext RDSA NYSE RDS A RDS B PSE SHLPH FTSE 100 Component AEX ComponentISINGB00B03MLX29IndustryEnergy Oil and gasPredecessorsRoyal Dutch Petroleum Co a 1890 Shell Transport and Trading Co of the United Kingdom 1897 FoundedApril 1907 114 years ago 1907 04 original amalgamation 20 July 2005 16 years ago 2005 07 20 in Shell Centre London current entity FoundersMarcus amp Samuel Samuel Shell Transport and Trading Co Jean B A Kessler Henri Deterding Hugo Loudon Royal Dutch Petroleum Co HeadquartersHaagse Hout The Hague wbr Netherlands Headquarters Shell Centre London wbr England UK Registered office Area servedWorldwideKey peopleCharles O Holliday chair person Ben van Beurden CEO ProductsLNGLubricantsNatural gasPetrochemicalsPetroleumRevenueUS 180 5 billion 2020 1 Operating incomeUS 22 9 billion 2020 1 Net incomeUS 21 5 billion 2020 1 Total assetsUS 379 3 billion 2020 1 Total equityUS 158 5 billion 2020 1 Number of employees86 000 2021 2 DivisionsShell Chemicals Shell Gas amp PowerSubsidiariesList Shell Australia Shell South Africa Shell Canada Shell Hong Kong Shell Nigeria Shell Oil Company Shell India Shell Oman Shell Pakistan Shell Philippines Shell TunisiaWebsiteshell comFootnotes references a formerly known as the Royal Dutch Company for the Exploitation of Petroleum Wells in the Dutch East Indies Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry including exploration and production refining transport distribution and marketing petrochemicals power generation and trading It also has renewable energy activities including biofuels 12 hydrogen 13 and wind 14 Shell has operations in over 70 countries produces around 3 7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has around 44 000 service stations worldwide 15 16 As of 31 December 2019 Shell had total proved reserves of 11 1 billion barrels 1 76 109 m3 of oil equivalent 17 Shell Oil Company its principal subsidiary in the United States is one of its largest businesses 18 Shell holds 50 of Raizen a joint venture with Cosan which is the third largest Brazil based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol 19 Shell was formed in 1907 through the merger of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom The combined company rapidly became the leading competitor of the American Standard Oil and by 1920 Shell was the largest producer of oil in the world 20 Shell first entered the chemicals industry in 1929 Shell was one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid 1940s to the mid 1970s In 1964 Shell was a partner in the world s first commercial sea transportation of liquefied natural gas LNG 21 In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP In recent decades gas has become an increasingly important part of Shell s business 22 and Shell acquired BG Group in 2016 making it the world s largest producer of LNG 22 Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index It had a market capitalisation of 216 billion at the close of trading on 27 June 2019 by far the largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange 23 24 It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange There are two types of shares A code RDSA and B code RDSB Until its unification in 2005 the firm operated as a dual listed company whereby the British and Dutch companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single unit partnership for business purposes The Shell logo is known as the pecten after the sea shell Pecten maximus on which its design is based the current version of the logo was designed by Raymond Loewy in 1971 As of February 2020 Shell s largest shareholder A and B shares combined as a percent of the company was the Netherlands Central Institute for Cashless Securities Transactions with 21 19 ahead of Guaranty Nominees Limited in second with 18 03 BlackRock Inc with 7 14 and The Capital Group with 4 99 25 According to the CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017 when taking into account its scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions emissions caused by the public and other companies using its products Shell was the ninth largest corporate producer of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1988 2015 26 In 2018 Shell announced it hoped to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 or sooner 27 28 2 Contents 1 History 1 1 Origins 1 2 20th century 1 3 21st century 1 4 Environmental record 1 5 Climate change 2 Corporate affairs 2 1 Management 2 1 1 Board of directors 2 2 Name and logo 2 2 1 Logo evolution 3 Operations 3 1 Business groupings 3 2 Oil and gas activities 3 3 Sponsorships 4 Africa 4 1 Nigeria 5 Asia 5 1 China 5 2 Hong Kong 5 3 Malaysia 5 4 Brunei 5 5 Philippines 5 6 Singapore 5 7 India 6 Europe 6 1 Ireland 6 2 Nordic countries 6 3 United Kingdom 7 North America 8 Australia 9 Alternative energy 10 Projects 10 1 Arctic 11 Controversies 11 1 Brent Spar platform 11 2 2004 overstatement of oil reserves 11 3 Corporate communications 11 4 Health and safety 11 5 Human rights 11 6 Arctic project 11 6 1 Kodiak 11 6 2 Polar Pioneer 11 7 Oil spills 11 8 Paradise Papers 11 9 Nigeria corruption scandals 11 10 Oman 1954 War 11 11 Climate case 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External linksHistory EditOrigins Edit Royal Dutch Petroleum dock in the Dutch East Indies now Indonesia The oil well at Pangkalan Brandan North Sumatra is considered to be the origin of the Royal Dutch Shell The Royal Dutch Shell Group was created in April 1907 through the amalgamation of two rival companies the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company Dutch Koninklijke Nederlandse Petroleum Maatschappij of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company Limited of the United Kingdom 29 It was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil 30 The Royal Dutch Petroleum Company was a Dutch company founded in 1890 to develop an oilfield in Pangkalan Brandan North Sumatra 31 and initially led by August Kessler Hugo Loudon and Henri Deterding The Shell Transport and Trading Company the quotation marks were part of the legal name was a British company founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel 1st Viscount Bearsted and his brother Samuel Samuel 32 Their father had owned an antique company in Houndsditch London 33 which expanded in 1833 to import and sell seashells after which the company Shell took its name 29 34 35 For various reasons the new firm operated as a dual listed company whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence but operated as a single unit partnership for business purposes The terms of the merger gave 60 percent stock ownership of the new group to Royal Dutch and 40 percent to Shell Both became