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United States Army

Not to be confused with United States Department of the Army or United States Armed Forces.

The United States Army (USA) is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight U.S. uniformed services, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the U.S. Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself to be a continuation of the Continental Army, and thus considers its institutional inception to be the origin of that armed force in 1775.

United States Army

Military service mark of the United States Army

Army Star logo
Founded14 June 1775 (1775-06-14)
(246 years, 2 months ago)
CountryUnited States
TypeArmy
RolePrompt and sustained land combat
Combined arms operations Special operations
Set and sustain the theater for the joint force
Integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land
Size485,000 Regular Army personnel (2021)
336,000 Army National Guard personnel (2021)
189,500 Army Reserve personnel (2021)
1,005,725 total uniformed personnel
252,747 civilian personnel (30 September 2020)
1,258,472 total
4,406 manned aircraft
Part ofUnited States Armed Forces
Department of the Army
HeadquartersThe Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Motto(s)"This We'll Defend"
ColorsBlack, gold and white
March"The Army Goes Rolling Along" (help·)
Mascot(s)Army Mules
AnniversariesArmy Birthday: 14 June
EquipmentList of U.S. Army equipment
Engagements
WebsiteArmy.mil
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Joe Biden
Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin
Secretary of the Army Christine Wormuth
Chief of Staff GEN James C. McConville
Vice Chief of Staff GEN Joseph M. Martin
Sergeant Major of the Army SMA Michael A. Grinston
Insignia
Flag
Field flag

The U.S. Army is a uniformed service of the United States and is part of the Department of the Army, which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The U.S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer, the chief of staff of the Army (CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2020, the projected end strength for the Regular Army (USA) was 480,893 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) had 336,129 soldiers and the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) had 188,703 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army was 1,005,725 soldiers. As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders". The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States.

Contents

The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U.S. Code defines the purpose of the army as:

  • Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States
  • Supporting the national policies
  • Implementing the national objectives
  • Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States

In 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028. While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, and Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028.

The Army's five core competencies are prompt and sustained land combat, combined arms operations (to include combined arms maneuver and wide–area security, armored and mechanized operations and airborne and air assault operations), special operations, to set and sustain the theater for the joint force, and to integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land.

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Origins

The Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills.

The storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain's government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain's recognition of the United States as an independent state.

The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780 and 1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.

After the war, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, where more than 800 Americans were killed, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796.

In 1798, during the Quasi-War with France, Congress established a three-year "Provisional Army" of 10,000 men, consisting of twelve regiments of infantry and six troops of light dragoons. By March 1799 Congress created an "Eventual Army" of 30,000 men, including three regiments of cavalry. Both "armies" existed only on paper, but equipment for 3,000 men and horses was procured and stored.

19th century

Early wars on the Frontier

Further information: Army on the Frontier
General Andrew Jackson standing on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans, the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812

The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. The U.S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U.S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U.S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U.S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however, proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo antebellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, and became a national hero. U.S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides (the United States and Great Britain) returned to the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict.

The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818–1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century.

The U.S. Army fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries. The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico.

American Civil War

Further information: Union Army
The Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil War

The American Civil War was the costliest war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most slave states, located in the southern U.S., formed the Confederate States, the Confederate States Army, led by former U.S. Army officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower. Forces of the United States (the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina.

For the first two years, Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states. The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863, the Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee River. In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862–1863, General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River and cut off the Southwest. Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E. Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House. All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months.

The war remains the deadliest conflict in U.S. history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 men on both sides. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6.4% in the North and 18% in the South.

Later 19th century

Army soldiers in 1890

Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations. They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars. U.S. Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen.

The key battles of the Spanish–American War of 1898 were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U.S. Army defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine–American War.

20th century

Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft. In 1910, during the Mexican Revolution, the army was deployed to U.S. towns near the border to ensure the safety of lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa, a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918.

World wars

U.S. Army troops assaulting a German bunker in France, c. 1918

The United States joined World War I as an "Associated Power" in 1917 on the side of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the other Allies. U.S. troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.

In 1939, estimates of the Army's strength range between 174,000 and 200,000 soldiers, smaller than that of Portugal's, which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size. General George C. Marshall became Army chief of staff in September 1939 and set about expanding and modernizing the Army in preparation for war.

U.S. soldiers hunting for Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign

The United States joined World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Some 11 million Americans were to serve in various Army operations. On the European front, U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that landed in French North Africa and took Tunisia and then moved on to Sicily and later fought in Italy. In the June 1944 landings in northern France and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany, millions of U.S. Army troops played a central role.

In the Pacific War, U.S. Army soldiers participated alongside the United States Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947. In 1948, the army was desegregated by order 9981 of President Harry S. Truman.

Cold War

1945–1960
U.S. Army soldiers observing an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the Korean War

The end of World War II set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War. With the outbreak of the Korean War, concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII, were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and U.S. strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack.:minute 9:00–10:00

US tanks and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, 1961

During the Cold War, U.S. troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. The Korean War began in June 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a UN Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea and later to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in July 1953.

1960–1970

The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U.S. Army due to the use of drafted personnel, the unpopularity of the war with the U.S. public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by U.S. political leaders. While U.S. forces had been stationed in South Vietnam since 1959, in intelligence and advising/training roles, they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. U.S. forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the People's Army Of Vietnam (NVA).

A U.S. Army infantry patrol moving up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army position at Dak To, South Vietnam during Operation Hawthorne

During the 1960s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions (one mechanized infantry, two armored, and five infantry), but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 (one airborne, one armored, two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. However, no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.

1970–1990
U.S. Army soldiers preparing to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during Operation Just Cause

The Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involved treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force. General Abrams' intertwining of the three components of the army effectively made extended operations impossible without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in a predominately combat support role. The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training to specific performance standards driven by the reforms of General William E. DePuy, the first commander of United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. Following the Camp David Accords that was signed by Egypt, Israel that was that was brokered by president Jimmy Carter in 1978, as part of the agreement, both the United States and Egypt agreed that there would be a joint military training led by both countries that would usually take place every 2 years, that exercise is known as Exercise Bright Star.

The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury) and Panama in 1989 (Operation Just Cause).

By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close. Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000. A number of incentives such as early retirement were used.

1990s

M1 Abrams tanks moving out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf War

In 1990, Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait, and U.S. land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. The Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance.

Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the Gulf War, February 1991

After Operation Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy, but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force".

21st century

U.S. Army Rangers taking part in a raid during an operation in Nahr-e Saraj, Afghanistan

On 11 September 2001, 53 Army civilians (47 employees and six contractors) and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building, as part of the September 11 attacks. In response to the 11 September attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror, U.S. and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, displacing the Taliban government. The U.S. Army also led the combined U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq in 2003; it served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long-term deployment operations. In the following years, the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency, resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S. service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more. 23,813 insurgents were killed in Iraq between 2003 and 2011.

U.S. Army soldiers with the 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division returning fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 2011

Until 2009, the army's chief modernization plan, its most ambitious since World War II, was the Future Combat Systems program. In 2009, many systems were canceled, and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program. By 2017, the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters, the Brigade Modernization Command, was renamed the Joint Modernization Command, or JMC. In response to Budget sequestration in 2013, Army plans were to shrink to 1940 levels, although actual Active-Army end-strengths were projected to fall to some 450,000 troops by the end of FY2017. From 2016 to 2017, the Army retired hundreds of OH-58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters, while retaining its Apache gunships. The 2015 expenditure for Army research, development and acquisition changed from $32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to $21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014.

Organization of the United States Army within the Department of Defense

Planning

By 2017, a task force was formed to address Army modernization, which triggered shifts of units: RDECOM, and ARCIC, from within Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC, respectively, to a new Army Command (ACOM) in 2018. The Army Futures Command (AFC), is a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and AMC, the other ACOMs. AFC's mission is modernization reform: to design hardware, as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC. TRADOC's mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM.:minutes 2:30–15:00 AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future. In order to support the Army's modernization priorities, its FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years. The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.

Army components

U.S. Army organization chart

The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775. In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.

By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers. It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the state militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.

In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft.

Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. Some states further maintain state defense forces, as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias. State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able-bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service.

The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas. Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch. Careers in the Army can extend into cross-functional areas for officer, warrant officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel.

U.S. Army branches and functional areas
Branch Insignia and colors Branch Insignia and colors Functional Area (FA)
Acquisition Corps (AC) Air Defense Artillery (AD) Information Network Engineering (FA 26)
Adjutant General's Corps (AG)
Includes Army Bands (AB)
Armor (AR)
Includes Cavalry (CV)
Information Operations (FA 30)
Aviation (AV) Civil Affairs Corps (CA) Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)
Chaplain Corps (CH)
Chemical Corps (CM) Space Operations (FA 40)
Cyber Corps (CY) Dental Corps (DC) Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)
Corps of Engineers (EN) Field Artillery (FA) Academy Professor (FA 47)
Finance Corps (FI) Infantry (IN) Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)
Inspector General (IG) Logistics (LG) Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)
Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA) Military Intelligence Corps (MI) Force Management (FA 50)
Medical Corps (MC) Medical Service Corps (MS) Acquisition (FA 51)
Military Police Corps (MP) Army Nurse Corps (AN) Simulation Operations (FA 57)
Psychological Operations (PO) Medical Specialist Corps (SP) Army Marketing (FA 58)
Quartermaster Corps (QM) Staff Specialist Corps (SS)
(USAR and ARNG only)
Health Services (FA 70)
Special Forces (SF) Ordnance Corps (OD) Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)
Veterinary Corps (VC) Public Affairs (PA) Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)
Transportation Corps (TC) Signal Corps (SC) Behavioral Sciences (FA 73)
Special branch insignias (for some unique duty assignments)
National Guard Bureau (NGB) General Staff U.S. Military Academy Staff
Chaplain Candidate Officer Candidate Warrant Officer Candidate
Aide-de-camp
Senior Enlisted Advisor (SEA)

Before 1933, members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into the U.S. Army, typically on the onset of war. Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916, all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status. They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as reserve members of the U.S. Army under the authority of the president, in the Army National Guard of the United States.

Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Army commands and army service component commands

Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA):

Army Commands Current commander Location of headquarters
United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) GEN Michael X. Garrett Fort Bragg, North Carolina
United States Army Futures Command (AFC) GEN John M. Murray Austin, Texas
United States Army Materiel Command (AMC) GEN Edward M. Daly Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) GEN Paul E. Funk II Fort Eustis, Virginia
Army Service Component Commands Current commander Location of headquarters
United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third Army LTG Ronald P. Clark Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
United States Army Europe and Africa (USAREUR-AF)/Seventh Army GEN Christopher G. Cavoli Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany
United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth Army LTG Laura J. Richardson Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
United States Army Pacific (USARPAC) GEN Charles A. Flynn Fort Shafter, Hawaii
United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth Army BG William L. Thigpen Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) MG Heidi J. Hoyle Scott AFB, Illinois
United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) LTG Stephen G. Fogarty Fort Belvoir, Virginia
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) LTG Daniel L. Karbler Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) LTG Francis M. Beaudette Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Operational Force Headquarters Current commander Location of headquarters
Eighth Army (EUSA) LTG Willard M. Burleson III Camp Humphreys, South Korea
Direct reporting units Current commander Location of headquarters
Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery Katharine Kelley(civilian) Arlington, Virginia
United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC) Craig A. Spisak(civilian) Fort Belvoir, Virginia
United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA) Carol Burton(civilian) Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) LTG Scott A. Spellmon Washington, D.C.
United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) MG Duane R. Miller Quantico, Virginia
United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC) BG Thomas R. Drew Fort Knox, Kentucky
United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) MG Michele H. Bredenkamp Fort Belvoir, Virginia
United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) LTG R. Scott Dingle Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) MG Allan M. Pepin Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.
United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) MG James J. Gallivan Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
United States Army War College (AWC) MG Stephen J. Maranian Carlisle, Pennsylvania
United States Military Academy (USMA) LTG Darryl A. Williams West Point, New York

Source: U.S. Army organization

Structure

See Structure of the United States Army for a detailed treatment of the history, components, administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army.

U.S. Army soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard conducting an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New Jersey

The U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. president, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.

U.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, Iraq

The U.S. Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense. The chief of staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States, the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense.

The 1st Cavalry Division's combat aviation brigade performing a mock charge with the horse detachment

By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (CCMD):

U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrolling a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan

The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of brigade combat teams are:

  • Armored brigades, with a strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.
  • Stryker brigades, with a strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.
  • Infantry brigades, with a strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.

In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and expeditionary military intelligence brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.

Combat maneuver organizations

To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see Transformation of the United States Army#Divisions and brigades

The U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth. In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active brigade combat teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active-duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army chief of staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018. However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion.

Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve, there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.

United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)

Combat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOM
Name Headquarters Subunits Subordinate to
1st Armored Division
Fort Bliss, Texas and New Mexico 3 armored BCTs (ABCTs), 1 Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB), and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps
1st Cavalry Division
Fort Hood, Texas 3 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and a sustainment brigade III Corps
1st Infantry Division Fort Riley, Kansas 2 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps
3rd Cavalry Regiment
Fort Hood, Texas 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron, and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division) III Corps
3rd Infantry Division
Fort Stewart, Georgia 2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry BCT of the Georgia Army National Guard XVIII Airborne Corps
4th Infantry Division
Fort Carson, Colorado 2 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps
7th Infantry Division
Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs, and 1 DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division as well as the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard. I Corps
10th Mountain Division
Fort Drum, New York 3 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps
25th Infantry Division
Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 2 infantry BCTs, 1 airborne infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade I Corps
82nd Airborne Division
Fort Bragg, North Carolina 3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 airborne sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps
101st Airborne Division
Fort Campbell, Kentucky 3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 air assault sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps
Combat maneuver units aligned under other organizations
Name Headquarters Subunits Subordinate to
2nd Cavalry Regiment
Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany 4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron, and 1 support squadron U.S. Army Europe and Africa
2nd Infantry Division
Camp Humphreys, South Korea 2 Stryker BCTs, 1 mechanized brigade from the ROK Army, 1 DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID), 1 sustainment brigade, a stateside ABCT from another active division that is rotated in on a regular basis, and the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard Eighth Army
173rd Airborne Brigade
Camp Ederle, Vicenza, Italy 3 airborne infantry battalions (including 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas and Rhode Island Army National Guard), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 airborne cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion, and 1 airborne support battalion U.S. Army Europe and Africa
Combat maneuver units aligned under the Army National Guard, until federalized
Name Locations Subunits
28th Infantry Division
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Maryland 2nd Infantry BCT, 56th Stryker BCT, 28th CAB, 55th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade (MEB), and the 28th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade (SB)
29th Infantry Division
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina and Florida 30th Armored BCT, 53rd Infantry BCT, 116th Infantry BCT, 29th CAB, 142nd Field Artillery Regiment, 29th Infantry Division SB, and the 226th MEB
34th Infantry Division
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Idaho 1st Armored BCT, 2nd Infantry BCT, 32nd Infantry BCT, 116th Cavalry BCT, 115th Field Artillery Brigade, 34th CAB, 34th Infantry Division SB, and the 157th MEB
35th Infantry Division
Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma, Georgia, Arkansas, and Nebraska 33rd Infantry BCT, 39th Infantry BCT, 45th Infantry BCT, 130th Field Artillery Brigade, 35th CAB, and the 67th MEB
36th Infantry Division
Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi 56th Infantry BCT, 72nd Infantry BCT, 256th Infantry BCT, 155th Armored BCT, 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 36th CAB, 36th Infantry Division SB, and the 136th MEB
38th Infantry Division
Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee 37th Infantry BCT, 76th Infantry BCT, 138th Field Artillery Brigade, 38th CAB, 38th Infantry Division SB, and the 149th MEB
40th Infantry Division
Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington 29th Infantry BCT, 41st Infantry BCT, 79th Infantry BCT, 40th CAB, and the 40th Infantry Division SB
42nd Infantry Division
New York, New Jersey and Vermont 27th Infantry BCT, 44th Infantry BCT, 86th Infantry BCT (Mountain), 197th Field Artillery Brigade, 42nd CAB, 42nd Infantry Division SB, and the 26th MEB

For a description of U.S. Army tactical organizational structure, see: a U.S. context and also a global context.

Special operations forces

United States Army Special Operations Command (Airborne) (USASOC):

Name Headquarters Structure and purpose
1st Special Forces Command
Fort Bragg, North Carolina Manages seven special forces groups designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and security force assistance. The command also manages two psychological operations groups—tasked to work with foreign nations to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives—a civil affairs brigade—that enables military commanders and U.S. ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five battalions—and a sustainment brigade—that provides combat service support and combat health support units via three distinct battalions.
Army Special Operations Aviation Command
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina Commands, organizes, mans, trains, resources, and equips Army special operations aviation units to provide responsive, special operations aviation support to special operations forces consisting of five units, including the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne).
75th Ranger Regiment
Fort Benning, Georgia In addition to a regimental headquarters, a special troops battalion, and a military intelligence battalion, the 75th Ranger Regiment has three maneuver battalions of elite airborne infantry specializing in large-scale, joint forcible entry operations and precision targeting raids. Additional capabilities include special reconnaissance, air assault, and direct action raids seizing key terrain such as airfields, destroying or securing strategic facilities, and capturing or killing enemies of the Nation. The Regiment also helps develop the equipment, technologies, training, and readiness that bridge the gap between special operations and traditional combat maneuver organizations.
John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina Selects and trains special forces, civil affairs, and psychological operations soldiers consisting of two groups and other various training units and offices.
1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta
Ft. Bragg, North Carolina Commonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit," Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or Task Force Green, SFOD–D is the U.S. Army's Tier 1 Special Mission Unit tasked with performing the most complex, classified, and dangerous missions directed by the National Command Authority. Under the control of Joint Special Operations Command, SFOD–D specializes in hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, direct action, and special reconnaissance against high-value targets via eight squadrons: four assault, one aviation, one clandestine, one combat support, and one nuclear disposal.

The Army's Talent Management Task Force (TMTF) has deployed IPPS-A, the Integrated Personnel and Pay System - Army, an app which serves the National Guard, and in 2021 the Army Reserve and Active Army. Soldiers are reminded to update their information using the legacy systems to keep their payroll and personnel information current by December 2021. IPPS-A is the Human Resources system for the Army, is now available for download for Android, or the Apple store. It will be used for future promotions and other personnel decisions. Among the changes are:

  • BCAP, the Battalion Commander Assessment Program. In January 2020, over 800 majors and lieutenant colonels from all over the Army converged on Fort Knox to take part in a five day program to select the next battalion commanders for the Army (beginning in FY2021). This process replaces the former selection process which was based solely on rank and individual reviews of past performance. From now on, more consideration will be given to an individual officer's personal preference, as part of 25 other selection criteria. "Promotion boards will now be able to see almost all substantiated adverse information". The promotion boards will be able to see anything in an officer’s human resource record. Officers are encouraged to become familiar with their human resource record, and to file rebuttals to adverse information.
  • Depending on the success of this initiative, other assessment programs could be instituted as well, for promotion to sergeants major, and for assessment of colonels for command.

Below are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.

Commissioned officers

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Officer Candidate School, and Direct commissioning. Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army.

Most army commissioned officers (those who are generalists) are promoted based on an "up or out" system. A more flexible talent management process is underway. The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for the timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.

Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)".

US DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 Special grade
NATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10
Insignia
Service Green
Uniform Insignia
Title Second lieutenant First lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant colonel Colonel Brigadier general Major general Lieutenant general General General of the Army
Abbreviation 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC COL BG MG LTG GEN GA

Warrant officers

Warrant officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).

By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel. However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank.

US DoD Pay Grade W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5
NATO Code WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5
Insignia
Title Warrant officer 1 Chief warrant officer 2 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 5
Abbreviation WO1 CW2 CWO CW4 CW5

Enlisted personnel

See also: Enlisted rank

Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers. This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade but do not exercise leadership responsibilities. Beginning in 2021, all corporals will be required to conduct structured self-development for the NCO ranks, completing the basic leader course (BLC), or else be laterally assigned as specialists. Specialists who have completed BLC and who have been recommended for promotion will be permitted to wear corporal rank before their recommended promotion as NCOs.

Privates and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)". First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)".

U.S. DoD Pay grade E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9
NATO Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6 OR-7 OR-8 OR-9
Service Green
Uniform Insignia
No insignia
Title Private Private
Private
first class
Specialist Corporal Sergeant Staff
sergeant
Sergeant
first class
Master
sergeant
First
sergeant
Sergeant
major
Command
sergeant major
Sergeant major
of the Army
Senior enlisted
advisor to the chairman
Abbreviation PV1 ¹ PV2 ¹ PFC SPC ² CPL SGT SSG SFC MSG 1SG ³ SGM CSM SMA SEAC
¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished.
² SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E-5 to E-7.
³ First sergeant is considered a temporary and lateral rank and is senior to master sergeant. A first sergeant can revert to master sergeant upon leaving assignment.

Training

U.S. Army Rangers practicing fast roping techniques from an MH-47 during an exercise at Fort Bragg

Training in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. Because of COVID-19 precautions, the first two weeks of basic training — not including processing and out-processing — incorporate social distancing and indoor desk-oriented training. Once the recruits have tested negative for COVID-19 for two weeks, the remaining 8 weeks follow the traditional activities for most recruits, followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS). Some individual's MOSs range anywhere from 14 to 20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of AIT school varies by the MOS. The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier. Certain highly technical MOS training requires many months (e.g., foreign language translators). Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia. Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen's pilot program for One Station Unit Training (OSUT) extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT, to 22 weeks. The pilot, designed to boost infantry readiness ended in December 2018. The new Infantry OSUT covered the M240 machine gun as well as the M249 squad automatic weapon. The redesigned Infantry OSUT started in 2019. Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot, OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry. One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021. Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry, Engineer, and Military Police (MP) in the succeeding Fiscal Years.

