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Stanford University

"Stanford" redirects here. For other uses, see Stanford (disambiguation).

Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies 8,180 acres, among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Stanford is ranked among the best universities in the world by academic publications.

Stanford University
MottoGerman: Die Luft der Freiheit weht
Motto in English
"The wind of freedom blows"
TypePrivate research university
Established1891; 130 years ago (1891)
FounderLeland and Jane Stanford
Academic affiliations
AAU
Space-grant
Endowment$28.9 billion (2020)
Budget$6.6 billion (2020–21)
PresidentMarc Tessier-Lavigne
ProvostPersis Drell
Academic staff
2,240
Administrative staff
12,508 excluding SHC
Students17,249 (Fall 2019)
Undergraduates6,996 (Fall 2019)
Postgraduates10,253 (Fall 2019)
Location,,
United States

37°25′42″N122°10′08″W /37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W /37.4282293; -122.1688576Coordinates: 37°25′42″N122°10′08″W /37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W /37.4282293; -122.1688576
CampusSuburban, 8,180 acres (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km2)
Academic termQuarter
ColorsCardinal and white
NicknameCardinal
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division I FBS
MascotNone
Websitewww.stanford.edu

Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.

The university is organized around seven schools: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. All schools are on the same campus. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 128 NCAA team championships, and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 25 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, as of 2021, Stanford students and alumni have won at least 296 Olympic medals including 150 gold medals.

As of April 2021, 84 Nobel laureates, 29 Turing Award laureates, and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff. In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011, roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world (as of 2020[update]). Stanford is the alma mater of one president of the United States (Herbert Hoover), 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.

Contents

Center of the campus in 1891.
Ichthyologist and founding president of Stanford, David Starr Jordan.

Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to the memory of Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm.

Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically Cornell University. Stanford was referred to as the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to a majority of its faculty being former Cornell affiliates (professors, alumni, or both), including its first president, David Starr Jordan, and second president, John Casper Branner. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible, nonsectarian, and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well.

From an architectural point of view, the Lelands, particularly Jane, wished to see their university look different from the eastern universities, which had often sought to emulate the style of English university buildings. They specified in the founding grant that the buildings should "be like the old adobe houses of the early Spanish days; they will be one-storied; they will have deep window seats and open fireplaces, and the roofs will be covered with the familiar dark red tiles". This guides the campus buildings to this day. The Lelands also hired renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted to design the campus.

When Leland Stanford died in 1893, the continued existence of the university was in jeopardy due to a federal lawsuit against his estate, but Jane Stanford insisted the university remain in operation throughout the financial crisis. The university suffered major damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake; most of the damage was repaired, but a new library and gymnasium were demolished, and some original features of Memorial Church and the Quad were never restored.

During the early 20th century the university added four professional graduate schools. Stanford University School of Medicine was established in 1908 when the university acquired Cooper Medical College in San Francisco; it moved to the Stanford campus in 1959. The university's law department, established as an undergraduate curriculum in 1893, was transitioned into a professional law school starting in 1908, and received accreditation from the American Bar Association in 1923. The Stanford Graduate School of Education grew out of the Department of the History and Art of Education, one of the original 21 departments at Stanford, and became a professional graduate school in 1917. The Stanford Graduate School of Business was founded in 1925 at the urging of then-trustee Herbert Hoover. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics.

William Shockley, Stanford professor, Nobel laureate in physics, "Father of Silicon Valley"

In the 1940s and 1950s, engineering professor and later provost Frederick Terman encouraged Stanford engineering graduates to invent products and start their own companies. During the 1950s he established Stanford Industrial Park, a high-tech commercial campus on university land. Also in the 1950s William Shockley, co-inventor of the silicon transistor, recipient of the 1956 Nobel Prize for Physics, and later professor of physics at Stanford, moved to the Palo Alto area and founded a company, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. The next year eight of his employees resigned and formed a competing company, Fairchild Semiconductor. The presence of so many high-tech and semiconductor firms helped to establish Stanford and the mid-Peninsula as a hotbed of innovation, eventually named Silicon Valley after the key ingredient in transistors. Shockley and Terman are often described, separately or jointly, as the "fathers of Silicon Valley".

An aerial photograph of the center of the Stanford University campus in 2008.

Most of Stanford is on an 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km2) campus, one of the largest in the United States. It is on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley (Silicon Valley) approximately 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles (30 km) northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.

Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land (such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park) is within the city limits of Palo Alto. The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County (including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve), as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park (Stanford Hills neighborhood), Woodside, and Portola Valley.

Central campus

The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Jane Stanford Way, and Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P.O. box mail. It lies within area code 650.

View of the main quadrangle of Stanford with Memorial Church in the center background from across the grass-covered Oval.

Non-central campus

Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus.

On the founding grant:

Off the founding grant:

  • Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892.
  • Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a "mini-Stanford."
  • Redwood City campus for many of the university's administrative offices in Redwood City, California, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre (14 ha) campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession. In 2015 the university announced a development plan and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019.
  • The Bass Center in Washington, D.C. provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates. It includes a small art gallery open to the public.
  • China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Peking University.
Lake Lagunita in winter; the Dish, a large radio telescope, and local landmark, is visible in the Stanford-owned foothills behind the lake and is the high point of a popular campus jogging and walking trail.

Faculty residences

Many Stanford faculty members live in the "Faculty Ghetto," within walking or biking distance of campus. The Faculty Ghetto is composed of land owned by Stanford. Similar to a condominium, the houses can be bought and sold but the land under the houses is rented on a 99-year lease. Houses in the "Ghetto" appreciate and depreciate, but not as rapidly as overall Silicon Valley values.

Other uses

Some of the land is managed to provide revenue for the university such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park. Stanford land is also leased for a token rent by the Palo Alto Unified School District for several schools including Palo Alto High School and Gunn High School. El Camino Park, the oldest Palo Alto city park (established 1914), is also on Stanford land.

Landmarks

Contemporary campus landmarks include the Main Quad and Memorial Church, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts and the Bing Concert Hall, the Stanford Mausoleum with the nearby Angel of Grief, Hoover Tower, the Rodin sculpture garden, the Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden, the Arizona Cactus Garden, the Stanford University Arboretum, Green Library and the Dish. Frank Lloyd Wright's 1937 Hanna–Honeycomb House and the 1919 Lou Henry Hoover House are both listed on the National Register of Historic Places. White Memorial Fountain (also known as "The Claw") between the Stanford Bookstore and the Old Union is a popular place to meet and to engage in the Stanford custom of "fountain hopping"; it was installed in 1964 and designed by Aristides Demetrios after a national competition as a memorial for two brothers in the class of 1949, William N. White and John B. White II, one of whom died before graduating and one shortly after in 1952.

Marc Tessier-Lavigne is the president of Stanford University.

Stanford is a private, non-profit university administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38. Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually. A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot. The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital).

The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university, to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, to manage financial and business affairs, and to appoint nine vice presidents. The 11th and current president of Stanford University is Marc Trevor Tessier-Lavigne, a Canadian-born neuroscientist. The provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report. Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017.

As of 2018, the university was organized into seven academic schools. The schools of Humanities and Sciences (27 departments), Engineering (nine departments), and Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (four departments) have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law, Medicine, Education and Business have graduate programs only. The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty.

The Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU) is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body.

Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes.

Endowment and donations

The university's endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $27.7 billion as of August 31, 2019. Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21.8% of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year. In the 2018 NACUBO-TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, only Harvard University, the University of Texas System, and Yale University had larger endowments than Stanford.

The original Golden spike on display at the Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University

In 2006, President John L. Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale. Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in "Seeking Solutions" to global problems, $1.61 billion for "Educating Leaders" by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for "Foundation of Excellence" aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; the new Cantor Arts Center; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things. In 2012, the university raised $1.035 billion, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

Admissions

First-time fall freshman statistics
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Applicants 45,227 47,498 47,452 44,073 43,997 42,497 42,167 38,827
Admits 2,349 2,062 2,071 2,085 2,118 2,140 2,145 2,208
Admit rate 5.19% 4.34% 4.36% 4.73% 4.81% 5.04% 5.09% 5.69%
Enrolled 1,607 1,701 1,697 1,703 1,739 1,720 1,687 1,677
Yield 68.41% 82.49% 81.94% 81.68% 82.11% 80.37% 78.23% 75.96%
SAT range 1420-1550 1440-1550 1420-1570 1390-1540 2170-2370 2080-2360 2070-2360 2070-2350
ACT range 31-35 32-35 32-35 32-35 32-35 31-35 31-34 30-34

Stanford is considered by US News to be 'most selective', with an acceptance rate of 4%. Half of applicants accepted to Stanford have an SAT score between 1440 and 1570 or an ACT score of 32 and 35. Admissions officials consider a student's GPA to be an important academic factor, with emphasis on an applicant's high school class rank and letters of recommendation. In terms of non-academic materials as of 2019, Stanford ranks extracurricular activities, talent/ability and character/personal qualities as 'very important' in making first-time, first-year admission decisions, while ranking the interview, whether the applicant is a first-generation university applicant, legacy preferences, volunteer work and work experience as 'considered'.

Teaching and learning

Stanford follows a quarter system with the autumn quarter usually beginning in late September and the spring quarter ending in mid-June. The full-time, four-year undergraduate program has an arts and sciences focus with high graduate student coexistence. Stanford is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

Stanford's admission process is need-blind for U.S. citizens and permanent residents; while it is not need-blind for international students, 64% are on need-based aid, with an average aid package of $31,411. In 2012–13, the university awarded $126 million in need-based financial aid to 3,485 students, with an average aid package of $40,460. Eighty percent of students receive some form of financial aid. Stanford has a no-loan policy. For undergraduates admitted starting in 2015, Stanford waives tuition, room, and board for most families with incomes below $65,000, and most families with incomes below $125,000 are not required to pay tuition; those with incomes up to $150,000 may have tuition significantly reduced. Seventeen percent of students receive Pell Grants, a common measure of low-income students at a college.

Research centers and institutes

Hoover Tower, inspired by the cathedral tower at Salamanca in Spain

Stanford is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity." The university's research expenditure in fiscal year 2018 was $1.157 billion. As of 2016 the Office of the Vice Provost and Dean of Research oversaw eighteen independent laboratories, centers, and institutes.

Other Stanford-affiliated institutions include the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (originally the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), the Stanford Research Institute (an independent institution which originated at the university), the Hoover Institution (a conservative think tank) and the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design (a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education).[citation needed]

Stanford is home to the Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project, a collaboration with the King Center to publish the King papers held by the King Center. It also runs the John S. Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists and the Center for Ocean Solutions, which brings together marine science and policy to address challenges facing the ocean.

Together with UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco, Stanford is part of the Biohub, a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a $600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan.

Libraries and digital resources

As of 2014, Stanford University Libraries (SUL) held a collection of more than 9.3 million volumes, nearly 300,000 rare or special books, 1.5 million e-books, 2.5 million audiovisual materials, 77,000 serials, nearly 6 million microform holdings, and thousands of other digital resources.

The main library in the SU library system is Green Library, which also contains various meeting and conference rooms, study spaces, and reading rooms. Lathrop Library (previously Meyer Library, demolished in 2015), holds various student-accessible media resources and houses one of the largest East Asia collections with 540,000 volumes.

Arts

Bronze statues by Auguste Rodin are scattered throughout the campus, including these Burghers of Calais.