holding companies for Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij containing the production and refining assets and Anglo Saxon Petroleum Company containing the transport and storage assets 36 National patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies 36 The Dutch company Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague was in charge of production and manufacture 37 The British Anglo Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London to direct the transport and storage of the products 37 35 In 1912 Royal Dutch Shell purchased the Rothschilds Russian oil assets in a stock deal The Group s production portfolio then consisted of 53 percent from the East Indies 29 percent from Russia and 17 percent from Romania 35 38 20th century Edit Shell benzine for Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton Antarctic Expedition 1915 Shell tank truck from 1926 based on a Ford Model TT Advertising L Huile Aeroshell from Francis Bernard 1932 Vintage petrol pump 1952 During the First World War Shell was the main supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force 39 It was also the sole supplier of aviation fuel and supplied 80 percent of the British Army s TNT 39 It also volunteered all of its shipping to the British Admiralty 39 The German invasion of Romania in 1916 saw 17 of the group s worldwide production destroyed 39 In 1919 Shell took control of the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company and in 1921 formed Shell Mex Limited which marketed products under the Shell and Eagle brands in the United Kingdom In 1929 Shell Chemicals was founded 39 By the end of the 1920s Shell was the world s leading oil company producing 11 percent of the world s crude oil supply and owning 10 percent of its tanker tonnage 39 Shell Mex House was completed in 1931 and was the head office for Shell s marketing activity worldwide 39 In 1932 partly in response to the difficult economic conditions of the times Shell Mex merged its UK marketing operations with those of British Petroleum to create Shell Mex and BP 40 a company that traded until the brands separated in 1975 Royal Dutch Company ranked 79th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts 41 The 1930s saw Shell s Mexican assets seized by the local government 39 After the invasion of the Netherlands by Germany in 1940 the head office of the Dutch companies was moved to Curacao 39 In 1945 Shell s Danish headquarters in Copenhagen at the time being used by the Gestapo was bombed by Royal Air Force Mosquitoes in Operation Carthage 42 Around 1952 Shell was the first company to purchase and use a computer in the Netherlands 43 The computer a Ferranti Mark 1 was assembled and used at the Shell laboratory in Amsterdam In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton which it subsequently sold in 1994 and now forms part of BHP Billiton 44 21st century Edit In November 2004 following a period of turmoil caused by the revelation that Shell had been overstating its oil reserves it was announced that the Shell Group would move to a single capital structure creating a new parent company to be named Royal Dutch Shell plc with its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange a secondary listing on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange its headquarters and tax residency in The Hague Netherlands and its registered office in London The unification was completed on 20 July 2005 and the original owners delisted their companies from the respective exchanges On 20 July 2005 the Shell Transport amp Trading Company plc was delisted from the LSE 45 whereas Royal Dutch Petroleum Company from NYSE on 18 November 2005 46 The shares of the company were issued at a 60 40 advantage for the shareholders of Royal Dutch in line with the original ownership of the Shell Group 47 During the 2009 Iraqi oil services contracts tender a consortium led by Shell 45 and which included Petronas 30 was awarded a production contract for the Majnoon field in the south of Iraq which contains an estimated 12 6 billion barrels 2 00 109 m3 of oil 48 49 The West Qurna 1 field production contract was awarded to a consortium led by ExxonMobil 60 and included Shell 15 50 In February 2010 Shell and Cosan formed a 50 50 joint venture Raizen comprising all of Cosan s Brazilian ethanol energy generation fuel distribution and sugar activities and all of Shell s Brazilian retail fuel and aviation distribution businesses 51 In March 2010 Shell announced the sale of some of its assets including its liquefied petroleum gas LPG business to meet the cost of a planned 28bn capital spending programme Shell invited buyers to submit indicative bids due by 22 March with a plan to raise 2 3bn from the sale 52 In June 2010 Royal Dutch Shell agreed to acquire all the business of East Resources for a cash consideration of 4 7 billion The transaction included East Resources tight gas fields 53 Over the course of 2013 the corporation began the sale of its US shale gas assets and canceled a US 20 billion gas project that was to be constructed in the US state of Louisiana A new CEO Ben van Beurden was appointed in January 2014 prior to the announcement that the corporation s overall performance in 2013 was 38 percent lower than in 2012 the value of Shell s shares fell by 3 percent as a result 54 Following the sale of the majority of its Australian assets in February 2014 the corporation plans to sell a further US 15 billion worth of assets in the period leading up to 2015 with deals announced in Australia Brazil and Italy 55 Royal Dutch Shell announced on 8 April 2015 it had agreed to buy BG Group for 47 billion US 70 billion subject to shareholder and regulatory approval 56 The acquisition was completed in February 2016 resulting in Shell surpassing Chevron Corporation and becoming the world s second largest non state oil company 57 On 7 June 2016 Royal Dutch Shell announced that it would build an ethane cracker plant near Pittsburgh Pennsylvania after spending several years doing an environmental cleanup of the proposed plant s site 58 In January 2017 Royal Dutch Shell agreed to sell 2 46bn worth of North Sea assets to oil exploration firm Chrysaor 59 In 2017 Shell sold its oil sands assets to Canadian Natural Resources in exchange of approximately 8 8 stake in that company In May 2017 it was reported that Shell plans to sell its shares in Canadian Natural Resources fully exiting the oil sands business 60 On 30 April 2020 Royal Dutch Shell announced that it would cut its dividend for the first time since the Second World War due to the oil price collapse following the reduction in oil demand during the COVID 19 pandemic Shell stated that their net