A new training assignment for junior officers was instituted, that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training (BCT) platoons. These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative, logistical, and day-to-day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to "lead, train, and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale, welfare and readiness" of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons. These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons, to free up the drill sergeants for training.

A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division assisting Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji, Iraq on 18 July 2016

The United States Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) was introduced into the Army, beginning in 2018 with 60 battalions spread throughout the Army. The test is the same for all soldiers, men or women. It takes an hour to complete, including resting periods. The ACFT supersedes the Army physical fitness test (APFT), as being more relevant to survival in combat. Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions: three deadlifts, a standing power throw of a ten-pound medicine ball, hand-release pushups (which replace the traditional pushup), a sprint/drag/carry 250 yard event, three pull-ups with leg tucks (or a plank test in lieu of the leg tuck), a mandatory rest period, and a two-mile run. On 1 October 2020 all soldiers from all three components (Active Army, Reserve, and National guard) are subject to this test. The ACFT now tests all soldiers in basic training as of October 2020. The ACFT becomes the official test of record 1 October 2020; before that day every Army unit is required to complete a diagnostic ACFT (All Soldiers with valid APFT scores can use them until March 2022. The Holistic Health and Fitness (H2F) System is one way that soldiers can prepare.). The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield.

Following their basic and advanced training at the individual level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it on a more specific MOS. For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist, or even a licensed practical nurse. For commissioned officers, training includes pre-commissioning training, known as Basic Officer Leader Course A, either at USMA or via ROTC, or by completing OCS. After commissioning, officers undergo branch-specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according to their future assignments. Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their careers.

U.S. Army soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015

Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr, Germany. ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission. Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment.

Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold-weather regions, jungles, mountains, or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain.:minute 1:26:00 Post 9/11, Army unit-level training was for counter-insurgency (COIN); by 2014–2017, training had shifted to decisive action training.

The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities, in order: artillery, ground vehicles, aircraft, network, air/missile defense, and soldier lethality.

Weapons

A Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system used for ballistic missile protection

Individual weapons

The United States Army employs various weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapon type used by the army is the M4 carbine, a compact variant of the M16 rifle, along with the 7.62×51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers. The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol; the M11 pistol is also used. Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17 through the Modular Handgun System program. Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade.

Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level. Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher. The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle.

Crew-served weapons

The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.

The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun. The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.

The U.S. Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level. At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars. The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units.

Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1 and the 155 mm M777.

The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.

Vehicles

A U.S. soldier on patrol with the support of a Humvee vehicle

U.S. Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare. It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009. The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles. While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank, while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle. Other vehicles include the Stryker, the M113 armored personnel carrier and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.

3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq

The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.

While the United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter, the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter. Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types.

Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). For UAVs, the Army is deploying at least one company of drone MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division.

Uniforms

The 2020 Army Greens uniform

The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern (OCP); OCP replaced a pixel-based pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) in 2019.

An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, wearing ASUs, representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow

On 11 November 2018, the Army announced a new version of 'Army Greens' based on uniforms worn during World War II that will become the standard garrison service uniform. The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform. The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in the summer of 2020.

Berets

The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in their tan berets and former service uniform

The beret flash of enlisted personnel displays their distinctive unit insignia (shown above). The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army chief of staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. Soldiers who are currently in a unit in jump status still wear berets, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret), while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) wear brown berets. Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.

Tents

The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment (Force Provider Expeditionary (FPE)).:p.146 The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), forward operating bases (FOBs), after-action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center. Each FPE contains billeting, latrines, showers, laundry and kitchen facilities for 50–150 Soldiers,:p.146 and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1, 2, 4 and 5. This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility, within 24 to 48 hours.

The U.S. Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter (DRASH). In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.