Stanford is home to the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, a museum with 24 galleries, sculpture gardens, terraces, and a courtyard first established in 1891 by Jane and Leland Stanford as a memorial to their only child. The center's collection of works by Rodin is among the largest in the world. The Thomas Welton Stanford Gallery, which was built in 1917, serves as a teaching resource for the Department of Art & Art History as well as an exhibition venue. In 2014, Stanford opened the Anderson Collection, a new museum focused on postwar American art and founded by the donation of 121 works by food service moguls Mary and Harry Anderson. There are outdoor art installations throughout the campus, primarily sculptures, but some murals as well. The Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden near Roble Hall features includes wood carvings and "totem poles."

The Stanford music department sponsors many ensembles including five choirs, the Stanford Symphony Orchestra, Stanford Taiko, and the Stanford Wind Ensemble. Extracurricular activities include theater groups such as Ram's Head Theatrical Society, the Stanford Improvisors, the Stanford Shakespeare Society, and the Stanford Savoyards, a group dedicated to performing the works of Gilbert and Sullivan. Stanford is also host to ten a cappella groups, including the Mendicants (Stanford's first), Counterpoint (the first all-female group on the West Coast), the Stanford Fleet Street Singers, Harmonics, Talisman, Everyday People, Raagapella.

Reputation and rankings

National Program Rankings
Program Ranking
Biological Sciences 1
Business 1
Chemistry 2
Computer Science 1
Earth Sciences 2
Economics 1
Education 3
Engineering 2
English 3
Fine Arts 32
History 1
Law 2
Mathematics 2
Medicine: Primary Care 30
Medicine: Research 4
Physician Assistant 21
Physics 1
Political Science 1
Psychology 1
Sociology 5
Statistics 1

Global Subject Rankings
Program Ranking
Arts & Humanities 10
Biology & Biochemistry 3
Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems 6
Chemistry 2
Clinical Medicine 5
Computer Science 9
Economics & Business 4
Electrical & Electronic Engineering 47
Engineering 10
Environment/Ecology 3
Geosciences 27
Immunology 8
Materials Science 2
Mathematics 1
Mechanical Engineering 35
Microbiology 10
Molecular Biology & Genetics 3
Neuroscience & Behavior 2
Oncology 19
Pharmacology & Toxicology 11
Physics 2
Plant & Animal Science 34
Psychiatry/Psychology 3
Social Sciences & Public Health 3
Space Science 6
Surgery 13

In United States college ranking measures Stanford ranks high, sometimes first (see infoboxes above). Slate in 2014 dubbed Stanford as "the Harvard of the 21st century". The New York Times in the same year concluded "Stanford University has become America's 'it' school, by measures that Harvard once dominated." From polls of college applicants done by The Princeton Review, every year from 2013 to 2020 the most commonly named "dream college" for students was Stanford; separately, parents, too, most frequently named Stanford their "dream college."

Globally Stanford is also ranked among the top universities in the world (see infoboxes above). The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Stanford second in the world (after Harvard) most years from 2003 to 2020. Times Higher Education recognizes Stanford as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, and Oxford.

Natural sciences

Felix Bloch, physics professor, 1952 Nobel laureate for his work at Stanford

Computer and applied sciences

Vint Cerf (BS 1965), co-leader of the Stanford team that designed the architecture of the internet

Businesses and entrepreneurship

Co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, Bill Hewlett, BS 1934.
Co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, David Packard, BA 1934.

Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer. Stanford's Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects.

The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often funded, to launch their own companies.

Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.

Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include:

Student body

Demographics of students 2011/2012 and comparison to California and United States Census
2011 estimates
Undergraduate Adjusted
Percentage
Graduate California United States
Black or African American 7.32% (507) 8.22% 3% (279) 6.6% 13.1%
Asian 18.15% (1257) 19.64% 13% (1182) 13.6% 5.0%
White 36.45% (2525) 39.45% 36% (3163) 39.7% 63.4%
Hispanic/Latino 16.60% (1150) 17.97% 5% (475) 38.1% 16.7%
American Indian / N. Alaskan 0.91% (63) 0.98% 1% (68) 1.7% 1.2%
Native Hawaiian / U.S. Pacific Islander 0.46% (32) 0.46% n/a 0.5% 0.2%
Two or more races 11.58% (802) 12.53% n/a 3.6% 2.3%
Race/ethnicity unknown 0.94% (65) 1.02% 1% (61) n/a n/a
International student 7.59% (526) 33% 33% (2893) n/a n/a
Notes
  1. adjusted for US citizens and permanent residents only since racial breakdown in the Stanford data is not given for students here on temporary visas. The census data for California and the United States as a whole does include people who are here on temporary visas or who are undocumented.
  2. Does not include Hispanic Americans
  3. The data for graduate students merges Asian with Pacific Islander. Also no separate category for multiple races.

Stanford enrolled 6,996 undergraduate and 10,253 graduate students as of the 2019–2020 school year. Women comprised 50.4% of undergraduates and 41.5% of graduate students. In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%.

Stanford awarded 1,819 undergraduate degrees, 2,393 master's degrees, 770 doctoral degrees, and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018–2019 school year. The four-year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72.9%, and the six-year rate was 94.4%. The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university's coterminal degree (or "coterm") program, which allows students to earn a master's degree as a 1-to-2-year extension of their undergraduate program.

As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students.

Dormitories and student housing

As of 2013, 89% of undergraduate students lived in on-campus university housing. First-year undergraduates are required to live on campus, and all undergraduates are guaranteed housing for all four undergraduate years. Undergraduates live in 80 different houses, including dormitories, co-ops, row houses, and fraternities and sororities. At Manzanita Park, 118 mobile homes were installed as "temporary" housing from 1969 to 1991, but as of 2015 was the site of newer dorms Castano, Kimball, Lantana, and the Humanities House, completed in 2015.

Most student residences are just outside the campus core, within ten minutes (on foot or bike) of most classrooms and libraries. Some are reserved for freshman, sophomores, or upperclass students and some are open to all four classes. Most residences are co-ed; seven are all-male fraternities, three are all-female sororities, and there is also one all-female non-sorority house, Roth House. In most residences, men and women live on the same floor, but a few dorms are configured for men and women to live on separate floors (single-gender floors).

Many students use bicycles to get around the large campus.

Several residences are considered theme houses. The Academic, Language and Culture Houses include EAST (Education and Society Themed House), Hammarskjöld (International Themed House), Haus Mitteleuropa (Central European Themed House), La Casa Italiana (Italian Language and Culture), La Maison Française (French Language and Culture House), Slavianskii Dom (Slavic/East European Themed House), Storey (Human Biology Themed House), and Yost (Spanish Language and Culture). Cross-Cultural Themed Houses include Casa Zapata (Chicano/Latino Theme in Stern Hall), Muwekma-tah-ruk (American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Themed House), Okada (Asian-American Themed House in Wilbur Hall), and Ujamaa (Black/African-American Themed House in Lagunita Court). Focus Houses include Freshman-Sophomore College (Academic Focus), Branner Hall (Community Service), Kimball (Arts & Performing Arts), Crothers (Global Citizenship), and Toyon (Sophomore Priority). Theme houses predating the current "theme" classification system are Columbae (Social Change Through Nonviolence, since 1970), and Synergy (Exploring Alternatives, since 1972).

Co-ops or "Self-Ops" are another housing option. These houses feature cooperative living, where residents and eating associates each contribute work to keep the house running, such as cooking meals or cleaning shared spaces. These houses have unique themes around which their community is centered. Many co-ops are hubs of music, art and philosophy. The co-ops on campus are 576 Alvarado Row (formerly Chi Theta Chi), Columbae, Enchanted Broccoli Forest (EBF), Hammarskjöld, Kairos, Terra (the unofficial LGBT house), and Synergy. Phi Sigma, at 1018 Campus Drive was formerly Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity, but in 1973 became a Self-Op.

As of 2015 around 55 percent of the graduate student population lived on campus. First-year graduate students are guaranteed on-campus housing. Stanford also subsidizes off-campus apartments in nearby Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Mountain View for graduate students who are guaranteed on-campus housing but are unable to live on campus due to a lack of space.

Athletics

Main article: Stanford Cardinal
The Leland Stanford Junior University Marching Band rallies football fans with arrangements of "All Right Now" and other contemporary music.

As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot "Indian." The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate. The sports teams are now officially referred to as the "Stanford Cardinal," referring to the deep red color, not the cardinal bird. Stanford is a member of the Pac-12 Conference in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate NCAA's Division I FBS.

Its traditional sports rival is the University of California, Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay. The winner of the annual "Big Game" between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe.

Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 128 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, the most among universities, and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships, the most by any university. Stanford has won the award for the top-ranked Division 1 athletic program—the NACDA Directors' Cup, formerly known as the Sears Cup—annually for the past twenty-five straight years. Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, and 2016 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States. Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics (12 gold, two silver and two bronze), and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Traditions

  • "Hail, Stanford, Hail!" is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups. It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W. Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith (in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology), but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.
  • Big Game: The central football rivalry between Stanford and UC Berkeley. First played in 1892, and for a time played by the universities' rugby teams, it is one of the oldest college rivalries in the United States.
  • The Stanford Axe: A trophy earned by the winner of Big Game, exchanged only as necessary. The axe originated in 1899, when Stanford yell leader Billy Erb wielded a lumberman's axe to inspire the team. Stanford lost, and the Axe was stolen by Berkeley students following the game. In 1930, Stanford students staged an elaborate heist to recover the Axe. In 1933, the schools agreed to exchange it as a prize for winning Big Game. As of 2021, a restaurant centrally located on Stanford campus is named "The Axe and Palm" in reference to the Axe.
  • Big Game Gaieties: In the week ahead of Big Game, a 90-minute original musical (written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram's Head Theatrical Society) is performed in Memorial Auditorium.
  • Full Moon on the Quad: An annual event at Main Quad, where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight. Typically organized by the Junior class cabinet, the festivities include live entertainment, such as music and dance performances.
  • The Stanford Marriage Pact: An annual matchmaking event where thousands of students complete a questionnaire about their values and are subsequently matched with the best person for them to make a "marriage pact" with.
  • Fountain Hopping: At any time of year, students tour Stanford’s main campus fountains to dip their feet or swim in some of the university's 25 fountains.
  • Mausoleum Party: An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr. and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the Mausoleum party was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented. In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year.
  • Wacky Walk: At commencement, graduates forgo a more traditional entrance and instead stride into Stanford Stadium in a large procession wearing wacky costumes.
  • Steam Tunneling: Stanford has a network of underground brick-lined tunnels that conduct central heating to more than 200 buildings via steam pipes. Students sometimes navigate the corridors, rooms, and locked gates, carrying flash lights and water bottles. Stanford Magazine named steam tunneling one of the "101 things you must do" before graduating from the Farm in 2000.
  • Band Run: An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year, where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location, culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad.
  • Viennese Ball: a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed (since 1987) Stanford in Vienna overseas program. It is now open to all students.
  • The unofficial motto of Stanford, selected by President Jordan, is "Die Luft der Freiheit weht." Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, "The wind of freedom blows." The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official.
  • Degree of Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the "degree of Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman" was created by Stanford Associates, part of the Stanford Alumni organization, to recognize alumni who give rare and extraordinary service to the University. It is awarded not at prescribed intervals, but instead only when the president of the university deems it appropriate to recognize extraordinary service. Recipients include Herbert Hoover, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard, and John Gardner.
  • Former campus traditions include the Big Game bonfire on Lake Lagunita (a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall), which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed.