income adjusted for the cost of supply dropped to US 2 9 billion in three months to 31 March This compared with US 5 3 billion in the same period the previous year 61 On 30 September 2020 the company said that it would cut up to 9 000 jobs as a result of the economic effects caused by the pandemic and announced a broad restructuring 62 In December 2020 Royal Dutch Shell forecast another write down of 3 5 4 5 billion for the fourth quarter due to lower oil prices following 16 8 billion of impairment in the second quarter 63 In February 2021 Royal Dutch Shell announced a loss of 21 7 billion in 2020 due to the COVID 19 pandemic 64 despite reducing its operating expenses by 12 or 4 5 billion according to a Morningstar analysis cited by Barron s 65 66 Environmental record Edit The presence of companies like Shell has led to extreme environmental issues in the Niger Delta Many pipelines in the Niger Delta owned by Shell are old and corroded Shell has acknowledged its responsibility for keeping the pipelines new but has also denied responsibility for environmental causes 67 This has led to mass protests from the Niger Delta inhabitants Amnesty International and Friends of the Earth the Netherlands against Shell It has also led to action plans to boycott Shell by environmental groups and human rights groups 68 In January 2013 a Dutch court rejected four out of five allegations brought against the firm over oil pollution in the Niger Delta but found a subsidiary guilty of one case of pollution ordering compensation to be paid to a Nigerian farmer 69 On 15 January 1999 off the Argentinian town of Magdalena Buenos Aires the Shell tanker Estrella Pampeana collided with a German freighter emptying its contents into the lake polluting the environment drinkable water plants and animals Over a decade after the spill a referendum held in Magdalena determined the acceptance of a US 9 5 million compensatory payout from Shell 70 Shell denied responsibility for the spill but an Argentine court ruled in 2002 that the corporation was responsible 71 In 1989 Shell redesigned a 3 billion North Sea natural gas platform in the North Sea raising its height one to two meters to accommodate an anticipated sea level rise due to global warming 72 In 2013 Royal Dutch Shell PLC reported CO2 emissions of 81 million metric tonnes 73 In 2020 the Northern Lights CCS project was announced which is a joint project between Equinor Shell and Total operating in the European Union Norway and aiming to store liquid CO2 beneath the seabed 74 75 76 77 Shell is known to be processing oil from the Amazon region of South America a large concern for environmentalists trying to protect the area In the United States the Martinez refinery CA and the Puget Sound Refinery WA carry Amazonian oil In 2015 14 of the Martinez refinery s gross at 19 570 barrels per day came from the Amazon 78 In 2021 Shell was ranked as the 10th most environmentally responsible company out of 120 oil gas and mining companies involved in resource extraction north of the Arctic Circle in the Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index AERI 79 Climate change Edit See also Milieudefensie et al v Royal Dutch Shell In 2017 a public information film Climate of Concern unseen for years resurfaced and showed Shell had clear grasp of global warming 26 years earlier but has not acted accordingly since said critics 80 81 82 Royal Dutch Shell is responsible for 1 67 of global industrial greenhouse gas emissions from 1988 to 2015 83 Shell wants to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 or sooner 27 Corporate affairs EditManagement Edit On 4 August 2005 the board of directors announced the appointment of Jorma Ollila chairman and CEO of Nokia at the time to succeed Aad Jacobs as the company s non executive chairman on 1 June 2006 Ollila is the first Shell chairman to be neither Dutch nor British Other non executive directors include Maarten van den Bergh Wim Kok Nina Henderson Lord Kerr Adelbert van Roxe and Christine Morin Postel 84 Since 3 January 2014 Ben van Beurden is CEO of Shell 54 His Predecessor was Peter Voser who became CEO of Shell on 1 July 2009 85 Following a career at the corporation in locations such as Australia and Africa Ann Pickard was appointed as the executive vice president of the Arctic at Royal Dutch Shell a role that was publicized in an interview with McKinsey amp Company in June 2014 86 Board of directors Edit The Board of directors as of 16 May 2020 was as follows 87 Charles O Holliday chairman former chairman of Bank of America former chairman and CEO of DuPont Gerard Kleisterlee chairman of Vodafone former president and CEO of Philips Ben van Beurden CEO of Royal Dutch Shell Jessica Uhl CFO of Royal Dutch Shell Neil Carson former CEO of Johnson Matthey Ann Godbehere former CFO of Swiss Re and Northern Rock Euleen Goh former CFO of Standard Chartered Singapore Catherine J Hughes former executive at Nexen Husky Oil and Schlumberger Roberto Setubal former CEO of Itau Unibanco Nigel Sheinwald former British Ambassador to the United States Linda Stuntz energy lawyer Gerrit Zalm former Minister of Economic Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands Linda M Coulter Shell general counselName and logo Edit The name Shell is linked to The Shell Transport and Trading Company 88 In 1833 the founder s father Marcus Samuel Sr founded an import business to sell seashells to London collectors When collecting seashell specimens in the Caspian Sea area in 1892 the younger Samuel realised there was potential in exporting lamp oil from the region and commissioned the world s first purpose built oil tanker the Murex Latin for a type of snail shell to enter this market by 1907 the company had a fleet Although for several decades the company had a refinery at Shell Haven on the Thames there is no evidence of this having provided the name 89 The Shell logo is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world This logo is known as the pecten after the sea shell Pecten maximus the giant scallop on which its design is based The yellow and red colours used are thought 90 to relate to the colours of the flag of Spain as Shell built early service stations in California previously a Spanish colony The current revision of the logo was designed by Raymond Loewy in 1971 91 The slash was removed from the name Royal Dutch Shell in 2005 concurrent with moves to merge the two legally separate companies Royal Dutch and Shell to the single legal entity which exists today 92 Logo evolution Edit 1900 04 1904 09 1909 30 1930 48 1948 55Operations EditBusiness groupings Edit Oil platform Shell is organised into four major business groupings 93 Upstream manages the upstream