  1. As the Continental Army.
  2. Adopted in 1962.
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For a more comprehensive list, see Bibliography of United States military history.
  • "Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award (VUA) Citations". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved26 December 2014.
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  • Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I (1998), a standard history
  • Kretchik, Walter E. U.S. Army Doctrine: From the American Revolution to the War on Terror (University Press of Kansas; 2011) 392 pages; studies military doctrine in four distinct eras: 1779–1904, 1905–1944, 1944–1962, and 1962 to the present.
  • Woodward, David R. The American Army and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2014). 484 pp. online review
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United States Army
united, states, army, language, watch, edit, confused, with, united, states, department, army, united, states, armed, forces, land, service, branch, united, states, armed, forces, eight, uniformed, services, designated, army, united, states, constitution, olde. United States Army Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with United States Department of the Army or United States Armed Forces The United States Army USA is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces It is one of the eight U S uniformed services and is designated as the Army of the United States in the U S Constitution 13 As the oldest and most senior branch of the U S military in order of precedence 14 the modern U S Army has its roots in the Continental Army which was formed 14 June 1775 to fight the American Revolutionary War 1775 1783 before the United States of America was established as a country 15 After the Revolutionary War the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army 16 17 The United States Army considers itself to be a continuation of the Continental Army and thus considers its institutional inception to be the origin of that armed force in 1775 15 United States ArmyMilitary service mark of the United States Army 1 Army Star logo 2 Founded14 June 1775 1775 06 14 a 246 years 2 months ago 3 4 Country United StatesTypeArmyRolePrompt and sustained land combat Combined arms operations Combined arms maneuver and wide area security Armored and mechanized operations Airborne and air assault operationsSpecial operations Set and sustain the theater for the joint force Integrate national multinational and joint power on landSize485 000 Regular Army personnel 2021 5 336 000 Army National Guard personnel 2021 189 500 Army Reserve personnel 2021 5 1 005 725 total uniformed personnel 252 747 civilian personnel 30 September 2020 1 258 472 total 4 406 manned aircraft 6 Part ofUnited States Armed Forces Department of the ArmyHeadquartersThe Pentagon Arlington County Virginia U S Motto s This We ll Defend ColorsBlack gold and white 7 8 March The Army Goes Rolling Along Play help info Mascot s Army MulesAnniversariesArmy Birthday 14 JuneEquipmentList of U S Army equipmentEngagementsSee list Revolutionary War War of 1812 Mexican American War Civil War Indian Wars Spanish American War China Relief Expedition Philippine American War Mexican Expedition World War I Russian Civil War Bonus Army suppression World War II Korean War 1958 Lebanon crisis Vietnam War Dominican Civil War Korean DMZ Conflict Invasion of GrenadaInvasion of Panama Somali Civil War Persian Gulf War Kosovo War Global War on Terrorism War in Afghanistan Iraq War Operation Inherent Resolve 9 Battle of KhashamWebsiteArmy milCommandersCommander in ChiefPresident Joe BidenSecretary of DefenseLloyd AustinSecretary of the ArmyChristine WormuthChief of StaffGEN James C McConville 10 Vice Chief of StaffGEN Joseph M Martin 11 Sergeant Major of the ArmySMA Michael A Grinston 12 InsigniaFlagField flag b The U S Army is a uniformed service of the United States and is part of the Department of the Army which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense The U S Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant the secretary of the Army SECARMY and by a chief military officer the chief of staff of the Army CSA who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff It is the largest military branch and in the fiscal year 2020 the projected end strength for the Regular Army USA was 480 893 soldiers the Army National Guard ARNG had 336 129 soldiers and the U S Army Reserve USAR had 188 703 soldiers the combined component strength of the U S Army was 1 005 725 soldiers 18 As a branch of the armed forces the mission of the U S Army is to fight and win our Nation s wars by providing prompt sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders 19 The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground based offensive and defensive force of the United States Contents 1 Mission 2 History 2 1 Origins 2 2 19th century 2 2 1 Early wars on the Frontier 2 2 2 American Civil War 2 2 3 Later 19th century 2 3 20th century 2 3 1 World wars 2 3 2 Cold War 2 3 2 1 1945 1960 2 3 2 2 1960 1970 2 3 2 3 1970 1990 2 3 3 1990s 2 4 21st century 3 Organization 3 1 Planning 3 2 Army components 3 3 Army commands and army service component commands 3 4 Structure 3 5 Combat maneuver organizations 3 6 Special operations forces 4 Personnel 4 1 Commissioned officers 4 2 Warrant officers 4 3 Enlisted personnel 4 4 Training 5 Equipment 5 1 Weapons 5 1 1 Individual weapons 5 1 2 Crew served weapons 5 2 Vehicles 5 3 Uniforms 5 3 1 Berets 5 4 Tents 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksMission EditThe United States Army serves as the land based branch of the U S Armed Forces Section 3062 of Title 10 U S Code defines the purpose of the army as 20 21 Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States In 2018 the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028 22 While the Army Mission remains constant the Army Strategy builds upon the Army s Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division level echelons 22 Modernization reform for high intensity conflict and Joint multi domain operations are added to the strategy to be completed by 2028 22 The Army s five core competencies are prompt and sustained land combat combined arms operations to include combined arms maneuver and wide area security armored and mechanized operations and airborne and air assault operations special operations to set and sustain the theater for the joint force and to integrate national multinational and joint power on land 23 History EditMain article History of the United States Army This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources United States Army news newspapers books scholar JSTOR May 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article or section may need to be cleaned up or summarized because it has been split from to History of the United States Army Origins Edit The Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress 24 as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain with George Washington appointed as its commander 15 25 26 27 The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them As the Revolutionary War progressed French aid resources and military thinking helped shape the new army A number of European soldiers came on their own to help such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills The storming of Redoubt No 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain s government to begin negotiations resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain s recognition of the United States as an independent state The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780 and 1781 at times using the Fabian strategy and hit and run tactics under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777 With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French the Continental Army prevailed against the British After the war the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies State militias became the new nation s sole ground army with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point s arsenal However because of continuing conflict with Native Americans it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St Clair s defeat at the Battle of the Wabash 28 where more than 800 Americans were killed the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796 In 1798 during the Quasi War with France Congress established a three year Provisional Army of 10 000 men consisting of twelve regiments of infantry and six troops of light dragoons By March 1799 Congress created an Eventual Army of 30 000 men including three regiments of cavalry Both armies existed only on paper but equipment for 3 000 men and horses was procured and stored 29 19th century Edit Early wars on the Frontier Edit Further information Army on the Frontier General Andrew Jackson standing on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans the final major and most one sided battle of the War of 1812 The War of 1812 the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain had mixed results The U S Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815 After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813 the U S Army seized parts of western Upper Canada burned York and defeated Tecumseh which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse Following U S victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada British troops who had dubbed the U S Army Regulars by God were able to capture and burn Washington which was defended by militia in 1814 The regular army however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo antebellum Two weeks after a treaty was signed but not ratified Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St Philip and became a national hero U S troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war Per the treaty both sides the United States and Great Britain returned to the geographical status quo Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict The army s major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles It took long wars 1818 1858 to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians winter food supply but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century 30 The U S Army fought and won the Mexican American War 1846 1848 which was a defining event for both countries 31 The U S victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California Nevada Utah Colorado Arizona Wyoming and New Mexico American Civil War Edit Further information Union Army The Battle of Gettysburg the turning point of the American Civil War The American Civil War was the costliest war for the U S in terms of casualties After most slave states located in the southern U S formed the Confederate States the Confederate States Army led by former U S Army officers mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower Forces of the United States the Union or the North formed the Union Army consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state north and south except South Carolina 32 For the first two years Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states 33 The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline blockading the ports and taking control of the river systems By 1863 the Confederacy was being strangled Its eastern armies fought well but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee River In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862 1863 General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River and cut off the Southwest Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties he had General Robert E Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months The war remains the deadliest conflict in U S history resulting in the deaths of 620 000 men on both sides Based on 1860 census figures 8 of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war including 6 4 in the North and 18 in the South 34 Later 19th century Edit Army soldiers in 1890 Following the Civil War the U S Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations They set up many forts and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars U S Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen The key battles of the Spanish American War of 1898 were fought by the Navy Using mostly new volunteers the U S Army defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine American War 20th century Edit Starting in 1910 the army began acquiring fixed wing aircraft 35 In 1910 during the Mexican Revolution the army was deployed to U S towns near the border to ensure the safety of lives and property In 1916 Pancho Villa a major rebel leader attacked Columbus New Mexico prompting a U S intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917 They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918 World wars Edit For a list of campaigns see List of United States Army campaigns during World War II U S Army troops assaulting a German bunker in France c 1918 The United States joined World War I as an Associated Power in 1917 on the side of Britain France Russia Italy and the other Allies U S troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war With the armistice in November 1918 the army once again decreased its forces In 1939 estimates of the Army s strength range between 174 000 and 200 000 soldiers smaller than that of Portugal s which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size General George C Marshall became Army chief of staff in September 1939 and set about expanding and modernizing the Army in preparation for war 36 37 U S soldiers hunting for Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign The United States joined World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Some 11 million Americans were to serve in various Army operations 38 39 On the European front U S Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that landed in French North Africa and took Tunisia and then moved on to Sicily and later fought in Italy In the June 1944 landings in northern France and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany millions of U S Army troops played a central role In the Pacific War U S Army soldiers participated alongside the United States Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control Following the Axis surrenders in May Germany and August Japan of 1945 army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations Two years after World War II the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947 In 1948 the army was desegregated by order 9981 of President Harry S Truman Cold War Edit 1945 1960 Edit U S Army soldiers observing an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the Korean War The end of World War II set the stage for the East West confrontation known as the Cold War With the outbreak of the Korean War concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose Two corps V and VII were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and U S strength in Europe rose from one division to four Hundreds of thousands of U S troops remained stationed in West Germany with others in Belgium the Netherlands and the United Kingdom until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack 40 minute 9 00 10 00 US tanks and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie 1961 During the Cold War U S troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam The Korean War began in June 1950 when the Soviets walked out of a UN Security Council meeting removing their possible veto Under a United Nations umbrella hundreds of thousands of U S troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea and later to invade the northern nation After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People s Volunteer Army s entry into the war the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in July 1953 1960 1970 Edit The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U S Army due to the use of drafted personnel the unpopularity of the war with the U S public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by U S political leaders While U S forces had been stationed in South Vietnam since 1959 in intelligence and advising training roles they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965 after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident U S forces effectively established and maintained control of the traditional battlefield but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the People s Army Of Vietnam NVA 41 42 A U S Army infantry patrol moving up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army position at Dak To South Vietnam