Religious life

Students and staff at Stanford are of many different religions. The Stanford Office for Religious Life's mission is "to guide, nurture and enhance spiritual, religious and ethical life within the Stanford University community" by promoting enriching dialogue, meaningful ritual, and enduring friendships among people of all religious backgrounds. It is headed by a dean with the assistance of a senior associate dean and an associate dean. Stanford Memorial Church, in the center of campus, has a Sunday University Public Worship service (UPW) usually in the "Protestant Ecumenical Christian" tradition where the Memorial Church Choir sings and a sermon is preached usually by one of the Stanford deans for Religious Life. UPW sometimes has multifaith services. In addition, the church is used by the Catholic community and by some of the other Christian denominations at Stanford. Weddings happen most Saturdays and the university has for over 20 years allowed blessings of same-gender relationships and now legal weddings.

In addition to the church, the Office for Religious Life has a Center for Inter-Religious Community, Learning and Experiences (CIRCLE) on the third floor of Old Union. It offers a common room, an interfaith sanctuary, a seminar room, a student lounge area, and a reading room, as well as offices housing a number of Stanford Associated Religions (SAR) member groups and the Senior Associate Dean and Associate Dean for Religious Life. Most though not all religious student groups belong to SAR. The SAR directory includes organizations that serve atheist, Bahá’í, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islam, Jewish, and Sikh groups, though these groups vary year by year. The Windhover Contemplation Center was dedicated in October 2014, and was intended to provide spiritual sanctuary for students and staff in the midst of their course and work schedules; the center displays the "Windhover" paintings by Nathan Oliveira, the late Stanford professor and artist.

Some religions have a larger and more formal presence on campus in addition to the student groups; these include the Catholic Community at Stanford and Hillel at Stanford.

Greek life

Fraternities and sororities have been active on the Stanford campus since 1891, when the university first opened. In 1944, University President Donald Tresidder banned all Stanford sororities due to extreme competition. However, following Title IX, the Board of Trustees lifted the 33-year ban on sororities in 1977. Students are not permitted to join a fraternity or sorority until spring quarter of their freshman year.

As of 2016 Stanford had 31 Greek organizations, including 14 sororities and 16 fraternities. Nine of the Greek organizations were housed (eight in University-owned houses and one, Sigma Chi, in their own house, although the land is owned by the University). Six chapters were members of the African American Fraternal and Sororal Association, 11 chapters were members of the Interfraternity Council, seven chapters belonged to the Intersorority Council, and six chapters belonged to the Multicultural Greek Council.

Student groups

As of 2020, Stanford had more than 600 student organizations. Groups are often, though not always, partially funded by the University via allocations directed by the student government organization, the ASSU. These funds include "special fees," which are decided by a Spring Quarter vote by the student body. Groups span athletics and recreation, careers/pre-professional, community service, ethnic/cultural, fraternities and sororities, health and counseling, media and publications, the arts, political and social awareness, and religious and philosophical organizations.

Stanford is home to a set of student journalism publications. The Stanford Daily is a student-run daily newspaper and has been published since the University was founded in 1892. The student-run radio station, KZSU Stanford 90.1 FM, features freeform music programming, sports commentary, and news segments; it started in 1947 as an AM radio station. The Stanford Review is a conservative student newspaper founded in 1987. The Fountain Hopper (FoHo) is a financially independent, anonymous student-run campus rag publication, notable for having broken the Brock Turner story.

Stanford is also home to a large number of pre-professional student organizations, organized around missions from startup incubation to paid consulting. The Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students (BASES) is one of the largest professional organizations in Silicon Valley, with over 5,000 members.[citation needed] Its goal is to support the next generation of entrepreneurs.[citation needed] StartX is a non-profit startup accelerator for student and faculty-led startups that over 12% of the study body has applied to.[citation needed] It is staffed primarily by students.[citation needed] Stanford Women In Business (SWIB) is an on-campus business organization, aimed at helping Stanford women find paths to success in the generally male-dominated technology industry. Stanford Marketing is a student group that provides students hands-on training through research and strategy consulting projects with Fortune 500 clients, as well as workshops led by people from industry and professors in the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Stanford Finance provides mentoring and internships for students who want to enter a career in finance. Students run SUpost.com, an online marketplace for Stanford students and alumni, in partnership with Stanford Student Enterprises (SSE) and the Stanford Pre-Business Association.[better source needed] The latter is intended to build connections among industry, alumni, and student communities.[citation needed]

Other groups include:

  • The Stanford Axe Committee is the official guardian of the Stanford Axe and the rest of the time assists the Stanford Band as a supplementary spirit group. It has existed since 1982.
  • The Stanford solar car project, in which students build a solar-powered car every 2 years and race it in either the North American Solar Challenge or the World Solar Challenge.
  • Stanford American Indian Organization (SAIO) which hosts the annual Stanford Powwow started in 1971. This is the largest student run event on campus and the largest student run powwow in the country.
  • The Stanford Improvisors (SImps for short) teach and perform improvisational theatre on campus and in the surrounding community. In 2014 the group finished second in the Golden Gate Regional College Improv tournament and they've since been invited twice to perform at the annual San Francisco Improv Festival.
  • Asha for Education is a national student group founded in 1991. It focuses mainly on education in India and supporting nonprofit organizations that work mainly in the education sector. Asha's Stanford chapter organizes events like Holi as well as lectures by prominent leaders from India the university campus.

Safety

Stanford's Department of Public Safety is responsible for law enforcement and safety on the main campus. Its deputy sheriffs are peace officers by arrangement with the Santa Clara County Sheriff's Office. The department is also responsible for publishing an annual crime report covering the previous three years as required by the Clery Act. Fire protection has been provided by contract with the Palo Alto Fire Department since 1976.

Murder is rare on the campus though a few of the cases have been notorious including the 1974 murder of Arlis Perry in Stanford Memorial Church not solved until 2018 and Theodore Streleski's murder of his professor in 1978.

In 2014, Stanford was the tenth highest in the nation in "total of reports of rape" on their main campus, with 26 reports of rape.

In Stanford's 2015 Campus Climate Survey, 4.7 percent of female undergraduates reported experiencing sexual assault as defined by the university and 32.9 percent reported experiencing sexual misconduct. According to the survey, 85% of perpetrators of misconduct were Stanford students and 80% were men. Perpetrators of sexual misconduct were frequently aided by alcohol or drugs, according to the survey: "Nearly three-fourths of the students whose responses were categorized as sexual assault indicated that the act was accomplished by a person or person taking advantage of them when they were drunk or high, according to the survey. Close to 70 percent of students who reported an experience of sexual misconduct involving nonconsensual penetration and/or oral sex indicated the same." Associated Students of Stanford and student and alumni activists with the anti-rape group Stand with Leah criticized the survey methodology for downgrading incidents involving alcohol if students did not check two separate boxes indicating they were both intoxicated and incapacity while sexually assaulted. Reporting on the Brock Turner rape case, a reporter from The Washington Post analyzed campus rape reports submitted by universities to the U.S. Department of Education, and found that Stanford was one of the top ten universities in campus rapes in 2014, with 26 reported that year, but when analyzed by rapes per 1000 students, Stanford was not among the top ten.

People v. Turner

Main article: People v. Turner

On the night of January 17–18, 2015, 22-year-old Chanel Miller, who had visited campus to attend a party at the Kappa Alpha fraternity, was sexually assaulted by Brock Turner, a freshman who had a swimming scholarship. Two graduate students witnessed the attack and intervened, catching Turner when he tried to flee and holding him down on the ground until police arrived. Stanford immediately referred the case to prosecutors and offered Miller counseling, and within two weeks had barred Turner from campus after conducting an investigation. Turner was convicted on three felony charges in March 2016 and in June 2016 he received a jail sentence of six months and was declared a sex offender, requiring him to register as such for the rest of his life; prosecutors had sought a six-year prison sentence out of the maximum 14 years that was possible. The case and the relatively lenient sentence drew nationwide attention. Two years later the judge in the case, Stanford graduate Aaron Persky, was recalled by the voters.

Joe Lonsdale

In February 2015, Elise Clougherty filed a sexual assault and harassment lawsuit against venture capitalist Joe Lonsdale. Lonsdale and Clougherty entered into a relationship in the spring of 2012 when she was a junior and he was her mentor in a Stanford entrepreneurship course. By the spring of 2013 Clougherty had broken off the relationship and filed charges at Stanford that Lonsdale had broken the Stanford policy against consensual relationships between students and faculty and that he had sexually assaulted and harassed her, which resulted in Lonsdale being banned from Stanford for 10 years. Lonsdale challenged Stanford's finding that he had had sexually assaulted and harassed her and Stanford rescinded that finding and the campus ban in the fall of 2015. Clougherty withdrew her suit that fall as well.

Herbert Hoover (BS 1895), 31st President of the United States, founder of Hoover Institution at Stanford, recipient of the Uncommon Man award

As of late 2020, Stanford had 2,279 tenure-line faculty, senior fellows, center fellows, and medical center faculty.

Award laureates and scholars

Stanford's current community of scholars includes:

Stanford's faculty and former faculty includes 48 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists, as well as 17 winners of the Turing Award, the so-called "Nobel Prize in computer science," comprising one third of the awards given in its 44-year history. The university has 27 ACM fellows. It is also affiliated with 4 Gödel Prize winners, 4 Knuth Prize recipients, 10 IJCAI Computers and Thought Award winners, and about 15 Grace Murray Hopper Award winners for their work in the foundations of computer science. Stanford alumni have started many companies and, according to Forbes, has produced the second highest number of billionaires of all universities.

As of 2020, 15 Stanford alumni have won the Nobel Prize. As of 2019, 122 Stanford students or alumni have been named Rhodes Scholars.