business It searches for and recovers crude oil and natural gas and operates the upstream and midstream infrastructure necessary to deliver oil and gas to the market Its activities are organised primarily within geographic units although there are some activities that are managed across the business or provided through support units Integrated Gas and New Energies manages to liquefy natural gas converting gas to liquids and low carbon opportunities Downstream manages Shell s manufacturing distribution and marketing activities for oil products and chemicals Manufacturing and supply include refinery supply and shipping of crude oil Projects and technology manages the delivery of Shell s major projects provides technical services and technology capability covering both upstream and downstream activities It is also responsible for providing functional leadership across Shell in the areas of health safety and environment and contracting and procurement Oil and gas activities Edit Former Shell oil depot in Kowloon Hong Kong around the mid 1980s Shell s primary business is the management of a vertically integrated oil company The development of technical and commercial expertise in all stages of this vertical integration from the initial search for oil exploration through its harvesting production transportation refining and finally trading and marketing established the core competencies on which the company was founded Similar competencies were required for natural gas which has become one of the most important businesses in which Shell is involved and which contributes a significant proportion of the company s profits While the vertically integrated business model provided significant economies of scale and barriers to entry each business now seeks to be a self supporting unit without subsidies from other parts of the company 94 Traditionally Shell was a heavily decentralised business worldwide especially in the downstream with companies in over 100 countries each of which operated with a high degree of independence The upstream tended to be far more centralised with much of the technical and financial direction coming from the central offices in The Hague The upstream oil sector is also commonly known as the exploration and production sector 95 Downstream operations which now also includes the chemicals business generate the majority of Shell s profits worldwide and is known for its global network of more than 40 000 petrol stations and its various oil refineries The downstream business which in some countries also included oil refining generally included a retail petrol station network lubricants manufacture and marketing industrial fuel and lubricants sales and a host of other product market sectors such as LPG and bitumen The practice in Shell was that these businesses were essentially local and that they were best managed by local operating companies often with middle and senior management reinforced by expatriates 96 Sponsorships Edit Shell has a long history of motorsport sponsorship most notably Scuderia Ferrari 1951 1964 1966 1973 and 1996 present BRM 1962 1966 and 1968 1972 Scuderia Toro Rosso 2007 2013 and 2016 McLaren 1967 1968 and 1984 1994 Lotus 1968 1971 Ducati Corse since 1999 Team Penske 2011 present Hyundai Motorsport since 2005 AF Corse Risi Competizione BMW Motorsport 2015 2019 with also Pennzoil and Dick Johnson Racing 1987 2004 and 2017 present 97 Africa EditShell began drilling for oil in Africa during the 1950s Shell operates in the upstream oil sector in Algeria Cameroon Egypt Gabon where the Rabi Kounga oil field is found Ghana Libya Morocco Nigeria South Africa and Tunisia and in the downstream sector in 16 other countries 98 In April 2010 Shell announced its intention to divest from downstream business of all African countries except South Africa and Egypt to Vitol and Helios 99 In several countries such as Tunisia protests and strikes broke out Shell denied rumours of the sellout 100 Nigeria Edit Shell began production in Nigeria in 1958 101 In Nigeria Shell told US diplomats that it had placed staff in all the main ministries of the government 102 Shell continues however upstream activities extracting crude oil in the oil rich Niger Delta as well as downstream commercial activities in South Africa In June 2013 the company announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria hinting that assets could be divested In August 2014 the company disclosed it was in the process of finalizing the sale of its interests in four Nigerian oil fields 103 On 29 January 2021 a Dutch court ruled that Shell was responsible for multiple oil leaks in Nigeria 104 Asia Edit A Shell gasoline station in Sabah Malaysia China Edit The company has upstream operations in unconventional oil and gas in China Shell has a joint venture with PetroChina at the Changbei tight gas field in Shaanxi which has produced natural gas since 2008 The company has also invested in exploring for shale oil in Sichuan 105 The other unconventional resource which Shell invested in in China was shale The company was an early entrant in shale oil exploration in China but scaled down operations in 2014 due to difficulties with geology and population density 106 It has a joint venture to explore for oil shale in Jilin through a joint venture with Jilin Guangzheng Mineral Development Company Limited 107 Hong Kong Edit Shell has been active in Hong Kong for a century providing Retail LPG Commercial Fuel Lubricants Bitumen Aviation Marine and Chemicals services and products Shell also sponsored the first Hong Kong built aircraft Inspiration for its around the world trip 108 Malaysia Edit Shell discovered the first oil well in Malaysia in 1910 in Miri Sarawak Today the oil well is a state monument known as the Grand Old Lady In 1914 following this discovery Shell built Malaysia s first oil refinery and laid a submarine pipeline in Miri 109 110 Brunei Edit Brunei Shell Petroleum is a joint venture between the Government of Brunei and Shell 111 The British Malayan Petroleum Company owned by Royal Dutch Shell first found commercial amounts of oil in 1929 112 It currently produces 350 000 barrels of oil and gas equivalent per day 113 BSP is the largest oil and gas company in Brunei a sector which contributes 90 of government revenue 114 Philippines Edit Shell oil depot Poro Point San Fernando La Union Philippines Royal Dutch Shell operates in the Philippines under its subsidiary Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation Its headquarters is in Makati and it has facilities in the Pandacan oil depot and other key locations 115 In January 2010 the Bureau of Customs claimed 7 34 billion pesos worth of unpaid excise taxes against