during Operation Hawthorne During the 1960s the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve 43 In 1967 Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions one mechanized infantry two armored and five infantry but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 one airborne one armored two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them Under the proposal the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base However no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place which convinced the governors to accept the plan The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968 1970 1990 Edit U S Army soldiers preparing to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during Operation Just Cause The Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involved treating the three components of the army the Regular Army the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force 44 General Abrams intertwining of the three components of the army effectively made extended operations impossible without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in a predominately combat support role 45 The army converted to an all volunteer force with greater emphasis on training to specific performance standards driven by the reforms of General William E DePuy the first commander of United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Following the Camp David Accords that was signed by Egypt Israel that was that was brokered by president Jimmy Carter in 1978 as part of the agreement both the United States and Egypt agreed that there would be a joint military training led by both countries that would usually take place every 2 years that exercise is known as Exercise Bright Star The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization The Goldwater Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified geographically organized command structures The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 Operation Urgent Fury and Panama in 1989 Operation Just Cause By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23 from 750 000 to 580 000 46 A number of incentives such as early retirement were used 1990s Edit M1 Abrams tanks moving out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf War In 1990 Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor Kuwait and U S land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced a U S led coalition which deployed over 500 000 troops the bulk of them from U S Army formations to drive out Iraqi forces The campaign ended in total victory as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war The Battle of Medina Ridge Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance 47 48 49 Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1 41 Infantry during the Gulf War February 1991 After Operation Desert Storm the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for rebalancing after a review of the Total Force Policy 50 but in 2004 Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an essential ingredient to the successful application of military force 51 21st century Edit U S Army Rangers taking part in a raid during an operation in Nahr e Saraj Afghanistan On 11 September 2001 53 Army civilians 47 employees and six contractors and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building as part of the September 11 attacks 52 In response to the 11 September attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror U S and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 displacing the Taliban government The U S Army also led the combined U S and allied invasion of Iraq in 2003 it served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long term deployment operations In the following years the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency resulting in the deaths of more than 4 000 U S service members as of March 2008 and injuries to thousands more 53 54 23 813 insurgents were killed in Iraq between 2003 and 2011 55 U S Army soldiers with the 2nd Battalion 327th Infantry Regiment 101st Airborne Division returning fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province Afghanistan March 2011 Until 2009 the army s chief modernization plan its most ambitious since World War II 56 was the Future Combat Systems program In 2009 many systems were canceled and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program 57 By 2017 the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters the Brigade Modernization Command was renamed the Joint Modernization Command or JMC 58 In response to Budget sequestration in 2013 Army plans were to shrink to 1940 levels 59 although actual Active Army end strengths were projected to fall to some 450 000 troops by the end of FY2017 60 61 From 2016 to 2017 the Army retired hundreds of OH 58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters 62 while retaining its Apache gunships 63 The 2015 expenditure for Army research development and acquisition changed from 32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to 21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014 64 Organization Edit Organization of the United States Army within the Department of Defense Planning Edit By 2017 a task force was formed to address Army modernization 65 which triggered shifts of units RDECOM and ARCIC from within Army Materiel Command AMC and TRADOC respectively to a new Army Command ACOM in 2018 66 The Army Futures Command AFC is a peer of FORSCOM TRADOC and AMC the other ACOMs 67 AFC s mission is modernization reform to design hardware as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC TRADOC s mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM 68 minutes 2 30 15 00 40 AFC s cross functional teams CFTs are Futures Command s vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future 69 In order to support the Army s modernization priorities its FY2020 budget allocated 30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years 70 The 30 billion came from 8 billion in cost avoidance and 22 billion in terminations 70 Army components Edit Main article Structure of the United States Army U S Army organization chart 71 The task of organizing the U S Army commenced in 1775 72 In the first one hundred years of its existence the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non wartime duties such as engineering and construction works During times of war the U S Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments States also maintained full time militias which could also be called into the service of the army Senior American commanders of the European theatre of World War II Seated are from left to right Generals William H Simpson George S Patton Carl A Spaatz Dwight D Eisenhower Omar Bradley Courtney H Hodges and Leonard T Gerow standing are from left to right Generals Ralph F Stearley Hoyt Vandenberg Walter Bedell Smith Otto P Weyland and Richard E Nugent By the twentieth century the U S Army had mobilized the U S Volunteers on four occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century During World War I the National Army was organized to fight the conflict replacing the concept of U S Volunteers 73 It was demobilized at the end of World War I and was replaced by the Regular Army the Organized Reserve Corps and the state militias In the 1920s and 1930s the career soldiers were known as the Regular Army with the Enlisted Reserve Corps and Officer Reserve Corps augmented to fill vacancies when needed 74 In 1941 the Army of the United States was founded to fight World War II The Regular Army Army of the United States the National Guard and Officer Enlisted Reserve Corps ORC and ERC existed simultaneously After World War II the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve The Army of the United States was re established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft 74 Currently the Army is divided into the Regular Army the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard 73 Some states further maintain state defense forces as a type of reserve to the National Guard while all states maintain regulations for state militias 75 State militias are both organized meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces or unorganized simply meaning that all able bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service The U S Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas Branches include officers warrant officers and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area However officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia Some branches such as Special Forces operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch Careers in the Army can extend into cross functional areas for officer 76 warrant officer enlisted and civilian personnel U S Army branches and functional areas Branch Insignia and colors Branch Insignia and colors Functional Area FA Acquisition Corps AC Air Defense Artillery AD Information Network Engineering FA 26 Adjutant General s Corps AG Includes Army Bands AB Armor AR Includes Cavalry CV Information Operations FA 30 Aviation AV Civil Affairs Corps CA Strategic Intelligence FA 34 Chaplain Corps CH Chemical Corps CM Space Operations FA 40 Cyber Corps CY Dental Corps DC Public Affairs Officer FA 46 Corps of Engineers EN Field Artillery FA Academy Professor FA 47 Finance Corps FI Infantry IN Foreign Area Officer FA 48 Inspector General IG Logistics LG Operations Research Systems Analysis FA 49 Judge Advocate General s Corps JA Military Intelligence Corps MI Force Management FA 50 Medical Corps MC Medical Service Corps MS Acquisition FA 51 76 Military Police Corps MP Army Nurse Corps AN Simulation Operations FA 57 Psychological Operations PO Medical Specialist Corps SP Army Marketing FA 58 77 Quartermaster Corps QM Staff Specialist Corps SS USAR and ARNG only Health Services FA 70 Special Forces SF Ordnance Corps OD Laboratory Sciences FA 71 Veterinary Corps VC Public Affairs PA Preventive Medicine Sciences FA 72 Transportation Corps TC Signal Corps SC Behavioral Sciences FA 73 Special branch insignias for some unique duty assignments National Guard Bureau NGB General Staff U S Military Academy Staff Chaplain Candidate Officer Candidate Warrant Officer Candidate Aide de camp Senior Enlisted Advisor SEA Before 1933 members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into the U S Army typically on the onset of war Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916 all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as reserve members of the U S Army under the authority of the president in the Army National Guard of the United States Since the adoption of the total force policy in the aftermath of the Vietnam War reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U S military operations For example Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War peacekeeping in Kosovo Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq Army commands and army service component commands Edit Headquarters United States Department of the Army HQDA Army Commands Current commander Location of headquarters United States Army Forces Command FORSCOM GEN Michael X Garrett Fort Bragg North Carolina United States Army Futures Command AFC GEN John M Murray Austin Texas United States Army Materiel Command AMC GEN Edward M Daly Redstone Arsenal Alabama United States Army Training and Doctrine Command TRADOC GEN Paul E Funk II Fort Eustis VirginiaArmy Service Component Commands Current commander Location of headquarters United States Army Central ARCENT Third Army LTG Ronald P Clark Shaw Air Force Base South Carolina United States Army Europe and Africa USAREUR AF Seventh Army GEN Christopher G Cavoli 78 Clay Kaserne Wiesbaden Germany United States Army North ARNORTH Fifth Army LTG Laura J Richardson Joint Base San Antonio Texas United States Army Pacific USARPAC GEN Charles A Flynn Fort Shafter Hawaii United States Army South ARSOUTH Sixth Army BG William L Thigpen Joint Base San Antonio Texas Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command SDDC 79 MG Heidi J Hoyle 80 Scott AFB Illinois United States Army Cyber Command ARCYBER 81 82 83 LTG Stephen G Fogarty Fort Belvoir Virginia 84 United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command United States Army Strategic Command USASMDC ARSTRAT LTG Daniel L Karbler Redstone Arsenal Alabama United States Army Special Operations Command USASOC LTG Francis M Beaudette Fort Bragg North CarolinaOperational Force Headquarters Current commander Location of headquarters Eighth Army EUSA 85 LTG Willard M Burleson III Camp Humphreys South KoreaDirect reporting units Current commander Location of headquarters Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers and Airmen s Home National Cemetery 86 Katharine Kelley 87 civilian Arlington Virginia United States Army Acquisition Support Center USAASC 88 Craig A Spisak 89 civilian Fort Belvoir Virginia United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency CHRA 90 Carol Burton 91 civilian Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland United States Army Corps of Engineers USACE LTG Scott A Spellmon 92 Washington D C United States Army Criminal Investigation Command USACIDC MG Duane R Miller Quantico Virginia United States Army Human Resources Command HRC 93 BG Thomas R Drew Fort Knox Kentucky United States Army Intelligence and Security Command INSCOM MG Michele H Bredenkamp Fort Belvoir Virginia United States Army Medical Command MEDCOM LTG R Scott Dingle Joint Base San Antonio Texas United States Army Military District of Washington MDW MG Allan M Pepin Fort Lesley J McNair Washington D C United States Army Test and Evaluation Command ATEC MG James J Gallivan 94 Aberdeen Proving Ground Maryland United States Army War College AWC 95 MG Stephen J Maranian Carlisle Pennsylvania United States Military Academy USMA LTG Darryl A Williams West Point New York Source U S Army organization 96 Structure Edit Main article Reorganization plan of United States Army See Structure of the United States Army for a detailed treatment of the history components administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army U S Army soldiers of the 1st Battalion 175th Infantry Regiment Maryland Army National Guard conducting an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix New Jersey The U S Army is made up of three components the active component the Regular Army and two reserve components the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve Both reserve components are primarily composed of part time soldiers who train once a month known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies UTAs and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code while the National Guard is organized under Title 32 While the Army National Guard is organized trained and equipped as a component of the U S Army when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors However the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U S president not the district s mayor even when not federalized Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor s wishes 97 U S soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi Iraq The U S Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority direction and control of the secretary of defense 98 The chief of staff of the Army who is the highest ranked military officer in the army serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the secretary of the Army i e its service chief and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 99 100 In 1986 the Goldwater Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility thus the secretaries of the military departments and their respective service chiefs underneath them only have the responsibility to organize train and equip their service components The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense 101 The 1st Cavalry Division s combat aviation brigade performing a mock charge with the horse detachment By 2013 the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands CCMD United States Army Central headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base South Carolina United States Army North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston Texas United States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston Texas United States Army Europe headquartered at Clay Kaserne Wiesbaden Germany United States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter Hawaii United States Army Africa headquartered at Vicenza Italy U S Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrolling a field in the Gulistan district of Farah Afghanistan The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades Division lineage will be retained but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular i e all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division As specified before the 2013 end strength re definitions the three major types of brigade combat teams are Armored brigades with a strength of 4 743 troops as of 2014 Stryker brigades with a strength of 4 500 troops as of 2014 Infantry brigades with a strength of 4 413 troops as of 2014 In addition there are combat support and service support modular brigades Combat support brigades include aviation CAB brigades which will come in heavy and light varieties fires artillery brigades now transforms to division artillery and expeditionary military intelligence brigades Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army Combat maneuver organizations Edit To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts see Transformation of the United States Army Divisions and brigades The U S Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters 7th Infantry Division as well as several independent units The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth In June 2013 the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active brigade combat teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490 000 soldiers Army chief of staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to 450 000 in the active component 335 000 in the National Guard and 195 000 in U S Army Reserve by 2018 102 However this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16 000 soldiers to a total of 476 000 by October 2017 The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion 103 104 Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further 8 divisions over 15 maneuver brigades additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry infantry artillery aviation engineer and support battalions The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units United States Army Forces Command FORSCOM Direct reporting units Current commander Location of headquarters I Corps MG Xavier T Brunson acting Joint Base Lewis McChord Washington III Corps LTG Robert Pat White Fort Hood Texas V Corps LTG John S Kolasheski Fort Knox Kentucky XVIII Airborne Corps LTG Michael E Kurilla Fort Bragg North Carolina First Army 105 LTG Antonio A Aguto Jr Rock Island Arsenal Illinois United States Army Reserve Command USARC 106 LTG Jody J Daniels Fort Bragg North CarolinaCombat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOMName Headquarters Subunits Subordinate to 1st Armored Division Fort Bliss Texas and New Mexico 3 armored BCTs ABCTs 107 1 Division Artillery DIVARTY 1 Combat Aviation Brigade CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps 1st Cavalry Division Fort Hood Texas 3 armored BCTs 1 DIVARTY 1 CAB and a sustainment brigade III Corps 1st Infantry Division Fort Riley Kansas 2 armored BCTs 1 DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps 3rd Cavalry Regiment Fort Hood Texas 4 Stryker squadrons 1 fires squadron 1 engineer squadron and 1 support squadron overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division 108 III Corps 3rd Infantry Division Fort Stewart Georgia 2 armored BCT 1 DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry BCT of the Georgia Army National Guard XVIII Airborne Corps 4th Infantry Division Fort Carson Colorado 2 Stryker BCT 1 armored BCT DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade III Corps 7th Infantry Division Joint Base Lewis McChord Washington Administrative control of 2 Stryker BCTs and 1 DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division as well as the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard I Corps 10th Mountain Division Fort Drum New York 3 infantry BCTs 1 DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps 25th Infantry Division Schofield Barracks Hawaii 2 infantry BCTs 1 airborne infantry BCT 1 Stryker BCT 1 DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade I Corps 82nd Airborne Division Fort Bragg North Carolina 3 airborne infantry BCTs 1 airborne DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 airborne sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne Corps 101st Airborne Division Fort Campbell Kentucky 3 air assault infantry BCTs 1 air assault DIVARTY 1 CAB and 1 air assault sustainment brigade XVIII Airborne CorpsCombat maneuver units aligned under other organizationsName Headquarters Subunits Subordinate to 2nd Cavalry Regiment Rose Barracks Vilseck Germany 4 Stryker squadrons 1 engineer squadron 1 fires squadron and 1 support squadron U S Army Europe and Africa 2nd Infantry Division Camp Humphreys South Korea 2 Stryker BCTs 1 mechanized brigade from the ROK Army 109 1 DIVARTY under administrative control of 7th ID 1 sustainment brigade a stateside ABCT from another active division that is rotated in on a regular basis and the 81st Stryker BCT of the Washington and California Army National Guard Eighth Army 173rd Airborne Brigade Camp Ederle Vicenza Italy 3 airborne infantry battalions including 1st Battalion 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas and Rhode Island Army National Guard 1 airborne field artillery battalion 1 airborne cavalry squadron 1 airborne engineer battalion 110 and 1 airborne support battalion U S Army Europe and Africa Combat maneuver units aligned under the Army National Guard until federalizedName Locations Subunits 28th Infantry Division Pennsylvania Ohio and Maryland 2nd Infantry BCT 56th Stryker BCT 28th CAB 55th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade MEB 111 and the 28th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade SB 29th Infantry Division Virginia Maryland North Carolina and Florida 30th Armored BCT 53rd Infantry BCT 116th Infantry BCT 29th CAB 142nd Field Artillery Regiment 29th Infantry Division SB and the 226th MEB 112 34th Infantry Division Minnesota Wisconsin Iowa and Idaho 1st Armored BCT 2nd Infantry BCT 32nd Infantry BCT 116th Cavalry BCT 115th Field Artillery Brigade 34th CAB 34th Infantry Division SB and the 157th MEB 35th Infantry Division Kansas Missouri Illinois Oklahoma Georgia Arkansas and Nebraska 33rd Infantry BCT 39th Infantry BCT 45th Infantry BCT 130th Field Artillery Brigade 35th CAB and the 67th MEB 36th Infantry Division Texas Louisiana and Mississippi 56th Infantry BCT 72nd Infantry BCT 256th Infantry BCT 155th Armored BCT 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment 36th CAB 36th Infantry Division SB and the 136th MEB 38th Infantry Division Indiana Michigan Ohio and Tennessee 37th Infantry BCT 76th Infantry BCT 138th Field Artillery Brigade 38th CAB 38th Infantry Division SB and the 149th MEB 40th Infantry Division Arizona California Hawaii Oregon and Washington 29th Infantry BCT 41st Infantry BCT 79th Infantry BCT 40th CAB and the 40th Infantry Division SB 42nd Infantry Division New York New Jersey and Vermont 27th Infantry BCT 44th Infantry BCT 86th Infantry BCT Mountain 197th Field Artillery Brigade 42nd CAB 42nd Infantry Division SB and the 26th MEB For a description of U S Army tactical organizational structure see a U S context and also a global context Special operations forces Edit United States Army Special Operations Command Airborne USASOC 113 Name Headquarters Structure and purpose 1st Special Forces Command Fort Bragg North Carolina Manages seven special forces groups designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions unconventional warfare foreign internal defense direct action counter insurgency special reconnaissance counter terrorism information operations counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction and security force assistance The command also manages two psychological operations groups tasked to work with foreign nations to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U S objectives a civil affairs brigade that enables military commanders and U S ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five battalions and a sustainment brigade that provides combat service support and combat health support units via three distinct battalions Army Special Operations Aviation Command Ft Bragg North Carolina Commands organizes mans trains resources and equips Army special operations aviation units to provide responsive special operations aviation support to special operations forces consisting of five units including the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment Airborne 75th Ranger Regiment Fort Benning Georgia In addition to a regimental headquarters a special troops battalion and a military intelligence battalion the 75th Ranger Regiment has three maneuver battalions of elite airborne infantry specializing in large scale joint forcible entry operations and precision targeting raids Additional capabilities include special reconnaissance air assault and direct action raids seizing key terrain such as airfields destroying or securing strategic facilities and capturing or killing enemies of the Nation The Regiment also helps develop the equipment technologies training and readiness that bridge the gap between special operations and traditional combat maneuver organizations John F Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School Ft Bragg North Carolina Selects and trains special forces civil affairs and psychological operations soldiers consisting of two groups and other various training units and offices 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment Delta Ft Bragg North Carolina Commonly referred to as Delta Force Combat Applications Group CAG The Unit Army Compartmented Element ACE or Task Force Green SFOD D is the U S Army s Tier 1 Special Mission Unit tasked with performing the most complex classified and dangerous missions directed by the National Command Authority Under the control of Joint Special Operations Command SFOD D specializes in hostage rescue counter terrorism direct action and special reconnaissance against high value targets via eight squadrons four assault one aviation one clandestine one combat support and one nuclear disposal 114 115 Personnel EditSee also List of ranks used by the United States Army The Army s Talent Management Task Force TMTF has deployed IPPS A 116 the Integrated Personnel and Pay System Army an app which serves the National Guard and in 2021 the Army Reserve and Active Army Soldiers are reminded to update their information using the legacy systems to keep their payroll and personnel information current by December 2021 IPPS A is the Human Resources system for the Army is now available for download for Android or the Apple store 117 It will be used for future promotions and other personnel decisions Among the changes are BCAP the Battalion Commander Assessment Program In January 2020 over 800 majors and lieutenant colonels from all over the Army converged on Fort Knox to take part in a five day program to select the next battalion commanders for the Army beginning in FY2021 This process replaces the former selection process which was based solely on rank and individual reviews of past performance From now on more consideration will be given to an individual officer s personal preference as part of 25 other selection criteria 118 Promotion boards will now be able to see almost all substantiated adverse information 119 The promotion boards will be able to see anything in an officer s human resource record Officers are encouraged to become familiar with their human resource record and to file rebuttals to adverse information 119 Depending on the success of this initiative other assessment programs could be instituted as well for promotion to sergeants major 120 and for assessment of colonels for command 121 Below are the U S Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime Commissioned officers Edit Main article United States Army officer rank insignia There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer 122 including the United States Military Academy Reserve Officers Training Corps Officer Candidate School and Direct commissioning Regardless of which road an officer takes the insignia are the same Certain professions including physicians pharmacists nurses lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army Most army commissioned officers those who are generalists 123 are promoted based on an up or out system A more flexible talent management process is underway 123 The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for the timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as General last name regardless of the number of stars Likewise both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as Colonel last name and first and second lieutenants as Lieutenant last name 124 US DoD Pay Grade O 1 O 2 O 3 O 4 O 5 O 6 O 7 O 8 O 9 O 10 Special grade 125 NATO Code OF 1 OF 2 OF 3 OF 4 OF 5 OF 6 OF 7 OF 8 OF 9 OF 10Insignia Service Green Uniform Insignia Title Second lieutenant First lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant colonel Colonel Brigadier general Major general Lieutenant general General General of the ArmyAbbreviation 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC COL BG MG LTG GEN GAWarrant officers Edit Main article United States Army officer rank insignia Warrant officers 122 are single track specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area They are initially appointed as warrant officers in the rank of WO1 by the secretary of the Army but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two CW2 By regulation warrant officers are addressed as Mr last name or Ms last name by senior officers and as sir or ma am by all enlisted personnel 124 However many personnel address warrant officers as Chief last name within their units regardless of rank US DoD Pay Grade W 1 W 2 W 3 W 4 W 5NATO Code WO 1 WO 2 WO 3 WO 4 WO 5Insignia Title Warrant officer 1 Chief warrant officer 2 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 5Abbreviation WO1 CW2 CWO CW4 CW5Enlisted personnel Edit Main article United States Army enlisted rank insignia See also Enlisted rank Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs short for non commissioned officers 122 126 This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade but do not exercise leadership responsibilities Beginning in 2021 all corporals will be required to conduct structured self development for the NCO ranks completing the basic leader course BLC or else be laterally assigned as specialists Specialists who have completed BLC and who have been recommended for promotion will be permitted to wear corporal rank before their recommended promotion as NCOs 127 Privates and privates first class E3 are addressed as Private last name specialists as Specialist last name corporals as Corporal last name and sergeants staff sergeants sergeants first class and master sergeants all as Sergeant last name First sergeants are addressed as First Sergeant last name and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as Sergeant Major last name 124 U S DoD Pay grade E 1 E 2 E 3 E 4 E 5 E 6 E 7 E 8 E 9NATO Code OR 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4 OR 5 OR 6 OR 7 OR 8 OR 9Service Green Uniform Insignia No insignia Title Private Private 128 Private first class Specialist Corporal Sergeant Staff sergeant Sergeant first class Master sergeant First sergeant Sergeant major Command sergeant major Sergeant major of the Army Senior enlisted advisor to the chairman 129 Abbreviation PV1 PV2 PFC SPC CPL SGT SSG SFC MSG 1SG SGM CSM SMA SEAC PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished 130 SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E 5 to E 7 First sergeant is considered a temporary and lateral rank and is senior to master sergeant A first sergeant can revert to master sergeant upon leaving assignment Training Edit U S Army Rangers practicing fast roping techniques from an MH 47 during an exercise at Fort Bragg Training in the U S Army is generally divided into two categories individual and collective Because of COVID 19 precautions the first two weeks of basic training not including processing and out processing incorporate social distancing and indoor desk oriented training Once the recruits have tested negative for COVID 19 for two weeks the remaining 8 weeks follow the traditional activities for most recruits 131 followed by Advanced Individualized Training AIT where they receive training for their military occupational specialties MOS Some individual s MOSs range anywhere from 14 to 20 weeks of One Station Unit Training OSUT which combines Basic Training and AIT The length of AIT school varies by the MOS The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier Certain highly technical MOS training