  1. Undergraduate school alumni who received the Turing Award:
    1. Vint Cerf: BS Math Stanford 1965; MS CS UCLA 1970; PhD CS UCLA 1972.
    2. Allen Newell: BS Physics Stanford 1949; PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1957.
    Graduate school alumni who received the Turing Award:
    1. Martin Hellman: BE New York University 1966, MS Stanford University 1967, PhD Stanford University 1969, all in electrical engineering. Professor at Stanford 1971–1996.
    2. John Hopcroft: BS Seattle University; MS EE Stanford 1962, Phd EE Stanford 1964.
    3. Barbara Liskov: BSc Berkeley 1961; PhD Stanford.
    4. Raj Reddy: BS from Guindy College of Engineering (Madras, India) 1958; M Tech, University of New South Wales 1960; PhD Stanford 1966.
    5. Ronald Rivest: BA Yale 1969; PhD Stanford 1974.
    6. Robert Tarjan: BS Caltech 1969; MS Stanford 1971, PhD 1972.
    Non-alumni former and current faculty, staff, and researchers who received the Turing Award:
    1. Whitfield Diffie: BS mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1965. Visiting scholar at Stanford 2009–2010 and an affiliate from 2010–2012; currently a consulting professor at CISAC (The Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University).
    2. Doug Engelbart: BS EE Oregon State University 1948; MS EE Berkeley 1953; PhD Berkeley 1955. Researcher/Director at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) 1957–1977; Director (Bootstrap Project) at Stanford University 1989–1990.
    3. Edward Feigenbaum: BS Carnegie Institute of Technology 1956, PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1960. Associate Professor at Stanford 1965–1968; Professor at Stanford 1969–2000; Professor Emeritus at Stanford (2000–present).
    4. Robert W. Floyd: BA 1953, BSc Physics, both from University of Chicago. Professor at Stanford (1968–1994).
    5. Sir Antony Hoare: Undergraduate at Oxford University. Visiting Professor at Stanford 1973.
    6. Alan Kay: BA/BS from University of Colorado at Boulder, PhD 1969 from University of Utah. Researcher at Stanford 1969–1971.
    7. John McCarthy: BS Math, Caltech; PhD Princeton. Assistant Professor at Stanford 1953–1955; Professor at Stanford 1962–2011.
    8. Robin Milner: BSc 1956 from Cambridge University. Researcher at Stanford University 1971–1972.
    9. Amir Pnueli: BSc Math from Technion 1962, PhD Weizmann Institute of Science 1967. Instructor at Stanford 1967; Visitor at Stanford 1970
    10. Dana Scott: BA Berkeley 1954, PhD Princeton 1958. Associate Professor at Stanford 1963–1967.
    11. Niklaus Wirth: BS Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 1959, MSC Universite Laval, Canada, 1960; PhD Berkeley 1963. Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1963–1967.
    12. Andrew Yao: BS physics National University of Taiwan 1967; AM Physics Harvard 1969; PhD Physics, Harvard 1972; PhD CS University of Illinois Urbana–Champagin 1975 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1976–1981; Professor at Stanford University 1982–1986.
  2. It is often stated that Stanford has the largest contiguous campus in the world (or the United States) but that depends on definitions. Berry College with over 26,000 acres (40.6 sq mi; 105.2 km2), Paul Smith's College with 14,200 acres (22.2 sq mi; 57.5 km2), and the United States Air Force Academy with 18,500 acres (7,500 ha) are larger but are not usually classified as universities. Duke University at 8,610 acres (13.5 sq mi; 34.8 km2) does have more land, but it is not contiguous. However the University of the South has over 13,000 acres (20.3 sq mi; 52.6 km2).
  3. The rules governing the board have changed over time. The original 24 trustees were appointed for life in 1885 by the Stanfords as were some of the subsequent replacements. In 1899 Jane Stanford changed the maximum number of trustees from 24 to 15 and set the term of office to 10 years. On June 1, 1903, she resigned her powers as founder and the board took on its full powers. In the 1950s the board decided that 15 members was not sufficient to do all the work needed and in March 1954 petitioned the courts to raise the maximum number to 23, of whom 20 would be regular trustees serving 10-year terms and 3 would be alumni trustees serving 5-year terms. In 1970 another petition was successfully made to have the number raised to a maximum of 35 (with a minimum of 25), that all trustees would be regular trustees, and that the university president would be a trustee ex officio. The last original trustee, Timothy Hopkins, died in 1936; the last life trustee, Joseph D. Grant (appointed in 1891), died in 1942.
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Stanford University
stanford, university, language, watch, edit, stanford, redirects, here, other, uses, stanford, disambiguation, officially, leland, stanford, junior, university, private, research, university, stanford, california, campus, occupies, acres, among, largest, unite. Stanford University Language Watch Edit Stanford redirects here For other uses see Stanford disambiguation Stanford University officially Leland Stanford Junior University 12 13 is a private research university in Stanford California The campus occupies 8 180 acres among the largest in the United States and enrolls over 17 000 students 14 Stanford is ranked among the best universities in the world by academic publications 15 16 17 18 19 Stanford UniversityMottoGerman Die Luft der Freiheit weht 1 Motto in English The wind of freedom blows 1 TypePrivate research universityEstablished1891 130 years ago 1891 2 3 FounderLeland and Jane StanfordAcademic affiliationsAAU Space grantEndowment 28 9 billion 2020 4 Budget 6 6 billion 2020 21 5 PresidentMarc Tessier LavigneProvostPersis DrellAcademic staff2 240 6 Administrative staff12 508 7 excluding SHCStudents17 249 Fall 2019 8 Undergraduates6 996 Fall 2019 8 Postgraduates10 253 Fall 2019 8 LocationStanford California United States 37 25 42 N 122 10 08 W 37 4282293 N 122 1688576 W 37 4282293 122 1688576 9 Coordinates 37 25 42 N 122 10 08 W 37 4282293 N 122 1688576 W 37 4282293 122 1688576 9 CampusSuburban 8 180 acres 12 8 sq mi 33 1 km2 6 Academic termQuarterColorsCardinal and white 10 NicknameCardinalSporting affiliationsNCAA Division I FBS Pac 12 primary IRAPCCSCMPSFMascotNone 11 Websitewww wbr stanford wbr edu Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child Leland Stanford Jr who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year 2 Leland Stanford was a U S senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon The school admitted its first students on October 1 1891 2 3 as a coeducational and non denominational institution Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake 20 Following World War II provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley 21 The university is organized around seven schools three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law medicine education and business All schools are on the same campus Students compete in 36 varsity sports and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac 12 Conference It has gained 128 NCAA team championships 22 and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors Cup for 25 consecutive years beginning in 1994 1995 23 In addition as of 2021 Stanford students and alumni have won at least 296 Olympic medals including 150 gold medals 24 As of April 2021 84 Nobel laureates 29 Turing Award laureates note 1 and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students alumni faculty or staff 45 In addition Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start ups 46 47 48 49 50 Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies which combined produce more than 2 7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5 4 million jobs as of 2011 roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world as of 2020 update 51 52 53 Stanford is the alma mater of one president of the United States Herbert Hoover 74 living billionaires and 17 astronauts 54 It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars Marshall Scholars Rhodes Scholars and members of the United States Congress 55 Contents 1 History 2 Land 2 1 Central campus 2 2 Non central campus 2 3 Faculty residences 2 4 Other uses 2 5 Landmarks 3 Administration and organization 3 1 Endowment and donations 4 Academics 4 1 Admissions 4 2 Teaching and learning 4 3 Research centers and institutes 4 4 Libraries and digital resources 4 5 Arts 4 6 Reputation and rankings 5 Discoveries and innovation 5 1 Natural sciences 5 2 Computer and applied sciences 5 3 Businesses and entrepreneurship 6 Student life 6 1 Student body 6 2 Dormitories and student housing 6 3 Athletics 6 4 Traditions 6 5 Religious life 6 6 Greek life 6 7 Student groups 6 8 Safety 6 8 1 People v Turner 6 8 2 Joe Lonsdale 7 People 7 1 Award laureates and scholars 8 See also 9 Explanatory notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistory Edit Center of the campus in 1891 56 Ichthyologist and founding president of Stanford David Starr Jordan Main article History of Stanford University Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford dedicated to the memory of Leland Stanford Jr their only child The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford s previous Palo Alto farm Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities most specifically Cornell University Stanford was referred to as the Cornell of the West in 1891 due to a majority of its faculty being former Cornell affiliates professors alumni or both including its first president David Starr Jordan and second president John Casper Branner Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible nonsectarian and open to women as well as to men Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education and Stanford became an early adopter as well 57 From an architectural point of view the Lelands particularly Jane wished to see their university look different from the eastern universities which had often sought to emulate the style of English university buildings They specified in the founding grant 58 that the buildings should be like the old adobe houses of the early Spanish days they will be one storied they will have deep window seats and open fireplaces and the roofs will be covered with the familiar dark red tiles This guides the campus buildings to this day The Lelands also hired renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted to design the campus When Leland Stanford died in 1893 the continued existence of the university was in jeopardy due to a federal lawsuit against his estate but Jane Stanford insisted the university remain in operation throughout the financial crisis 59 60 The university suffered major damage from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake most of the damage was repaired but a new library and gymnasium were demolished and some original features of Memorial Church and the Quad were never restored 61 During the early 20th century the university added four professional graduate schools Stanford University School of Medicine was established in 1908 when the university acquired Cooper Medical College in San Francisco 62 it moved to the Stanford campus in 1959 63 The university s law department established as an undergraduate curriculum in 1893 was transitioned into a professional law school starting in 1908 and received accreditation from the American Bar Association in 1923 64 The Stanford Graduate School of Education grew out of the Department of the History and Art of Education one of the original 21 departments at Stanford and became a professional graduate school in 1917 65 The Stanford Graduate School of Business was founded in 1925 at the urging of then trustee Herbert Hoover 66 In 1919 The Hoover Institution on War Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center established in 1962 performs research in particle physics 67 William Shockley Stanford professor Nobel laureate in physics Father of Silicon Valley In the 1940s and 1950s engineering professor and later provost Frederick Terman encouraged Stanford engineering graduates to invent products and start their own companies 68 During the 1950s he established Stanford Industrial Park a high tech commercial campus on university land 69 Also in the 1950s William Shockley co inventor of the silicon transistor recipient of the 1956 Nobel Prize for Physics and later professor of physics at Stanford moved to the Palo Alto area and founded a company Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory The next year eight of his employees resigned and formed a competing company Fairchild Semiconductor The presence of so many high tech and semiconductor firms helped to establish Stanford and the mid Peninsula as a hotbed of innovation eventually named Silicon Valley after the key ingredient in transistors 70 Shockley and Terman are often described separately or jointly as the fathers of Silicon Valley 71 72 Land Edit An aerial photograph of the center of the Stanford University campus in 2008 Most of Stanford is on an 8 180 acre 12 8 sq mi 33 1 km2 6 campus one of the largest in the United States note 2 It is on the San Francisco Peninsula in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley Silicon Valley approximately 37 miles 60 km southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles 30 km northwest of San Jose In 2008 60 of this land remained undeveloped 75 Stanford s main campus includes a census designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County although some of the university land such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park is within the city limits of Palo Alto The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park Stanford Hills neighborhood Woodside and Portola Valley 76 Central campus Edit The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto bounded by El Camino Real Stanford Avenue Jane Stanford Way and Sand Hill Road The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P O box mail It lies within area code 650 View of the main quadrangle of Stanford with Memorial Church in the center background from across the grass covered Oval Non central campus Edit Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus On the founding grant Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1 200 acre 490 ha natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world 2 miles 3 2 km on 426 acres 172 ha of land 77 Golf course and a seasonal lake The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake Lake Lagunita actually an irrigation reservoir both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it 78 Off the founding grant Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove California is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892 Study abroad locations unlike typical study abroad programs Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world thus each location has Stanford faculty in residence and staff in addition to students creating a mini Stanford 79 Redwood City campus for many of the university s administrative offices in Redwood City California a few miles north of the main campus In 2005 the university purchased a small 35 acre 14 ha campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices development was delayed by The Great Recession 80 81 In 2015 the university announced a development plan 82 and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019 83 The Bass Center in Washington D C provides a base including housing for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates 84 It includes a small art gallery open to the public 85 China Stanford Center at Peking University housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Peking University 86 87 Lake Lagunita in winter the Dish a large radio telescope and local landmark is visible in the Stanford owned foothills behind the lake and is the high point of a popular campus jogging and walking trail Faculty residences Edit Many Stanford faculty members live in the Faculty Ghetto within walking or biking distance of campus 88 The Faculty Ghetto is composed of land owned by Stanford Similar to a condominium the houses can be bought and sold but the land under the houses is rented on a 99 year lease Houses in the Ghetto appreciate and depreciate but not as rapidly as overall Silicon Valley values Other uses Edit Some of the land is managed to provide revenue for the university such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park Stanford land is also leased for a token rent by the Palo Alto Unified School District for several schools including Palo Alto High School and Gunn High School 89 El Camino Park the oldest Palo Alto city park established 1914 is also on Stanford land 90 Landmarks Edit Contemporary campus landmarks include the Main Quad and Memorial Church the Cantor Center for Visual Arts and the Bing Concert Hall the Stanford Mausoleum with the nearby Angel of Grief Hoover Tower the Rodin sculpture garden the Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden the Arizona Cactus Garden the Stanford University Arboretum Green Library and the Dish Frank Lloyd Wright s 1937 Hanna Honeycomb House and the 1919 Lou Henry Hoover House are both listed on the National Register of Historic Places White Memorial Fountain also known as The Claw between the Stanford Bookstore and the Old Union is a popular place to meet and to engage in the Stanford custom of fountain hopping it was installed in 1964 and designed by Aristides Demetrios after a national competition as a memorial for two brothers in the class of 1949 William N White and John B White II one of whom died before graduating and one shortly after in 1952 91 92 93 94 Interior of the Stanford Memorial Church at the center of the Main Quad Hoover Tower at 285 feet 87 m the tallest building on campus The new 2006 Stanford Stadium site of home football games Stanford Quad with Memorial Church in the background The Dish a 150 feet 46 m diameter radio telescope on the Stanford foothills overlooking the main campus White Memorial Fountain The Claw Administration and organization Edit Marc Tessier Lavigne is the president of Stanford University Stanford is a private non profit university administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38 7 note 3 Trustees serve five year terms not more than two consecutive terms and meet five times annually 97 A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot 95 The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park the Stanford Shopping Center the Cantor Center for Visual Arts Stanford University Medical Center and many associated medical facilities including the Lucile Packard Children s Hospital 98 The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study to manage financial and business affairs and to appoint nine vice presidents 99 The 11th and current president of Stanford University is Marc Trevor Tessier Lavigne a Canadian born neuroscientist 100 The provost is the chief academic and budget officer to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report 101 102 Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017 As of 2018 the university was organized into seven academic schools 103 The schools of Humanities and Sciences 27 departments 104 Engineering nine departments 105 and Earth Energy amp Environmental Sciences four departments 106 have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law Medicine Education and Business have graduate programs only The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council which is made up of tenure and non tenure line faculty research faculty senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes the president of the university and some other academic administrators but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty 107 The Associated Students of Stanford University ASSU is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body 108 Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes 109 Endowment and donations Edit The university s endowment managed by the Stanford Management Company was valued at 27 7 billion as of August 31 2019 4 Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21 8 of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year 4 In the 2018 NACUBO TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada only Harvard University the University of Texas System and Yale University had larger endowments than Stanford 110 The original Golden spike on display at the Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University In 2006 President John L Hennessy launched a five year campaign called the Stanford Challenge which reached its 4 3 billion fundraising goal in 2009 two years ahead of time but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign It concluded on December 31 2011 having raised 6 23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of 3 88 billion held by Yale 111 112 Specifically the campaign raised 253 7 million for undergraduate financial aid as well as 2 33 billion for its initiative in Seeking Solutions to global problems 1 61 billion for Educating Leaders by improving K 12 education and 2 11 billion for Foundation of Excellence aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students 139 new endowed chairs for faculty and 38 new or renovated buildings The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research a new campus for the business school an expansion of the law school a new Engineering Quad a new art and art history building an on campus concert hall the new Cantor Arts Center and a planned expansion of the medical school among other things 113 114 In 2012 the university raised 1 035 billion becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year 115 Academics EditAdmissions Edit First time fall freshman statistics 2020 116 2019 117 2018 118 2017 119 2016 120 2015 121 2014 122 2013 123 Applicants 45 227 47 498 47 452 44 073 43 997 42 497 42 167 38 827Admits 2 349 2 062 2 071 2 085 2 118 2 140 2 145 2 208Admit rate 5 19 4 34 4 36 4 73 4 81 5 04 5 09 5 69 Enrolled 1 607 1 701 1 697 1 703 1 739 1 720 1 687 1 677Yield 68 41 82 49 81 94 81 68 82 11 80 37 78 23 75 96 SAT range 1420 1550 1440 1550 1420 1570 1390 1540 2170 2370 2080 2360 2070 2360 2070 2350ACT range 31 35 32 35 32 35 32 35 32 35 31 35 31 34 30 34 Stanford is considered by US News to be most selective with an acceptance rate of 4 Half of applicants accepted to Stanford have an SAT score between 1440 and 1570 or an ACT score of 32 and 35 Admissions officials consider a student s GPA to be an important academic factor with emphasis on an applicant s high school class rank and letters of recommendation 124 In terms of non academic materials as of 2019 Stanford ranks extracurricular activities talent ability and character personal qualities as very important in making first time first year admission decisions while ranking the interview whether the applicant is a first generation university applicant legacy preferences volunteer work and work experience as considered 117 Teaching and learning Edit Stanford follows a quarter system with the autumn quarter usually beginning in late September and the spring quarter ending in mid June 125 The full time four year undergraduate program has an arts and sciences focus with high graduate student coexistence 125 Stanford is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges 126 Stanford s admission process is need blind for U S citizens and permanent residents while it is not need blind for international students 64 are on need based aid with an average aid package of 31 411 8 In 2012 13 the university awarded 126 million in need based financial aid to 3 485 students with an average aid package of 40 460 8 Eighty percent of students receive some form of financial aid 8 Stanford has a no loan policy 8 For undergraduates admitted starting in 2015 Stanford waives tuition room and board for most families with incomes below 65 000 and most families with incomes below 125 000 are not required to pay tuition those with incomes up to 150 000 may have tuition significantly reduced 127 Seventeen percent of students receive Pell Grants 8 a common measure of low income students at a college Research centers and institutes Edit Hoover Tower inspired by the cathedral tower at Salamanca in Spain Main article Stanford University centers and institutes Stanford is classified among R1 Doctoral Universities Very high research activity 125 The university s research expenditure in fiscal year 2018 was 1 157 billion 128 As of 2016 the Office of the Vice Provost and Dean of Research oversaw eighteen independent laboratories centers and institutes 129 Other Stanford affiliated institutions include the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory originally the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the Stanford Research Institute an independent institution which originated at the university the Hoover Institution a conservative 130 think tank and the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam that integrates product design engineering and business management education citation needed Stanford is home to the Martin Luther King Jr Research and Education Institute which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr Papers Project a collaboration with the King Center to publish the King papers held by the King Center 131 It also runs the John S Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists and the Center for Ocean Solutions which brings together marine science and policy to address challenges facing the ocean 132 Together with UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco Stanford is part of the Biohub a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a 600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan Libraries and digital resources Edit Green Library Main article Stanford University Libraries As of 2014 Stanford University Libraries SUL held a collection of more than 9 3 million volumes nearly 300 000 rare or special books 1 5 million e books 2 5 million audiovisual materials 77 000 serials nearly 6 million microform holdings and thousands of other digital resources 133 The main library in the SU library system is Green Library which also contains various meeting and conference rooms study spaces and reading rooms Lathrop Library previously Meyer Library demolished in 2015 holds various student accessible media resources and houses one of the largest East Asia collections with 540 000 volumes Arts Edit Bronze statues by Auguste Rodin are scattered throughout the campus including these Burghers of Calais Stanford is home to the Cantor Center for Visual Arts a museum with 24 galleries sculpture gardens terraces and a courtyard first established in 1891 by Jane and Leland Stanford as a memorial to their only child The center s collection of works by Rodin is among the largest in the world 134 The Thomas Welton Stanford Gallery which was built in 1917 serves as a teaching resource for the Department of Art amp Art History as well as an exhibition venue In 2014 Stanford opened the Anderson Collection a new museum focused on postwar American art and founded by the donation of 121 works by food service moguls Mary and Harry Anderson 135 136 137 There are outdoor art installations throughout the campus primarily sculptures but some murals as well The Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden near Roble Hall features includes wood carvings and totem poles The Stanford music department sponsors many ensembles including five choirs the Stanford Symphony Orchestra Stanford Taiko and the Stanford Wind Ensemble Extracurricular activities include theater groups such as Ram s Head Theatrical Society the Stanford Improvisors 138 the Stanford Shakespeare Society and the Stanford Savoyards a group dedicated to performing the works of Gilbert and Sullivan Stanford is also host to ten a cappella groups including the Mendicants Stanford s first 139 Counterpoint the first all female group on the West Coast 140 the Stanford Fleet Street Singers 141 Harmonics Talisman Everyday People Raagapella 142 Reputation and rankings Edit Academic rankingsNationalARWU 143 2Forbes 144 2THE WSJ 145 4U S News amp World Report 146 6Washington Monthly 147 1GlobalARWU 148 2QS 149 2THE 150 2U S News amp World Report 151 3 National Program Rankings 152 Program RankingBiological Sciences 1Business 1Chemistry 2Computer Science 1Earth Sciences 2Economics 1Education 3Engineering 2English 3Fine Arts 32History 1Law 2Mathematics 2Medicine Primary Care 30Medicine Research 4Physician Assistant 21Physics 1Political Science 1Psychology 1Sociology 5Statistics 1 Global Subject Rankings 153 Program RankingArts amp Humanities 10Biology amp Biochemistry 3Cardiac amp Cardiovascular Systems 6Chemistry 2Clinical Medicine 5Computer Science 9Economics amp Business 4Electrical amp Electronic Engineering 47Engineering 10Environment Ecology 3Geosciences 27Immunology 8Materials Science 2Mathematics 1Mechanical Engineering 35Microbiology 10Molecular Biology amp Genetics 3Neuroscience amp Behavior 2Oncology 19Pharmacology amp Toxicology 11Physics 2Plant amp Animal Science 34Psychiatry Psychology 3Social Sciences amp Public Health 3Space Science 6Surgery 13 In United States college ranking measures Stanford ranks high sometimes first see infoboxes above Slate in 2014 dubbed Stanford as the Harvard of the 21st century 154 The New York Times in the same year concluded Stanford University has become America s it school