Pilipinas Shell for importing Catalytic cracked gasoline CCG and light catalytic cracked gasoline LCCG stating that those imports are bound for tariff charges 116 In August 2016 Pilipinas Shell filed an application to sell US 629 million worth of primary and secondary shares to the investing public registration statement with the SEC This was a prelude to filing its IPO listing application with the Philippine Stock Exchange On 3 November 2016 the Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation was officially listed on the Philippine Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol SHLPH after they held its initial public offering on 19 to 25 October of the same year 117 Singapore Edit Shell has a strong presence in Singapore indeed Singapore is the main centre for Shell s petrochemical operations in the Asia Pacific region Shell Eastern Petroleum limited SEPL have their refinery located in Singapore s Pulau Bukom island They also operate as Shell Chemicals Seraya in Jurong Island 118 In November 2020 Shell announced that as part of efforts to curtail pollution emissions it will cut its oil processing capacity in Singapore 119 India Edit Shell India has inaugurated its new lubricants laboratory at its Technology Centre in Bangalore 120 Europe EditIreland Edit Shell first started trading in Ireland in 1902 121 Shell E amp P Ireland SEPIL previously Enterprise Energy Ireland is an Irish exploration and production subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell Its headquarters are on Leeson Street in Dublin It was acquired in May 2002 122 Its main project is the Corrib gas project a large gas field off the northwest coast for which Shell has encountered controversy and protests in relation to the onshore pipeline and licence terms 123 In 2005 Shell disposed of its entire retail and commercial fuels business in Ireland to Topaz Energy Group This included depots company owned petrol stations and supply agreements stations throughout the island of Ireland 124 The retail outlets were re branded as Topaz in 2008 9 125 The Topaz fuel network was subsequently acquired in 2015 by Couchetard 126 and these stations began re branding to Circle K in 2018 127 Nordic countries Edit On 27 August 2007 Royal Dutch Shell and Reitan Group the owner of the 7 Eleven brand in Scandinavia announced an agreement to re brand some 269 service stations across Norway Sweden Finland and Denmark subject to obtaining regulatory approvals under the different competition laws in each country 128 In April 2010 Shell announced that the corporation is in process of trying to find a potential buyer for all of its operations in Finland and is doing similar market research concerning Swedish operations 129 130 In October 2010 Shell s gas stations and the heavy vehicle fuel supply networks in Finland and Sweden along with a refinery located in Gothenburg Sweden were sold to St1 a Finnish energy company more precisely to its major shareholding parent company Keele Oy 131 United Kingdom Edit In the UK sector of the North Sea Shell employs around 4 500 staff in Scotland as well as an additional 1 000 service contractors however in August 2014 it announced it was laying off 250 of them mainly in Aberdeen 132 North America EditMain articles Shell Oil Company and Shell Canada Shell Station by Gas Land Petroleum Shell gasoline station sign in Phoenix Arizona Shell gasoline station in Canada Through most of Shell s early history the Shell Oil Company business in the United States was substantially independent Its stock was traded on the NYSE and the group s central office had little direct involvement in running the operation However in 1984 Royal Dutch Shell made a bid to purchase those shares of Shell Oil Company it did not own around 30 and despite opposition from some minority shareholders which led to a court case Shell completed the buyout for a sum of 5 7 billion 133 Australia EditOn 20 May 2011 Royal Dutch Shell s final investment decision for the world s first floating liquefied natural gas FLNG facility was finalized following the discovery of the remote offshore Prelude field located off Australia s northwestern coast and estimated to contain about 3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas equivalent reserves in 2007 FLNG technology is based on liquefied natural gas LNG developments that were pioneered in the mid 20th century and facilitates the exploitation of untapped natural gas reserves located in remote areas often too small to extract any other way 134 135 The floating vessel to be used for the Prelude field known as Prelude FLNG is promoted as the longest floating structure in the world and will take in the equivalent of 110 000 barrels of oil per day in natural gas at a location 200 km 125 miles off the coast of Western Australia and cool it into liquefied natural gas for transport and sale in Asia The Prelude is expected to start producing LNG in 2017 136 analysts estimated the total cost of construction at more than US 12 billion 134 135 137 Following the decision by the Royal Dutch Shell fuel corporation to close its Geelong Australia refinery in April 2013 a third consecutive annual loss was recorded for Shell s Australian refining and fuel marketing assets Revealed in June 2013 the writedown is worth A 203 million and was preceded by a A 638m writedown in 2012 and a A 407m writedown in 2011 after the closure of the Clyde refinery in Sydney Australia 138 In February 2014 Shell sold its Australian refinery and petrol stations for US 2 6 billion A 2 9 billion to Vitol a Geneva based company 139 Vitol stated that the Geelong refinery will remain open as the company plans to expand further into the Australian market At the time of the sale Royal Dutch Shell was expected to continue investment into the Australian market with projects that involve Chevron Corp Woodside Petroleum and Prelude 55 Shell sold 9 5 of its 23 1 stake in Woodside Petroleum in June 2014 and advised that it had reached an agreement for Woodside to buy back 9 5 of its shares at a later stage Shell became a major shareholder in Woodside after a 2001 takeover attempt was blocked by then federal Treasurer Peter Costello and the corporation has been open about its intention to sell its stake in Woodside as part of its target to shed assets At a general body meeting held on 1 August 2014 72 percent of shareholders voted to approve the buy back short of the 75 percent vote that was required for approval A statement from Shell read Royal Dutch Shell acknowledges the outcome of Woodside Petroleum Limited s shareholders negative vote on the selective buy back proposal Shell is reviewing its options in relation to its remaining 13 6 percent