requires many months e g foreign language translators Depending on the needs of the army Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations but two of the longest running are the Armor School and the Infantry School both at Fort Benning Georgia Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen s pilot program for One Station Unit Training OSUT extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT to 22 weeks The pilot designed to boost infantry readiness ended in December 2018 The new Infantry OSUT covered the M240 machine gun as well as the M249 squad automatic weapon 132 The redesigned Infantry OSUT started in 2019 133 134 Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry 133 One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021 22 Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry Engineer and Military Police MP in the succeeding Fiscal Years 135 A new training assignment for junior officers was instituted that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training BCT platoons 136 These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative logistical and day to day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to lead train and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale welfare and readiness of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons 136 These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons to free up the drill sergeants for training 136 A trainer with Company A 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment Task Force Strike 101st Airborne Division assisting Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji Iraq on 18 July 2016 The United States Army Combat Fitness Test ACFT was introduced into the Army beginning in 2018 with 60 battalions spread throughout the Army 137 The test is the same for all soldiers men or women It takes an hour to complete including resting periods 138 The ACFT supersedes the Army physical fitness test APFT 139 140 141 as being more relevant to survival in combat 137 Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions 138 three deadlifts 142 a standing power throw of a ten pound medicine ball 143 hand release pushups 144 which replace the traditional pushup a sprint drag carry 250 yard event 145 three pull ups with leg tucks or a plank test in lieu of the leg tuck 146 147 a mandatory rest period and a two mile run 148 On 1 October 2020 all soldiers from all three components Active Army Reserve and National guard 149 are subject to this test 150 151 The ACFT now tests all soldiers in basic training as of October 2020 The ACFT becomes the official test of record 1 October 2020 before that day every Army unit is required to complete a diagnostic ACFT 152 All Soldiers with valid APFT scores can use them until March 2022 The Holistic Health and Fitness H2F System is one way that soldiers can prepare 153 154 The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield 134 Following their basic and advanced training at the individual level soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an additional skill identifier ASI The ASI allows the army to take a wide ranging MOS and focus it on a more specific MOS For example a combat medic whose duties are to provide pre hospital emergency treatment may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist a dialysis specialist or even a licensed practical nurse For commissioned officers training includes pre commissioning training known as Basic Officer Leader Course A either at USMA or via ROTC or by completing OCS After commissioning officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B formerly called Officer Basic Course which varies in time and location according to their future assignments Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their careers 155 U S Army soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015 Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit s assigned station but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers CTC the National Training Center NTC at Fort Irwin California the Joint Readiness Training Center JRTC at Fort Polk Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center JMRC at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwohr 156 Germany ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission Individual level replenishment still requires training at a unit level which is conducted at the continental U S CONUS replacement center CRC at Fort Bliss in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment 157 Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold weather regions jungles mountains or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain 158 minute 1 26 00 Post 9 11 Army unit level training was for counter insurgency COIN by 2014 2017 training had shifted to decisive action training 159 Equipment EditMain article List of equipment of the United States Army The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities in order artillery ground vehicles aircraft network air missile defense and soldier lethality 160 Weapons Edit A Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense THAAD system used for ballistic missile protection Individual weapons Edit The United States Army employs various weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges The most common weapon type used by the army is the M4 carbine a compact variant of the M16 rifle 161 along with the 7 62 51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers The primary sidearm in the U S Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol the M11 pistol is also used Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17 162 through the Modular Handgun System program 163 Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons including the M249 SAW Squad Automatic Weapon to provide suppressive fire at the squad level 164 Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close quarters combat The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi Automatic Sniper Rifle Crew served weapons Edit The army employs various crew served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons The M240 is the U S Army s standard Medium Machine Gun 165 The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle mounted machine gun In the same way the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units 166 The U S Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224 normally assigned at the infantry company level 167 At the next higher echelon infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars 168 The largest mortar in the army s inventory is the 120 mm M120 M121 usually employed by mechanized units 169 Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers including the 105 mm M119A1 170 and the 155 mm M777 171 The U S Army utilizes a variety of direct fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti Armor Capability The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters The FIM 92 Stinger is a shoulder launched heat seeking anti aircraft missile The FGM 148 Javelin and BGM 71 TOW are anti tank guided missiles Vehicles Edit A U S soldier on patrol with the support of a Humvee vehicle U S Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare It fields the highest vehicle to soldier ratio in the world as of 2009 172 The army s most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle HMMWV commonly called the Humvee which is capable of serving as a cargo troop carrier weapons platform and ambulance among many other roles 173 While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles The M1A2 Abrams is the army s main battle tank 174 while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle 175 Other vehicles include the Stryker 176 the M113 armored personnel carrier 177 and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected MRAP vehicles 3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq The U S Army s principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self propelled howitzer 178 and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System MLRS 179 both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units While the United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few fixed wing aircraft it mainly operates several types of rotary wing aircraft These include the AH 64 Apache attack helicopter 180 the UH 60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter 181 and the CH 47 Chinook heavy lift transport helicopter 182 Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types 183 Under the Johnson McConnell agreement of 1966 the Army agreed to limit its fixed wing aviation role to administrative mission support light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions For UAVs the Army is deploying at least one company of drone MQ 1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division 184 Uniforms Edit Main article Uniforms of the United States Army The 2020 Army Greens uniform The Army Combat Uniform ACU currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern OCP OCP replaced a pixel based pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern UCP in 2019 An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment wearing ASUs representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow On 11 November 2018 the Army announced a new version of Army Greens based on uniforms worn during World War II that will become the standard garrison service uniform 185 The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in the summer of 2020 185 Berets Edit The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in their tan berets and former service uniform The beret flash of enlisted personnel displays their distinctive unit insignia shown above The U S Army s black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions Army chief of staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011 Soldiers who are currently in a unit in jump status still wear berets whether the wearer is parachute qualified or not maroon beret while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades SFABs wear brown berets Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade tan beret and Special Forces rifle green beret may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non ceremonial functions Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools Tents Edit The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment Force Provider Expeditionary FPE 160 p 146 The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks sleeping quarters DFAC buildings dining facilities 186 forward operating bases FOBs after action review AAR tactical operations center TOC morale welfare and recreation MWR facilities as well as security checkpoints Furthermore most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center Each FPE contains billeting latrines showers laundry and kitchen facilities for 50 150 Soldiers 160 p 146 and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1 2 4 and 5 This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility within 24 to 48 hours The U S Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter DRASH In 2008 DRASH became part of the Army s Standard Integrated Command Post System 187 See also EditAmerica s Army video games for recruitment Army CHESS Computer Hardware Enterprise Software and Solutions History of the United States Army List of military weapons of the United States Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps List of active United States military aircraft List of comparative military ranks List of former United States Army medical units List of wars involving the United States Reorganization plan of United States Army Soldier s Creed Timeline of United States military operations United States Army Basic Training U S Army Combat Arms Regimental System U S Army Regimental System Vehicle markings of the United States militaryNotes Edit As the Continental Army Adopted in 1962 References Edit Important Information and Guidelines About the Use of Department of Defense Seals Logos Insignia and Service Medals PDF United States Department of Defense 16 October 2015 p 2 Archived from the original PDF on 5 April 2016 Retrieved 5 April 2016 Shoulder Sleeve Insignia Wright Jr Robert K 1983 The Continental Army Army Lineage Series Washington D C Center of Military History United States Army ISBN 9780160019319 OCLC 8806011 Maass John R June 14th The Birthday of the U S Army U S Army Center of Military History Retrieved 30 October 2013 a b Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2022 Defense Funding Bill U S House Appropriations official website dated 29 June 2021 lastd accessed 3 August 2021 World Air Forces 2018 Flightglobal 17 Retrieved 13 June 2018 Usa Ibp U S Future Combat amp Weapon Systems Handbook p 15 U S Army Official Branding Toolkit PDF Archived from the original PDF on 11 October 2017 Retrieved 2 August 2017 Archived copy Archived from the original on 7 February 2018 Retrieved 6 February 2018 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Sean Kimmons Army News Service August 9 2019 New chief of staff Taking care of people key to winning the fight Joe Lacdan Army News Service August 1 2019 Seasoned combat leader sworn in as Army s vice chief of staff Defense gov 08 09 2019 Uniformed Army Leadership Changes Hands Article II section 2 clause 1 of the United States Constitution 1789 See also Title 10 Subtitle B Chapter 301 Section 3001 Department of Defense Directive 1005 8 Permanent access gpo gov 31 October 1977 Retrieved 7 July 2017 Subject Order of Precedence of Members of Armed Forces of the United States When in Formation Paragraph 3 PRESCRIBED PROCEDURE a b c 14 June The Birthday of the U S Army United States Army Center of Military History Retrieved 1 July 2011 an excerpt from Robert Wright The Continental Army Library of Congress Journals of the Continental Congress Volume 27 Army Birthdays United States Army Center of Military History 15 November 2004 Archived from the original on 20 April 2010 Retrieved 3 June 2010 Cite journal requires journal help Pike John U S Military Personnel End Strength Globalsecurity org The United States Army Organization army mil Retrieved 1 April 2015 DA Pamphlet 10 1 Organization of the United States Army Figure 1 2 Military Operations 10 USC 3062 Policy composition organized peace establishment U S House of Representatives Archived from the original on 5 October 2013 Retrieved 21 August 2013 a b c d The Army Strategy 2018 Army Publishing Directorate PDF Cont l Cong Formation of the Continental Army in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress 1774 1789 89 90 Library of Cong eds 1905 Cont l Cong Commission for General Washington in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress 1774 1789 96 7 Library of Cong eds 1905 Cont l Cong Instructions for General Washington in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress 1774 1789 100 1 Library of Cong eds 1905 Cont l Cong Resolution Changing United Colonies to United States in 5 Journals of the Continental Congress 1774 1789 747 Library of Cong eds 1905 Buffenbarger Thomas E 15 September 2011 St Clair s Campaign of 1791 A Defeat in the Wilderness That Helped Forge Today s U S Army U S Army Heritage and Education Center Gregory J W Urwin The United States Cavalry An Illustrated History 1776 1944 University of Oklahoma Press 2003 1983 pp 36 39 Ron Field and Richard Hook The Seminole Wars 1818 58 2009 The U S Mexican War PBS pbs org Retrieved 1 April 2015 Tinkler Robert Southern Unionists in the Civil War csuchico edu Retrieved 21 November 2016 McPherson James M ed The Atlas of the Civil War Philadelphia PA 2010 Maris Vinovskis 1990 Toward a social history of the American Civil War exploratory essays Cambridge University Press p 7 ISBN 0 521 39559 3 Cragg Dan ed The Guide to Military Installations Stackpole Books Harrisburg 1983 p 272 U S army was smaller than the army for Portugal before World War II Politifact Retrieved 23 January 2018 Excerpt General George C Marshall Strategic Leadership and the Challenges of Reconstituting the Army 1939 41 Ssi armywarcollege edu Archived from the original on 24 January 2018 Retrieved 23 January 2018 Nese DeBruyne Congressional Research Service 18 September 2018 American War and Military Operations Casualties Lists and Statistics PDF Page 3 note j World War II 10 42 million 1 December 1941 31 August 1945 Other sources count the Army of Occupation up to 31 December 1946 By 30 June 1947 the Army s strength was down to 990 000 troops Chapter 4 GRAND STRATEGY AND THE WASHINGTON HIGH COMMAND American Military History Vol 2 United States Army Center of Military History p 122 10 4 million volume has extra text help a b US Army TRADOC 