by measures that Harvard once dominated 155 From polls of college applicants done by The Princeton Review every year from 2013 to 2020 the most commonly named dream college for students was Stanford separately parents too most frequently named Stanford their dream college 156 157 Globally Stanford is also ranked among the top universities in the world see infoboxes above The Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU ranked Stanford second in the world after Harvard most years from 2003 to 2020 158 Times Higher Education recognizes Stanford as one of the world s six super brands on its World Reputation Rankings along with Berkeley Cambridge Harvard MIT and Oxford 159 160 Discoveries and innovation EditSee also Carnegie Mellon discoveries and innovation Illinois discoveries and innovation MIT discoveries and innovation and UC Berkeley discoveries and innovation Natural sciences Edit Felix Bloch physics professor 1952 Nobel laureate for his work at Stanford Biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his work at Stanford First Transgenic organism Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering 161 162 Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine Laser Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers 163 164 Nuclear magnetic resonance Felix Bloch developed new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements which are the underlying principles of the MRI 165 166 Computer and applied sciences Edit Vint Cerf BS 1965 co leader of the Stanford team that designed the architecture of the internet ARPANET Stanford Research Institute formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes 167 168 Internet Stanford was the site where the original design of the Internet was undertaken Vint Cerf led a research group to elaborate the design of the Transmission Control Protocol TCP IP that he originally co created with Robert E Kahn Bob Kahn in 1973 and which formed the basis for the architecture of the Internet Frequency modulation synthesis John Chowning of the Music department invented the FM music synthesis algorithm in 1967 and Stanford later licensed it to Yamaha Corporation Google Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford 169 They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project SDLP The SDLP s goal was to develop the enabling technologies for a single integrated and universal digital library and it was funded through the National Science Foundation among other federal agencies 170 Klystron tube invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30 1937 171 Upon publication in 1939 news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of U S and UK researchers working on radar equipment RISC ARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design Stanford and UC Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept The Stanford MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept commercialized as the SPARC Another success from this era were IBM s efforts that eventually led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture PowerPC and Power ISA As these projects matured a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers routers and similar products 172 SUN workstation Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation 173 which led to Sun Microsystems Businesses and entrepreneurship Edit Main article List of companies founded by Stanford University alumni Co founder of Hewlett Packard Bill Hewlett BS 1934 Co founder of Hewlett Packard David Packard BA 1934 Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies it is often held up as a model for technology transfer 46 47 Stanford s Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research intellectual property and university developed projects The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged and often funded to launch their own companies 48 Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than 2 7 trillion in annual revenue equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world 52 Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include Hewlett Packard 1939 co founders William R Hewlett B S PhD and David Packard M S Silicon Graphics 1981 co founders James H Clark Associate Professor and several of his grad students Sun Microsystems 1982 co founders Vinod Khosla M B A Andy Bechtolsheim PhD and Scott McNealy M B A Cisco 1984 founders Leonard Bosack M S and Sandy Lerner M S who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed 174 Yahoo 1994 co founders Jerry Yang B S M S and David Filo M S Google 1998 co founders Larry Page M S and Sergey Brin M S LinkedIn 2002 co founders Reid Hoffman B S Konstantin Guericke B S M S Eric Lee B S and Alan Liu B S Instagram 2010 co founders Kevin Systrom B S and Mike Krieger B S Snapchat 2011 co founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy B S Coursera 2012 co founders Andrew Ng Associate Professor and Daphne Koller Professor PhD Student life EditStudent body Edit Demographics of students 2011 2012 and comparison to California and United States Census 2011 estimates 8 175 176 Undergraduate Adjusted Percentage notedemo 1 Graduate California United StatesBlack or African American notedemo 2 7 32 507 8 22 3 279 6 6 13 1 Asian notedemo 2 18 15 1257 19 64 13 1182 notedemo 3 13 6 5 0 White notedemo 2 36 45 2525 39 45 36 3163 39 7 63 4 Hispanic Latino 16 60 1150 17 97 5 475 38 1 16 7 American Indian N Alaskan notedemo 2 0 91 63 0 98 1 68 1 7 1 2 Native Hawaiian U S Pacific Islander 0 46 32 0 46 n a notedemo 3 0 5 0 2 Two or more races 11 58 802 12 53 n a notedemo 3 3 6 2 3 Race ethnicity unknown 0 94 65 1 02 1 61 n a n aInternational student 7 59 526 33 33 2893 n a n aNotes adjusted for US citizens and permanent residents only since racial breakdown in the Stanford data is not given for students here on temporary visas The census data for California and the United States as a whole does include people who are here on temporary visas or who are undocumented a b c d Does not include Hispanic Americans a b c The data for graduate students merges Asian with Pacific Islander Also no separate category for multiple races Stanford enrolled 6 996 undergraduate 8 and 10 253 graduate students 8 as of the 2019 2020 school year Women comprised 50 4 of undergraduates and 41 5 of graduate students 8 In the same academic year the freshman retention rate was 99 Stanford awarded 1 819 undergraduate degrees 2 393 master s degrees 770 doctoral degrees and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018 2019 school year 8 The four year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72 9 and the six year rate was 94 4 8 The relatively low four year graduation rate is a function of the university s coterminal degree or coterm program which allows students to earn a master s degree as a 1 to 2 year extension of their undergraduate program 177 As of 2010 fifteen percent of undergraduates were first generation students 178 Dormitories and student housing Edit Main article Stanford University student housing As of 2013 89 of undergraduate students lived in on campus university housing First year undergraduates are required to live on campus and all undergraduates are guaranteed housing for all four undergraduate years 8 179 Undergraduates live in 80 different houses including dormitories co ops row houses and fraternities and sororities 180 At Manzanita Park 118 mobile homes were installed as temporary housing from 1969 to 1991 but as of 2015 was the site of newer dorms Castano Kimball Lantana and the Humanities House completed in 2015 181 182 Most student residences are just outside the campus core within ten minutes on foot or bike of most classrooms and libraries Some are reserved for freshman sophomores or upperclass students and some are open to all four classes Most residences are co ed seven are all male fraternities three are all female sororities and there is also one all female non sorority house Roth House In most residences men and women live on the same floor but a few dorms are configured for men and women to live on separate floors single gender floors 183 Many students use bicycles to get around the large campus Several residences are considered theme houses The Academic Language and Culture Houses include EAST Education and Society Themed House Hammarskjold International Themed House Haus Mitteleuropa Central European Themed House La Casa Italiana Italian Language and Culture La Maison Francaise French Language and Culture House Slavianskii Dom Slavic East European Themed House Storey Human Biology Themed House and Yost Spanish Language and Culture Cross Cultural Themed Houses include Casa Zapata Chicano Latino Theme in Stern Hall Muwekma tah ruk American Indian Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Themed House Okada Asian American Themed House in Wilbur Hall and Ujamaa Black African American Themed House in Lagunita Court Focus Houses include Freshman Sophomore College Academic Focus Branner Hall Community Service Kimball Arts amp Performing Arts Crothers Global Citizenship and Toyon Sophomore Priority 180 Theme houses predating the current theme classification system are Columbae Social Change Through Nonviolence since 1970 184 and Synergy Exploring Alternatives since 1972 185 Co ops or Self Ops are another housing option These houses feature cooperative living where residents and eating associates each contribute work to keep the house running such as cooking meals or cleaning shared spaces These houses have unique themes around which their community is centered Many co ops are hubs of music art and philosophy The co ops on campus are 576 Alvarado Row formerly Chi Theta Chi Columbae Enchanted Broccoli Forest EBF Hammarskjold Kairos Terra the unofficial LGBT house 186 and Synergy 187 Phi Sigma at 1018 Campus Drive was formerly Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity but in 1973 became a Self Op 188 As of 2015 around 55 percent of the graduate student population lived on campus 189 First year graduate students are guaranteed on campus housing Stanford also subsidizes off campus apartments in nearby Palo Alto Menlo Park and Mountain View for graduate students who are guaranteed on campus housing but are unable to live on campus due to a lack of space 190 Athletics Edit Main article Stanford Cardinal The Leland Stanford Junior University Marching Band rallies football fans with arrangements of All Right Now and other contemporary music As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports 191 19 club sports 192 and about 27 intramural sports 193 In 1930 following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students the athletic department adopted the mascot Indian The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972 after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate 194 The sports teams are now officially referred to as the Stanford Cardinal referring to the deep red color not the cardinal bird Stanford is a member of the Pac 12 Conference in most sports the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports and the America East Conference in field hockey 195 with the participation in the inter collegiate NCAA s Division I FBS Its traditional sports rival is the University of California Berkeley the neighbor to the north in the East Bay The winner of the annual Big Game between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe 196 Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976 77 school year 197 and has earned 128 NCAA national team titles since its establishment the most among universities 22 and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships the most by any university 198 Stanford has won the award for the top ranked Division 1 athletic program the NACDA Directors Cup formerly known as the Sears Cup annually for the past twenty five straight years 199 200 201 202 Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912 winning 270 Olympic medals total 139 of them gold 203 In the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2016 Summer Olympics Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States 204 205 Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics 12 gold two silver and two bronze and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics 206 Traditions Edit Hail Stanford Hail is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W Smith and his wife Mary Roberts Smith in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir 207 208 Big Game The central football rivalry between Stanford and UC Berkeley First played in 1892 and for a time played by the universities rugby teams it is one of the oldest college rivalries in the United States The Stanford Axe A trophy earned by the winner of Big Game exchanged only as necessary The axe originated in 1899 when Stanford yell leader Billy Erb wielded a lumberman s axe to inspire the team Stanford lost and the Axe was stolen by Berkeley students following the game In 1930 Stanford students staged an elaborate heist to recover the Axe In 1933 the schools agreed to exchange it as a prize for winning Big Game As of 2021 a restaurant centrally located on Stanford campus is named The Axe and Palm in reference to the Axe 209 Big Game Gaieties In the week ahead of Big Game a 90 minute original musical written composed produced and performed by the students of Ram s Head Theatrical Society is performed in Memorial Auditorium 210 Full Moon on the Quad An annual event at Main Quad where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight Typically organized by the Junior class cabinet the festivities include live entertainment such as music and dance performances 211 The Stanford Marriage Pact An annual matchmaking event where thousands of students complete a questionnaire about their values and are subsequently matched with the best person for them to make a marriage pact with 212 213 214 215 Fountain Hopping At any time of year students tour Stanford s main campus fountains to dip their feet or swim in some of the university s 25 fountains 211 216 217 Mausoleum Party An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr and his parents A 20 year tradition the Mausoleum party was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding but was revived in 2006 211 218 In 2008 it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum because rain prohibited generators from being rented 219 In 2009 after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year 220 Wacky Walk At commencement graduates forgo a more traditional entrance and instead stride into Stanford Stadium in a large procession wearing wacky costumes 217 221 Steam Tunneling Stanford has a network of underground brick lined tunnels that conduct central heating to more than 200 buildings via