holding 140 Alternative energy EditIn the early 2000s Shell moved into alternative energy and there is now an embryonic Renewables business that has made investments in solar power wind power hydrogen and forestry The forestry business went the way of nuclear coal metals and electricity generation and was disposed of in 2003 In 2006 Shell paid SolarWorld to take over its entire solar business 141 and in 2008 the company withdrew from the London Array which when built was the world s largest offshore wind farm 142 Shell also is involved in large scale hydrogen projects HydrogenForecast com describes Shell s approach thus far as consisting of baby steps but with an underlying message of extreme optimism 143 In 2015 the company announced plans to install hydrogen fuel pumps across Germany planning on having 400 locations in operation by 2023 144 Shell holds 50 of Raizen a joint venture with Brazilian sugarcane producer Cosan which is the third largest Brazil based energy company by revenues and a major producer of ethanol 19 In 2015 the company partnered with Brazilian start up company Insolar to install solar panels in Rio de Janeiro to deliver electricity to the Santa Marta neighbourhood 145 Shell is the operator and major shareholder of The Shell Canada Quest Energy project based within the Athabasca Oil Sands Project located near Fort McMurray Alberta 146 It holds a 60 share alongside Chevron Canada Limited which holds 20 and Marathon Canadian Oil Sands Holding Limited which holds the final 20 147 Commercial operations launched in November 2015 It was the world s first commercial scale oil and sand carbon capture storage CCS project 146 It is expected to reduce CO2 emissions in Canada by 1 08 million tonnes per year 148 In December 2016 Shell won the auction for the 700 MW Borssele III amp IV offshore wind farms at a price of 5 45 c kWh beating 6 other consortia 149 In June 2018 it was announced that the company and its co investor Partners Group had secured 1 5bn for the project which also involves Eneco Van Oord and Mitsubishi DGE 150 In October 2017 it bought Europe s biggest vehicle charging network NewMotion 151 In November 2017 Shell s CEO Ben van Beurden announced Shell s plan to cut half of its carbon emissions by 2050 and 20 percent by 2035 In this regard Shell promised to spend 2 billion annually on renewable energy sources Shell began to develop its wind energy segment in 2001 the company now operates six wind farms in the United States and is part of a plan to build two offshore wind farms in the Netherlands 152 In December 2017 the company announced plans to buy UK household energy and broadband provider First Utility 153 In March 2019 it rebranded to Shell Energy and announced that all electricity would be supplied from renewable sources 154 In December 2018 the company announced that it had partnered with SkyNRG to begin supplying sustainable aviation fuel to airlines operating out of San Francisco Airport SFO including KLM SAS and Finnair 155 156 In the same month the company announced plans to double its renewable energy budget to investment in low carbon energy to 4 billion US each year with an aim to spend up to 2 billion US on renewable energy by 2021 157 In January 2018 the company acquired a 44 interest in Silicon Ranch a solar energy company run by Matt Kisber as part of its global New Energies project 158 The company took over from Partners Group paying up to an estimated 217 million for the minority interest 159 In February 2019 the company acquired German solar battery company Sonnen 160 It first invested in the company in May 2018 as part of its New Energies project 161 On 26 January 2021 Shell said it would buy 100 per cent of Ubitricity owner of the largest public charging network for electric vehicles in the UK as the company expands its presence along the power supply chain 162 Projects EditArctic Edit Following the purchase of an offshore lease in 2005 Shell initiated its US 4 5 billion Arctic drilling program in 2006 after the corporation purchased the Kulluk oil rig and leased the Noble Discoverer drillship 163 164 At inception the project was led by Pete Slaiby a Shell executive who had previously worked in the North Sea 165 However after the purchase of a second offshore lease in 2008 Shell only commenced drilling work in 2012 due to the refurbishment of rigs permit delays from the relevant authorities and lawsuits 166 167 168 The plans to drill in the Arctic led to protests from environmental groups particularly Greenpeace furthermore analysts in the energy field as well as related industries also expressed skepticism due to perceptions that drilling in the region is too dangerous because of harsh conditions and remote locations 168 169 Further problems hampered the Arctic project after the commencement of drilling in 2012 as Shell dealt with a series of issues that involved air permits Coast Guard certification of a marine vessel and severe damage to essential oil spill equipment Additionally difficult weather conditions resulted in the delay of drilling during mid 2012 and the already dire situation was exacerbated by the Kulluk incident at the end of the year Royal Dutch Shell had invested nearly US 5 billion by this stage of the project 165 168 As the Kulluk oil rig was being towed to the American state of Washington to be serviced in preparation for the 2013 drilling season a winter storm on 27 December 2012 caused the towing crews as well as the rescue service to lose control of the situation As of 1 January 2013 the Kulluk was grounded off the coast Sitkalidak Island near the eastern end of Kodiak Island Following the accident a Fortune magazine contacted Larry McKinney the executive director at the Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies at Texas A amp M and he explained that A two month delay in the Arctic is not a two month delay A two month delay could wipe out the entire drilling season 165 It was unclear if Shell would recommence drilling in mid 2013 following the Kulluk incident and in February 2013 the corporation stated that it would pause its closely watched drilling project off the Alaskan coast in 2013 and will instead prepare for future exploration 170 In January 2014 the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic with chief executive van Beurden explaining that the project is under review due to both market and internal issues 171 A June 2014 interview with Pickard indicated that following a forensic analysis of the problems encountered in 2012 Royal Dutch Shell will continue with the project and Pickard stated that she perceives the future of the corporation activity in the Arctic region as a long term marathon 86 Pickard stated that the forensic look back revealed there was an on off switch and further explained In other words don t spend the money unless you re sure you re going to have the legal environment to go forward Don t spend the money unless you re sure you re going to have the permit No I can t tell you that I m going to have that permit until June but we need to plan like we re going to have that permit in June And so probably the biggest lesson is to make sure we could smooth out the on off switches wherever we could and take control of our own destiny 86 Based upon the interview with Pickard Shell is approaching the project as an investment that will reap energy resources with a lifespan of around 30 years 86 Controversies Edit Former Shell Research and Technology Centre Amsterdam Brent Spar platform Edit In the 1990s protesters criticised the company s environmental record particularly the possible pollution caused by the proposed disposal of the Brent Spar platform into the North Sea Despite support from the UK government Shell reversed the decision under public pressure but maintained that sinking the platform would have been environmentally better 172 Shell subsequently published an unequivocal commitment to sustainable development supported by executive speeches reinforcing this commitment 173 Shell was subsequently criticised by the European Commission and five EU members after deciding to leave part of its decommissioned oil rigs standing in the North Sea Shell argued that removing them would be too costly and risky Germany said that the estimated 11 000 tonnes of raw oil and toxins remaining in the rigs would eventually seep into the sea and called it a ticking timebomb 174 2004 overstatement of oil reserves Edit In 2004 Shell overstated its oil reserves resulting in loss of confidence in the group a 17 million fine by the Financial Services Authority and the departure of the chairman Philip Watts A lawsuit resulted in the payment of 450 million to non American shareholders in 2007 175 176 177 As a result of the scandal the corporate structure was simplified Two classes of ordinary shares A code RDSA and B code RDSB identical but for the tax treatment of dividends were issued for the company 178 Corporate communications Edit Shell Centre building in London UK Shell s advertising regarding its renewable energy business has been described as a greenwash by some environmental lobbies 179 leading to criticism from the British Advertising Standards Authority which ruled that Shell had misled the public in an advertisement when it claimed that a 10 billion oil sands project in Alberta Canada was a sustainable energy source 180 Health and safety Edit A number of incidents over the years led to criticism of Shell s health and safety record including repeated warnings by the UK Health and Safety Executive about the poor state of the company s North Sea platforms 181 Human rights Edit In the beginning of 1996 several human rights groups brought cases to hold Shell accountable for alleged human rights violations in Nigeria including summary execution crimes against humanity torture inhumane treatment and arbitrary arrest and detention In particular Shell stood accused of collaborating in the execution of Ken Saro Wiwa and eight other leaders of the Ogoni tribe of southern Nigeria who were hanged in 1995 by Nigeria s then military rulers 182 The lawsuits were brought against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson the head of its Nigerian operation 183 In 2009 Shell agreed to pay 15 5m in a legal settlement 182 Shell has not accepted any liability over the allegations against it 184 In 2009 Shell was the subject of an Amnesty International report into the deterioration of human rights as a consequence of Shell s activities in the Niger Delta In particular Amnesty criticised the continuation of gas flaring and Shell s slow response to oil spills 185 In 1998 on its first public report on community and environmental issues in Nigeria Shell promised to end the practice of gas flaring in ten years while pledging to establish a youth training scheme in Ogoniland 186 In 2010 a leaked cable revealed that Shell claims to have inserted staff into all the main ministries of the Nigerian government and know everything that was being done in those ministries according to Shell s top executive in Nigeria The same executive also boasted that the Nigerian government had forgotten about the extent of Shell s infiltration 102 Documents released in 2009 but not used in the court case reveal that Shell regularly made payments to the Nigerian military in order to prevent protests 187 Arctic project Edit According to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management report in 2015 the chances of a major spill in a deep sea Arctic drilling is 75 before century s end 188 Kodiak Edit In 2010 Greenpeace activists painted No Arctic Drilling with spilled BP oil on the side of a ship in the Gulf of Mexico that was en route to explore for Arctic oil for Shell At the protest Phil Radford of Greenpeace called for President Obama to ban all offshore oil drilling and call for an end to the use of oil in our cars by 2030 169 On 16 March 2012 52 Greenpeace activists from five different countries boarded Fennica and Nordica multipurpose icebreakers chartered to support Shell s drilling rigs near Alaska 189 Around the same time period a reporter for Fortune magazine spoke with Edward Itta an Inupiat leader and the former mayor of the North Slope Borough who expressed that he was conflicted about Shell s plans in the Arctic as he was concerned that an oil spill could destroy the Inupiat peoples hunting and fishing culture but his borough also received major tax revenue from oil and gas production additionally further revenue from energy activity was considered crucial to the future of the living standard in Itta s community 165 In July 2012 Greenpeace activists shut down 53 Shell petrol stations in Edinburgh and London in a protest against the company s plans to drill for oil in the Arctic Greenpeace s Save the Arctic campaign aims to prevent oil drilling and industrial fishing in the Arctic by declaring the uninhabited area around the North Pole a global sanctuary 190 A review was announced after the Kulluk oil rig ran aground near Kodiak Island in December 2012 191 In response Shell filed lawsuits to seek injunctions from possible protests and Benjamin Jealous of the NAACP and Radford argued that the legal action was trampling Americans rights 192 According to Greenpeace Shell lodged a request with Google to take down video footage of a Greenpeace protest action that occurred at the Shell sponsored Formula One F1 Belgian Grand Prix