steam pipes Students sometimes navigate the corridors rooms and locked gates carrying flash lights and water bottles 222 Stanford Magazine named steam tunneling one of the 101 things you must do before graduating from the Farm in 2000 223 Band Run An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad 211 Viennese Ball a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now closed since 1987 Stanford in Vienna overseas program 224 It is now open to all students The unofficial motto of Stanford selected by President Jordan is Die Luft der Freiheit weht 225 Translated from the German language this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means The wind of freedom blows The motto was controversial during World War I when anything in German was suspect at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official 1 Degree of Uncommon Man Uncommon Woman Stanford does not award honorary degrees 226 227 but in 1953 the degree of Uncommon Man Uncommon Woman was created by Stanford Associates part of the Stanford Alumni organization to recognize alumni who give rare and extraordinary service to the University It is awarded not at prescribed intervals but instead only when the president of the university deems it appropriate to recognize extraordinary service Recipients include Herbert Hoover Bill Hewlett Dave Packard Lucile Packard and John Gardner 228 Former campus traditions include the Big Game bonfire on Lake Lagunita a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed 229 Religious life Edit Students and staff at Stanford are of many different religions The Stanford Office for Religious Life s mission is to guide nurture and enhance spiritual religious and ethical life within the Stanford University community by promoting enriching dialogue meaningful ritual and enduring friendships among people of all religious backgrounds It is headed by a dean with the assistance of a senior associate dean and an associate dean Stanford Memorial Church in the center of campus has a Sunday University Public Worship service UPW usually in the Protestant Ecumenical Christian tradition where the Memorial Church Choir sings and a sermon is preached usually by one of the Stanford deans for Religious Life UPW sometimes has multifaith services 230 In addition the church is used by the Catholic community and by some of the other Christian denominations at Stanford Weddings happen most Saturdays and the university has for over 20 years allowed blessings of same gender relationships and now legal weddings In addition to the church the Office for Religious Life has a Center for Inter Religious Community Learning and Experiences CIRCLE on the third floor of Old Union It offers a common room an interfaith sanctuary a seminar room a student lounge area and a reading room as well as offices housing a number of Stanford Associated Religions SAR member groups and the Senior Associate Dean and Associate Dean for Religious Life Most though not all religious student groups belong to SAR The SAR directory includes organizations that serve atheist Baha i Buddhist Christian Hindu Islam Jewish and Sikh groups though these groups vary year by year 231 The Windhover Contemplation Center was dedicated in October 2014 and was intended to provide spiritual sanctuary for students and staff in the midst of their course and work schedules the center displays the Windhover paintings by Nathan Oliveira the late Stanford professor and artist 232 Some religions have a larger and more formal presence on campus in addition to the student groups these include the Catholic Community at Stanford 233 and Hillel at Stanford 234 Greek life Edit Fraternities and sororities have been active on the Stanford campus since 1891 when the university first opened In 1944 University President Donald Tresidder banned all Stanford sororities due to extreme competition 235 However following Title IX the Board of Trustees lifted the 33 year ban on sororities in 1977 236 Students are not permitted to join a fraternity or sorority until spring quarter of their freshman year 237 As of 2016 Stanford had 31 Greek organizations including 14 sororities and 16 fraternities Nine of the Greek organizations were housed eight in University owned houses and one Sigma Chi in their own house although the land is owned by the University 238 Six chapters were members of the African American Fraternal and Sororal Association 11 chapters were members of the Interfraternity Council seven chapters belonged to the Intersorority Council and six chapters belonged to the Multicultural Greek Council 239 Stanford is home to three unhoused historically National Pan Hellenic Council NPHC or Divine Nine sororities Alpha Kappa Alpha Delta Sigma Theta and Sigma Gamma Rho and three unhoused NPHC fraternities Alpha Phi Alpha Kappa Alpha Psi and Phi Beta Sigma These fraternities and sororities operate under the African American Fraternal Sororal Association AAFSA at Stanford 240 citation needed Seven historically National Panhellenic Conference NPC sororities four of which are unhoused Alpha Phi Alpha Epsilon Phi Chi Omega and Kappa Kappa Gamma and three of which are housed Delta Delta Delta Kappa Alpha Theta and Pi Beta Phi call Stanford home These sororities operate under the Stanford Inter sorority Council ISC 240 citation needed Eleven historically National Interfraternity Conference NIC fraternities are also represented at Stanford including five unhoused fraternities Alpha Epsilon Pi Delta Kappa Epsilon Delta Tau Delta Sigma Alpha Epsilon and Sigma Phi Epsilon and six housed fraternities Kappa Alpha Order Kappa Sigma Phi Kappa Psi Sigma Chi Sigma Nu and Theta Delta Chi These fraternities operate under the Stanford Inter fraternity Council IFC 240 citation needed There are also four unhoused Multicultural Greek Council MGC sororities on campus alpha Kappa Delta Phi Lambda Theta Nu Sigma Psi Zeta and Sigma Theta Psi as well as two unhoused MGC fraternities Gamma Zeta Alpha and Lambda Phi Epsilon Lambda Phi Epsilon is recognized by the National Interfraternity Conference NIC 241 Student groups Edit As of 2020 Stanford had more than 600 student organizations 242 Groups are often though not always partially funded by the University via allocations directed by the student government organization the ASSU These funds include special fees which are decided by a Spring Quarter vote by the student body Groups span athletics and recreation careers pre professional community service ethnic cultural fraternities and sororities health and counseling media and publications the arts political and social awareness and religious and philosophical organizations Stanford is home to a set of student journalism publications The Stanford Daily is a student run daily newspaper and has been published since the University was founded in 1892 243 The student run radio station KZSU Stanford 90 1 FM features freeform music programming sports commentary and news segments it started in 1947 as an AM radio station 244 The Stanford Review is a conservative student newspaper founded in 1987 245 The Fountain Hopper FoHo is a financially independent anonymous student run campus rag publication notable for having broken the Brock Turner story 246 Stanford is also home to a large number of pre professional student organizations organized around missions from startup incubation to paid consulting The Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students BASES is one of the largest professional organizations in Silicon Valley with over 5 000 members citation needed Its goal is to support the next generation of entrepreneurs citation needed StartX is a non profit startup accelerator for student and faculty led startups 247 that over 12 of the study body has applied to citation needed It is staffed primarily by students citation needed Stanford Women In Business SWIB is an on campus business organization aimed at helping Stanford women find paths to success in the generally male dominated technology industry 248 Stanford Marketing is a student group that provides students hands on training through research and strategy consulting projects with Fortune 500 clients as well as workshops led by people from industry and professors in the Stanford Graduate School of Business 249 250 Stanford Finance provides mentoring and internships for students who want to enter a career in finance Students run SUpost com an online marketplace for Stanford students and alumni in partnership with Stanford Student Enterprises SSE and the Stanford Pre Business Association 251 better source needed The latter is intended to build connections among industry alumni and student communities citation needed Other groups include The Stanford Axe Committee is the official guardian of the Stanford Axe and the rest of the time assists the Stanford Band as a supplementary spirit group It has existed since 1982 252 The Stanford solar car project in which students build a solar powered car every 2 years and race it in either the North American Solar Challenge or the World Solar Challenge Stanford American Indian Organization SAIO which hosts the annual Stanford Powwow started in 1971 This is the largest student run event on campus and the largest student run powwow in the country 253 254 The Stanford Improvisors SImps for short teach and perform improvisational theatre on campus and in the surrounding community 255 In 2014 the group finished second in the Golden Gate Regional College Improv tournament 256 and they ve since been invited twice to perform at the annual San Francisco Improv Festival 257 Asha for Education is a national student group founded in 1991 It focuses mainly on education in India and supporting nonprofit organizations that work mainly in the education sector Asha s Stanford chapter organizes events like Holi as well as lectures by prominent leaders from India the university campus 258 259 260 Safety Edit Stanford s Department of Public Safety is responsible for law enforcement and safety on the main campus Its deputy sheriffs are peace officers by arrangement with the Santa Clara County Sheriff s Office 261 The department is also responsible for publishing an annual crime report covering the previous three years as required by the Clery Act 262 Fire protection has been provided by contract with the Palo Alto Fire Department since 1976 263 Murder is rare on the campus though a few of the cases have been notorious including the 1974 murder of Arlis Perry in Stanford Memorial Church not solved until 2018 264 and Theodore Streleski s murder of his professor in 1978 265 In 2014 Stanford was the tenth highest in the nation in total of reports of rape on their main campus with 26 reports of rape 266 In Stanford s 2015 Campus Climate Survey 4 7 percent of female undergraduates reported experiencing sexual assault as defined by the university and 32 9 percent reported experiencing sexual misconduct 267 According to the survey 85 of perpetrators of misconduct were Stanford students and 80 were men 267 Perpetrators of sexual misconduct were frequently aided by alcohol or drugs according to the survey Nearly three fourths of the students whose responses were categorized as sexual assault indicated that the act was accomplished by a person or person taking advantage of them when they were drunk or high according to the survey Close to 70 percent of students who reported an experience of sexual misconduct involving nonconsensual penetration and or oral sex indicated the same 267 Associated Students of Stanford and student and alumni activists with the anti rape group Stand with Leah criticized the survey methodology for downgrading incidents involving alcohol if students did not check two separate boxes indicating they were both intoxicated and incapacity while sexually assaulted 267 Reporting on the Brock Turner rape case a reporter from The Washington Post analyzed campus rape reports submitted by universities to the U S Department of Education and found that Stanford was one of the top ten universities in campus rapes in 2014 with 26 reported that year but when analyzed by rapes per 1000 students Stanford was not among the top ten 268 People v Turner Edit Main article People v Turner On the night of January 17 18 2015 22 year old Chanel Miller who had visited campus to attend a party at the Kappa Alpha fraternity was sexually assaulted by Brock Turner a freshman who had a swimming scholarship Two graduate students witnessed the attack and intervened catching Turner when he tried to flee and holding him down on the ground until police arrived 269 Stanford immediately referred the case to prosecutors and offered Miller counseling and within two weeks had barred Turner from campus after conducting an investigation 270 Turner was convicted on three felony charges in March 2016 and in June 2016 he received a jail sentence of six months and was declared a sex offender requiring him to register as such for the rest of his life prosecutors had sought a six year prison sentence out of the maximum 14 years that was possible 271 The case and the relatively lenient sentence drew nationwide attention 272 Two years later the judge in the case Stanford graduate Aaron Persky was recalled by the voters 273 274 Joe Lonsdale Edit In February 2015 Elise Clougherty filed a sexual assault and harassment lawsuit against venture capitalist Joe Lonsdale 275 276 Lonsdale and Clougherty entered into a relationship in the spring of 2012 when she was a junior and he was her mentor in a Stanford entrepreneurship course 276 By the spring of 2013 Clougherty had broken off the relationship and filed charges at Stanford that Lonsdale had broken the Stanford policy against consensual relationships between students and faculty and that he had sexually assaulted and harassed her which resulted in Lonsdale being banned from Stanford for 10 years 276 Lonsdale challenged Stanford s finding that he had had sexually assaulted and harassed her and Stanford rescinded that finding and the campus ban in the fall of 2015 277 Clougherty withdrew her suit that fall as well 278 People EditFor a more comprehensive list see List of Stanford University people and List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Stanford University Herbert Hoover BS 1895 31st President of the United States founder of Hoover Institution at Stanford recipient of the Uncommon Man award As of late 2020 Stanford had 2 279 tenure line faculty senior fellows center fellows and medical center faculty 279 Award laureates and scholars Edit Stanford s current community of scholars includes 19 Nobel Prize laureates as of October 2020 85 affiliates in total 279 167 members of the National Academy of Sciences 279 109 members of National Academy of Engineering 279 78 members of