on 25 August 2013 in which SaveTheArctic org banners appear at the winners podium ceremony In the video the banners rise up automatically activists controlled their appearance with the use of four radio car antennas revealing the website URL alongside an image that consists of half of a polar bear s head and half of the Shell logo 193 Royal Dutch Shell then announced a pause in the timeline of the project in early 2013 170 and in September 2015 the corporation announced the extension of the suspension of its drilling program in the Arctic 194 Polar Pioneer Edit A June 2014 interview with the corporation s new executive vice president of the Arctic indicated that Royal Dutch Shell will continue with its activity in the region 86 171 In Seattle protests began in May 2015 in response to the news that the Port of Seattle made an agreement with Shell to berth rigs at the Port s Terminal 5 during the off season of oil exploration in Alaskan waters The arrival of Shell s new Arctic drilling vessel Polar Pioneer IMO number 8754140 a semi submersible offshore drilling rig was greeted by large numbers of environmental protesters paddling kayaks in Elliott Bay 195 196 On 6 May 2015 it was reported that during a coast guard inspection of Polar Pioneer a piece of anti pollution gear failed resulting in fines and delay of the operation 197 Oil executives from Total and Eni interviewed by the New York Times expressed scepticism about Shell s new ambitions for offshore drilling in the Arctic and cited economic and environmental hurdles ConocoPhillips and Equinor formerly Statoil suspended Arctic drilling earlier after Shell s failed attempt in 2012 198 Oil spills Edit Shell was responsible for around 21 000 gallons of oil spilled near Tracy California in May 2016 due to a pipeline crack 199 Shell was responsible for an 88 200 gallon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in May 2016 200 Two ruptures in a Shell Oil Co pipeline in Altamont California one in September 2015 and another in May 2016 had some questioning whether the Office of the State Fire Marshal charged with overseeing the pipeline was doing an adequate job 201 On 29 January 2021 a Dutch court ordered Royal Dutch Shell Plc s Nigerian unit to compensate for oil spills in two villages over 13 years ago Shell Nigeria is liable for damages from pipeline leaks in the villages of Oruma and Goi the Hague Court of Appeals said in a ruling Shell said that it should not be liable as the spills were the result of sabotage 202 Paradise Papers Edit On 5 November 2017 the Paradise Papers a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment revealed that Argentine Energy Minister Juan Jose Aranguren was revealed to have managed the offshore companies Shell Western Supply and Trading Limited and Sol Antilles y Guianas Limited both subsidiaries of Shell One is the main bidder for the purchase of diesel oil by the government through the state owned CAMMESA Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico 203 Nigeria corruption scandals Edit Royal Dutch Shell and Italy s Eni will stand trial in Italy over allegations of corruption in the 2011 purchase of a big offshore oil field in Nigeria known as OPL 245 Shell and Eni reportedly paid 1 3 billion in bribes 204 According to Barnaby Pace of campaign group Global Witness This trial should be a wake up call to the oil industry Some of the most senior executives at two of the biggest companies in the world could face prison sentences for a deal that was struck under their watch 204 In March 2018 Royal Dutch Shell has filed a criminal complaint against Peter Robinson a former vice president for sub Saharan Africa Shell said the two cases were unrelated 205 Oman 1954 War Edit Further information Jebel Akhdar War In 1937 Iraq Petroleum Company IPC 23 75 percent owned by Royal Dutch Shell 206 signed an oil concession agreement with the Sultan of Muscat In 1952 IPC offered financial support to raise an armed force that would assist the Sultan in occupying the interior region of Oman an area that geologists believed to be rich in oil This led to the 1954 outbreak of Jebel Akhdar War in Oman that lasted for more than 5 years 207 Climate case Edit Main article Milieudefensie et al v Royal Dutch Shell On 5 April 2019 Milieudefensie Dutch for environmental defense together with six NGOs and more than 17 000 citizens sued Shell accusing the company of harming the climate despite knowing about global warming since 1986 208 209 In May 2021 the district court of The Hague ruled that Shell must reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 45 by 2030 compared to 2019 levels 210 See also EditBataafse Petroleum Maatschappij Chaco War Fossil fuels lobby Lensbury List of companies based in 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Archived 22 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Telegraph 28 March 2018 United States Office of the Historian The 1928 Red Line Agreement Archived from the original on 17 July 2019 Retrieved 21 July 2019 Peterson J E 2 January 2013 Oman s Insurgencies The Sultanate s Struggle for Supremacy Saqi ISBN 9780863567025 Retrieved 29 April 2018 via Google Books Milieudefensie et al v Royal Dutch Shell plc Climate Change Litigation Retrieved 10 January 2020 Jelmer Mommers Damian Carrington 28 February 2017 If Shell knew climate change was dire 25 years ago why still business as usual today The Correspondent Retrieved 10 January 2020 Milieudefensie wint rechtszaak tegen Shell concern moet meer doen tegen klimaatschade Bibliography Edit A Century in Oil by Stephen Howarth 1997 ISBN 0 297 82247 0 A History of The Shell Transport and Trading Company A History of Royal Dutch Shell by Stephen Howarth and others 2007 ISBN 978 0 19 929877 8 Seven Sisters by Anthony Sampson 1981 ISBN 978 0 553 23469 5 Shell Shock The secrets and spin of an Oil Giant by Ian Cummins and John Beasant 2005 ISBN 1 84018 941 X Merrillees Scott 2015 Jakarta Portraits of a Capital 1950 1980 Jakarta Equinox Publishing ISBN 9786028397308 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Dutch Shell Official website Business data for Royal Dutch Shell plc SEC filings Royal Dutch Shell companies grouped at OpenCorporates Works by Shell Union Oil Corporation at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Royal Dutch Shell at Internet Archive Works by Royal Dutch Shell at LibriVox public domain audiobooks Documents and clippings about Royal Dutch Shell in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBWRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Royal Dutch Shell amp oldid 1040568911, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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