National Academy of Medicine 279 300 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 279 12 recipients of the National Medal of Science 279 1 recipient of the National Medal of Technology 279 4 recipients of the National Humanities Medal 279 47 members of American Philosophical Society 279 56 fellows of the American Physics Society since 1995 280 4 Pulitzer Prize winners 279 33 MacArthur Fellows 279 6 Wolf Foundation Prize winners 279 2 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners 281 14 AAAI fellows 282 2 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners 279 283 Stanford s faculty and former faculty includes 48 Nobel laureates 279 5 Fields Medalists as well as 17 winners of the Turing Award the so called Nobel Prize in computer science comprising one third of the awards given in its 44 year history The university has 27 ACM fellows It is also affiliated with 4 Godel Prize winners 4 Knuth Prize recipients 10 IJCAI Computers and Thought Award winners and about 15 Grace Murray Hopper Award winners for their work in the foundations of computer science Stanford alumni have started many companies and according to Forbes has produced the second highest number of billionaires of all universities 284 285 286 As of 2020 15 Stanford alumni have won the Nobel Prize 287 288 289 290 291 As of 2019 122 Stanford students or alumni have been named Rhodes Scholars 292 See also Edit San Francisco Bay Area portal California portal List of universities by number of billionaire alumni List of colleges and universities in California S a collaboration between seven universities and the Karolinska Institute for training in bioinformatics and genomics Stanford SchoolExplanatory notes Edit Undergraduate school alumni who received the Turing Award Vint Cerf BS Math Stanford 1965 MS CS UCLA 1970 PhD CS UCLA 1972 25 Allen Newell BS Physics Stanford 1949 PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1957 26 Graduate school alumni who received the Turing Award Martin Hellman BE New York University 1966 MS Stanford University 1967 PhD Stanford University 1969 all in electrical engineering Professor at Stanford 1971 1996 27 John Hopcroft BS Seattle University MS EE Stanford 1962 Phd EE Stanford 1964 28 Barbara Liskov BSc Berkeley 1961 PhD Stanford 29 Raj Reddy BS from Guindy College of Engineering Madras India 1958 M Tech University of New South Wales 1960 PhD Stanford 1966 30 Ronald Rivest BA Yale 1969 PhD Stanford 1974 31 Robert Tarjan BS Caltech 1969 MS Stanford 1971 PhD 1972 32 Non alumni former and current faculty staff and researchers who received the Turing Award Whitfield Diffie BS mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1965 Visiting scholar at Stanford 2009 2010 and an affiliate from 2010 2012 currently a consulting professor at CISAC The Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University 33 Doug Engelbart BS EE Oregon State University 1948 MS EE Berkeley 1953 PhD Berkeley 1955 Researcher Director at Stanford Research Institute SRI 1957 1977 Director Bootstrap Project at Stanford University 1989 1990 34 Edward Feigenbaum BS Carnegie Institute of Technology 1956 PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1960 Associate Professor at Stanford 1965 1968 Professor at Stanford 1969 2000 Professor Emeritus at Stanford 2000 present 35 Robert W Floyd BA 1953 BSc Physics both from University of Chicago Professor at Stanford 1968 1994 36 Sir Antony Hoare Undergraduate at Oxford University Visiting Professor at Stanford 1973 37 Alan Kay BA BS from University of Colorado at Boulder PhD 1969 from University of Utah Researcher at Stanford 1969 1971 38 John McCarthy BS Math Caltech PhD Princeton Assistant Professor at Stanford 1953 1955 Professor at Stanford 1962 2011 39 Robin Milner BSc 1956 from Cambridge University Researcher at Stanford University 1971 1972 40 Amir Pnueli BSc Math from Technion 1962 PhD Weizmann Institute of Science 1967 Instructor at Stanford 1967 Visitor at Stanford 1970 41 Dana Scott BA Berkeley 1954 PhD Princeton 1958 Associate Professor at Stanford 1963 1967 42 Niklaus Wirth BS Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 1959 MSC Universite Laval Canada 1960 PhD Berkeley 1963 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1963 1967 43 Andrew Yao BS physics National University of Taiwan 1967 AM Physics Harvard 1969 PhD Physics Harvard 1972 PhD CS University of Illinois Urbana Champagin 1975 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1976 1981 Professor at Stanford University 1982 1986 44 It is often stated that Stanford has the largest contiguous campus in the world or the United States 73 74 but that depends on definitions Berry College with over 26 000 acres 40 6 sq mi 105 2 km2 Paul Smith s College with 14 200 acres 22 2 sq mi 57 5 km2 and the United States Air Force Academy with 18 500 acres 7 500 ha are larger but are not usually classified as universities Duke University at 8 610 acres 13 5 sq mi 34 8 km2 does have more land but it is not contiguous However the University of the South has over 13 000 acres 20 3 sq mi 52 6 km2 The rules governing the board have changed over time The original 24 trustees were appointed for life in 1885 by the Stanfords as were some of the subsequent replacements In 1899 Jane Stanford changed the maximum number of trustees from 24 to 15 and set the term of office to 10 years On June 1 1903 she resigned her powers as founder and the board took on its full powers In the 1950s the board decided that 15 members was not sufficient to do all the work needed and in March 1954 petitioned the courts to raise the maximum number to 23 of whom 20 would be regular trustees serving 10 year terms and 3 would be alumni trustees serving 5 year terms In 1970 another petition was successfully made to have the number raised to a maximum of 35 with a minimum of 25 that all trustees would be regular trustees and that the university president would be a trustee ex officio 95 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Making Marriage Pacts to Distract Themselves From Doom The New York Times Retrieved August 18 2021 Ramgopal Kit February 19 2019 Inside the Stanford Marriage Pact The Stanford Daily Retrieved August 18 2021 Sass Roxy November 22 2020 Ask Roxy Sass Marriage Pact edition The Stanford Daily Retrieved August 18 2021 Coca Richard April 23 2019 A fountain hopper s guide to Stanford The Stanford Daily Retrieved August 22 2021 a b Student Life Traditions Stanford Facts February 1 2021 Retrieved August 20 2021 Chien Jennifer January February 2007 A Party to Die For Stanford Magazine Stanford Alumni Association Archived from the original on November 3 2010 Retrieved November 3 2009 Banerjee Devin October 31 2008 Mausoleum Party is a go Regardless of rain party set for Old Union Stanford Daily 234 31 p 3 Retrieved March 19 2016 Feliciano Cassandra October 7 2009 Mausoleum next to die Stanford Daily 236 14 p 1 Retrieved March 18 2016 How do you explain Stanford s Wacky Walk Stanford News Service 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Stanford University Retrieved October 5 2013 Xu Victor May 8 2014 Windhover contemplative center to finish by early summer The Stanford Daily The Stanford Daily Retrieved September 30 2014 Catholic Community at Stanford About us Archived from the original on September 13 2011 Retrieved December 11 2014 The Catholic Community is a personal parish in the Diocese of San Jose and staffed by the Dominicans and lay leaders Hillel at Stanford About Archived from the original on October 9 2013 Retrieved October 5 2013 Kappa Kappa Gamma Beta Eta Deuteron History kappakappagamma org Retrieved May 11 2021 Chi Omega Nu Alpha History Cgi stanford edu Archived from the original on January 20 2013 Retrieved September 19 2014 Frequently Asked Questions Stanford Residential Education Stanford University Retrieved May 12 2021 Soong Shiong Nika August 23 2013 Life at Summer Chi Stanford Daily Retrieved June 17 2016 FSL Organizations Stanford University Retrieved June 16 2016 a b c Fraternity and Sorority Life Stanford Undergrad undergrad stanford edu Retrieved March 24 2017 Lambda Phi Epsilon National Fraternity Lambdaphiepsilon com Archived from the original on February 11 2009 Retrieved July 9 2010 Campus Communities amp Service Opportunities Student Organizations Stanford University Retrieved May 10 2020 About the Daily Stanford Daily Retrieved June 12 2016 About KZSU Stanford University Retrieved October 19 2013 Wallace Lisa Atallah Alex February 9 2012 A Brief and Non Exhaustive History of the Stanford Review Stanford Review Archived from the original on June 11 2016 Retrieved June 12 2016 Glenza Jessica Carroll Rory February 8 2015 Stanford the swimmer and Yik Yak can talk of campus rape go beyond secrets The Guardian Retrieved May 10 2020 StartX stanford edu Wallace Elizabeth May 25 2015 Stanford Women in Business hosts events to boost entrepreneurship The Stanford Daily Retrieved May 10 2020 Stanford Marketing Retrieved February 7 2015 Become An Associate Archived from the original on February 9 2015 Retrieved February 10 2015 SPBA Retrieved February 16 2014 Stanford Axe Committee About us Retrieved October 5 2013 Founding of SAIO Native American Cultural Center nacc stanford edu Retrieved October 30 2019 Sanchez Tatiana May 13 2017 Stanford Powwow celebrates Native American history culture The Mercury News Retrieved October 30 2019 The Stanford Improvisors stanfordimprovisors com Retrieved March 16 2021 Tall Grande Venti Takes Top Bay College Title to Rep SF in Nationals Archived from the original on July 2 2015 San Francisco Improv Festival Sfimprovfestival com Retrieved November 15 2017 Asha Dandiya featured in India Abroad Magazine Asha Stanford November 21 2015 Adhik Kadam s 100 mile bike ride for 100 donors Asha Stanford October 5 2015 Asha Stanford Welcome Dinner with Adhik Kadam and the Borderless World Foundation Allevents in Employment Opportunities Stanford University Department of Public Safety Retrieved June 11 2016 Safety amp Security Results Crime Statistics Stanford University Department of Public Safety Retrieved June 11 2016 Sheyner Gennady October 22 2015 Palo Alto Stanford clash over fire services Palo Alto Online Retrieved June 11 2016 Staff June 29 2018 Sheriff Grisly 1974 Stanford murder solved PaloAltoOnline com Archived from the original on September 13 2018 Retrieved November 16 2018 Xu Victor October 10 2014 A history of murder at Stanford Stanford Daily Retrieved June 12 2016 Anderson Nick June 7 2016 These colleges have the most reports of rape The Washington Post a b c d Kadvany Elena October 1 2015 One third of Stanford women experience sexual misconduct survey finds Palo Alto Onilne Retrieved June 15 2016 Nick Anderson for The Washington Post June 7 2016 These colleges have the most reports of rape Liam Stack for The New York Times June 6 2016 Light Sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford Rape Case Draws Outrage Ashley Fantz for CNN June 7 2016 Outrage over 6 month sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford rape case Jacqueline Lee for Mercury News June 2 2016 Stanford sex assault Brock Turner gets 6 months in jail Fehely Devin June 6 2016 Stanford Sex Assault Victim s Story Draws Worldwide Reaction CBS SF Bay Area Retrieved June 10 2016 Voters oust judge who gave Brock Turner 6 months for sex assault CNN June 6 2018 Retrieved September 2 2018 Kimmel Michael 2018 Guyland The perilous world where boys become men New York HarperCollins pp 1 2 ISBN 9780062885739 Katie Benner for Bloomberg News February 2 2015 Benner on Tech Parsing a Sexual Assault Suit a b c Emily Bazelon for The New York Times February 11 2015 The Stanford Undergraduate and the Mentor Emily Bazelon for The New York Times November 4 2015 The Lessons of Stanford s Sex Assault Case Reversal McBride Dan Levine November 2 2015 Woman drops sex assault case against U S venture capitalist Reuters a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stanford Facts The Stanford Faculty Stanford University 2014 Retrieved March 10 2020 APS Fellows Archive Retrieved February 9 2011 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award Recipients Retrieved February 9 2011 Elected AAAI Fellows Retrieved February 9 2011 Levy Dawn July 22 2003 Edward Teller wins Presidential Medal of Freedom Retrieved November 17 2008 Teller 95 is the third Stanford scholar to be awarded a Presidential Medal of Freedom The others are Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman 1988 and former Secretary of State George Shultz 1989 Thibault Marie August 5 2009 Billionaire University Forbes Retrieved April 15 2011 Pfeiffer Eric W August 25 1997 What MIT Learned from Stanford Forbes Retrieved April 16 2014 Stanford Entrepreneurs Stanford University Retrieved March 11 2011 Alumni Stanford University Facts Stanford University Retrieved December 4 2015 Stanford Nobel Laureates Stanford University Retrieved May 17 2017 Alvin E Roth Biographical Nobel Foundation Retrieved May 30 2017 Richard E Taylor Biographical Nobel Foundation Retrieved May 30 2017 Press Release Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006 Nobel Foundation Retrieved May 30 2017 Undergraduate Profile Stanford University Facts Stanford Facts at a Glance Stanford Office of University Communications Retrieved October 17 2019 Further reading EditLee Altenberg Beyond Capitalism Leland Stanford s Forgotten Vision Stanford Historical Society 1990 Ronald N Bracewell Trees of Stanford and Environs Stanford Historical Society 2005 Ken Fenyo The Stanford Daily 100 Years of Headlines 2003 ISBN 0 9743654 0 8 Jean Fetter Questions and Admissions Reflections on 100 000 Admissions Decisions at Stanford 1997 ISBN 0 8047 3158 6 Ricard Joncas David Neumann and Paul V Turner The Campus Guide Stanford University Princeton Architectural Press 2006 doi 10 1007 1 56898 664 5 ISBN 978 1 56898 538 1 print ISBN 978 1 56898 664 7 online Stuart W Leslie The Cold War and American Science The Military Industrial Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford Columbia University Press 1994 Rebecca S Lowen R S Lowen Creating the Cold War University The Transformation of Stanford University of California Press 1997External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Stanford University Official website Stanford Athletics website Texts on Wikisource Leland Stanford Jr University Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed 1911 Leland Stanford Junior University Encyclopedia Americana 1920 Leland Stanford Junior University Collier s New Encyclopedia 1921 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Stanford University amp oldid 1040199327, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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