16 September 2015 Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept YouTube Retrieved 2 November 2017 Woodruff Mark Unheralded Victory The Defeat of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army 1961 1973 Arlington VA Vandamere Press 1999 Shidler Derek Vietnam s Changing Historiography Ngo Dinh Diem and America s Leadership PDF Wilson John B 1997 Maneuver and Firepower The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades Washington DC Center of Military History Chapter XII for references see Note 48 Army National Guard Constitution Archived from the original on 21 May 2013 Carafano James Total Force Policy and the Abrams Doctrine Unfulfilled Promise Uncertain Future Archived 10 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine Foreign Policy Research Institute 3 February 2005 An Army at War Change in the Midst of Conflict p 515 via Google Books 10 Most Epic Tank Battles in Military History Militaryeducation org Archived from the original on 13 November 2017 Retrieved 2 November 2017 VUA Citation These were the 6 most massive tank battles in US history Wearethemighty com 24 March 2016 Retrieved 2 November 2017 Section 1101 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine Department of Defense Interim Report to Congress September 1990 see rebalancing as used in finance Downey Chris The Total Force Policy and Effective Force Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine Air War College 19 March 2004 September 11 2001 Pentagon Victims patriotresource com Retrieved 13 November 2015 Burnham G Lafta R Doocy S Roberts L 2006 John Pike ed U S Casualties in Iraq The Lancet published 4 September 2007 368 9545 1421 1428 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 88 4036 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 06 69491 9 PMID 17055943 S2CID 23673934 Archived from the original web page on 5 September 2007 Retrieved 16 January 2012 The Human Cost of the War in Iraq A Mortality Study 2002 2006 PDF 603 KB By Gilbert Burnham Shannon Doocy Elizabeth Dzeng Riyadh Lafta and Les Roberts A supplement to the second Lancet study 597 killed in 2003 1 23 984 killed from 2004 through 2009 with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009 2 652 killed in May 2004 3 45 killed in March 2009 4 676 killed in 2010 5 451 killed in 2011 with the exception of February 6 7 8 9 Archived 9 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine 10 11 Archived copy Archived from the original on 12 January 2012 Retrieved 22 October 2011 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 2 October 2011 Retrieved 15 October 2011 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 11 November 2011 Retrieved 3 November 2011 CS1 maint archived copy as title link for a total of 26 405 dead Defense Secretary Gates observes Army Future Combat Systems progress US Fed News Service 9 May 2008 Archived from the original on 25 May 2017 Retrieved 12 May 2017 FCS Program Transitions to Army BCT Modernization defencetalk com Defencetalk com 26 June 2009 Retrieved 21 November 2016 Archived copy Archived from the original on 16 February 2017 Retrieved 22 March 2017 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Shanker Thom Cooper Helene 23 February 2014 Pentagon Plans to Shrink Army to Pre World War II Level The New York Times Company Retrieved 23 February 2014 Army to realign brigades cut 40 000 Soldiers 17 000 civilians Army mil Joe Lacdan Army News Service March 13 2019 Soldier pay quality of life modernization among priorities in budget proposal Requested troop strengths Active 480 000 NG 336 000 and Reserve 189 500 for 2020 budget Kiowa Warriors pass torch to Apache attack helicopters in South Korea Stars and Stripes 26 January 2017 Retrieved 13 May 2017 Rosenberg Barry 28 March 2019 Don t Panic About Apaches Army Not Junking Gunships Drwiega Andrew Missions Solutions Summit Army Leaders Warn of Rough Ride Ahead Rotor amp Wing 4 June 2014 Accessed 8 June 2014 Army Directive 2017 33 Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force 7 November 2017 References Decker Wagner 2011 Secretary of the Army Mark T Esper 4 June 2018 ESTABLISHMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMY FUTURES COMMAND Army General order G O 2018 10 Source Organization United States Army For detail see AR10 87 Center for Strategic amp International Studies 29 April 2014 The Future Army featuring U S General David G Perkins YouTube Retrieved 2 November 2017 Acquisition reform requires culture shift officials say Army mil a b Army FY20 budget proposal realigns 30 billion Army mil DA Pam 10 1 Organization of the United States Army Figure 1 1 Army Organizations Execute Specific Functions and Assigned Missions Organization of the United States Army America s Army 1775 1995 DA PAM 10 1 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington 14 June 1994 a b Finnegan John Patrick Romana Danysh 1998 Chapter 2 World War I In Jeffrey J Clarke ed Military Intelligence Army Lineage Series Washington D C United States Center of Military History United States Army online ISBN 978 0160488283 OCLC 35741383 Archived from the original on 30 August 2009 a b Pullen Randy 23 April 2008 Army Reserve Marks First 100 Years DefenceTalk Archived from the original online article on 24 April 2008 Retrieved 8 August 2008 Cite journal requires journal help Department of Defense Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness Military compensation background papers Seventh edition page 229 Department of Defense 2005 a b Morris Aris Military Officer Corner Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List New marketing job lets officers steward Army brand Army mil by Thomas Brading Army News Service dated 16 December 2019 last accessed 1 January 2020 Leaders U S Army Europe Leaders Army mil Retrieved 1 October 2020 Army General Order 2006 34 PDF 16 October 2006 Commanding General PDF United States Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command 4 December 2010 Retrieved 4 December 2020 General Orders No 2014 02 PDF Department of the Army Archived from the original PDF on 3 February 2015 General Orders No 2010 26 Establishment of the United States Army Cyber Command PDF Department of the Army Archived from the original PDF on 14 May 2011 U S Army 1 October 2010 Army establishes Army Cyber Command army mil Retrieved 28 June 2016 list of the most recent Army General Orders AGO Army Electronic Publication System Archived from the original on 18 July 2016 General Orders No 2012 02 Redesignation and Assignment of Eighth Army as a Subordinate Command of The United States Army Pacific PDF Department of the Army Archived from the original PDF on 4 March 2016 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 3 February 2015 Retrieved 7 February 2015 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Who is Kate Kelley allgov com Retrieved 13 December 2018 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 4 March 2016 Retrieved 2 February 2015 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Craig Spisak asc army mil Retrieved 13 December 2018 DAGO 2017 03 DESIGNATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CIVILIAN HUMAN RESOURCES AGENCY AND ITS SUBORDINATE ELEMENTS AS DIRECT REPORTING UNIT apd army mil dated 4 January 2017 last accessed 13 January 2017 About Us CHRA Retrieved 4 December 2020 Maj Gen Scott A Spellmon Army Congress Gov Retrieved 23 January 2021 DAGO 2017 04 DESIGNATION OF UNITED STATES ARMY HUMAN RESOURCES COMMAND AND ITS SUBORDINATE ELEMENTS AS DIRECT REPORTING UNIT apd army mil dated 4 January 2017 last accessed 13 January 2017 13 June 2018 ATEC welcomes new commander Commanding General Brig Gen James J Gallivan Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 3 February 2015 Retrieved 2 February 2015 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Organization United States Army Perpich v Department of Defense 496 U S 334 1990 10 U S C 3013 PDF Retrieved 2 May 2016 10 U S C 3033 PDF Retrieved 2 May 2016 10 U S C 151 PDF Retrieved 2 May 2016 10 U S C 162 PDF Retrieved 2 May 2016 CSA Odierno and SMA Chandler virtual town hall Jan 6 2015 Army mil Retrieved 2 May 2016 Army offers up to 90K bonuses to lure troops back Foxbusiness com 6 June 2017 Needing troops U S Army offers up to 90K bonuses to re enlist Daily chronicle com Retrieved 2 November 2017 First Army Mission army mil Archived from the original on 7 March 2015 Retrieved 1 April 2015 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 23 September 2015 Retrieved 2 February 2015 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 17 June 2019 Retrieved 18 June 2019 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Army announces Afghanistan deployment for 1 000 soldiers ArmyTimes by Michelle Tan dated 2 March 2016 last accessed 3 October 2016 South Korean troops form combined division with U S Army Army Times 14 January 2015 Retrieved 13 November 2015 173rd Airborne Brigade Site Redirect Archived from the original on 11 October 2017 Retrieved 13 December 2016 28th Infantry Division Pennsylvania National Guard official website last accessed 4 December 2020 29th Infantry Division Virginia National Guard official homepage last accessed 4 December 2020 Army Special Operations Forces Fact Book 2018 Archived 19 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine USASOC official website dated 2018 last accessed 28 July 2019 The U S Army s Delta Force How This Secret Group of Deadly Soldiers Came to Be The National Interest 30 April 2019 Naylor Sean 2015 Relentless Strike The Secret History of Joint Special Operations Command St Martin s Press pp 73 122 201 222 476 ISBN 9781466876224 Integrated Personnel and Pay System Army Army Public Affairs 2 Jun 2021 New Army pay personnel mobile app and unifies unit and location information for all Soldiers using Army Organization Server data interface AOSDI unified with IPPS A on the back end This allows aggregation of data on ACOM ASCC Corps Division Brigade Battalion Company Platoon and Squad levels Jared Serbu 16 October 2019 Army debuts new system to pick commanders amid focus on talent management a b Thomas Brading Army News Service 8 June 2021 Promotion boards to receive adverse information earlier when considering officers Eric Pilgrim 23 November 2020 Prototype Sergeants Major Assessment Program at Fort Knox on the right path Eric Pilgrim 13 August 2020 Army vice chief walks through brigade command program to witness Army s newest assessment tool a b c From the Future Soldiers Web Site a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr 25 October 2017 Can The Pentagon Protect Young Innovators Fixing the up or out culture which favors generalists a b c Army Regulation 600 20 PDF Retrieved 2 May 2016 Reserved for wartime use only From the Enlisted Soldiers Descriptions Web Site Joseph Lacdan Army News Service 4 June 2021 Soldiers to pin on corporal after BLC Ranks Army mil Archived from the original on 4 August 2019 Retrieved 20 October 2019 JCS mil SEAC Troxell announces new positional rank insignia Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 6 February 2012 Retrieved 1 April 2012 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Mitch Meador 21 May 2020 Brigades move to new model for basic training Soldiers train on M240 machine gun during 22 week Infantry OSUT transformation Army mil a b Sgt Maj of the Army Extending training would bolster readiness lethality Army mil a b Extended OSUT allows repetition to hone combat skills major general says Army mil Preparing for current and future Army drill sergeant mission requirements through adaptive measures Army mil a b c Lieutenants to become BCT leaders Army mil a b ACFT ensures Soldiers are lethal physically conditioned Army mil a b Post gets look at new fitness test Army mil Joe Lacdan Army News Service 22 May 2020 SMA expects ACFT to continue as planned in COVID 19 environment Soldiers can use their last APFT score to remain promotion eligible Army Directive 2018 22 8 Nov 2018 Retention Policy for Non Deployable Soldiers PDF Armypubs army mil Retrieved 22 July 2019 Non deployable directive to help Army work toward more lethal force Army mil Army Combat Fitness Test 3 Repetition Maximum Deadlift MDL Event 1 24 October 2018 via YouTube Army Combat Fitness Test Standing Power Throw SPT Event 2 24 October 2018 via YouTube 5 Hand Release Pushup event execution 17 May 2019 via YouTube Army Combat Fitness Test Sprint Drag Carry SDC Event 4 29 October 2018 via YouTube Lolita C Baldor 22 Mar 2021 Army revamps fitness exam kicks out leg tuck requirement Army Combat Fitness Test Leg Tuck LTK Event 5 24 October 2018 via YouTube Army Combat Fitness Test ACFT 25 July 2018 via YouTube SGT Zach Mott May 10 2019 SECFOR Soldiers Crawl Through ACFT Familiarization SECFOR Soldiers serve as the security force force protection during a deployment Army secretary New fitness test measures combat readiness Army mil Harry Sarles July 24 2019 Pre Command Course conducts diagnostic Army Combat Fitness Test Maj Stephen Martin December 27 2019 Kentucky Guard first to receive ACFT equipment 36 608 ACFT sets for the total army by May 15 The Army is focused on the tactical athlete Staff Sgt Warren Wright 10 January 2020 NY National Guard finds creative ways to train for new fitness test finding creative ways to exercise at home and on their own time Thomas Brading Army News Service 18 June 2020 SMA takes to social media addresses ACFT 2 0 concerns US Army 2020 US Army soldier prepares for ACFT Learning how to retrain an injured body using resistance bands good for leg tucks know your limits use out training see video for sample practice technique good for deadlift and power throw Pilot program provides a new option for Army officers professional military education Army mil Workshop guides future growth in Grafenwoehr Army mil 13 December 2017 CONUS Replacement Center receives new command Archived 14 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine CRC 5 transition to CRC 6 Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request 16 May 2018 via YouTube Army Updates Mobilization Model Association of the United States Army 8 October 2018 a b c ASA ALT Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized 440 pages M4 U S Army Fact Files O Melveny Sean 19 January 2017 Army Picks Sig Sauer s P320 Handgun to Replace M9 Service Pistol Military com Individual Weapons Future Innovations Archived 24 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine Project Manager Soldier Weapons M249 U S Army Fact Files M240 U S Army Fact Files MK 19 U S Army Fact Files M224 U S Army Fact Files M252 U S Army Fact Files M120 U S Army Fact Files M119 U S Army Fact Files John Pike M777 Lightweight 155mm howitzer LW155 globalsecurity org Retrieved 1 April 2015 Us Future Combat amp Weapon Systems Handbook Int l Business Publications 30 March 2009 p 15 ISBN 978 1 4387 5447 5 Retrieved 12 May 2017 HMMWV U S Army Fact Files Abrams Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine U S Army Fact Files Bradley United States Army Fact Files Stryker U S Army Fact Files M113 U S Army Fact Files Paladin Army mil MLRS U S Army Fact Files Apache U S Army Fact Files Blackhawk U S Army Fact Files Chinook U S Army Fact Files Stevenson Beth 22 January 2015 US Army continues to face financial challenge of rotary fleet maintenance Flightglobal Reed Business Information archived from the original on 23 January 2015 retrieved 23 January 2015 Jahner Kyle 7 August 2017 Army to build dedicated drone runway at Fort Bliss Army Times a b U S Army to roll out new Army Greens uniform Army mil Joe Lacdan August 13 2018 Automated meal entitlement system food trucks to improve Soldier dining experience Accomplishes paperwork reduction based on reading each soldier s Common Access Card at each use at DFAC NG DHS Technologies to support SICPS TMSS United Press International This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document Army Birthdays Further reading EditFor a more comprehensive list see Bibliography of United States military history Desert Storm Shield Valorous Unit Award VUA Citations US Army Center of Military History Retrieved 26 December 2014 Bailey Beth America s Army Making the All Volunteer Force 2009 ISBN 0674035364 Bluhm Jr Raymond K Editor in Chief Andrade Dale Jacobs Bruce Langellier John Newell Clayton R Seelinger Matthew 2004 U S Army A Complete History Beaux Arts ed Arlington VA The Army Historical Foundation p 744 ISBN 978 0 88363 640 4 Chambers John Whiteclay ed The Oxford Guide to American Military History 1999 online at many libraries Clark J P Preparing for War The Emergence of the Modern U S Army 1815 1917 Harvard UP 2017 336 pp Coffman Edward M The War to End All Wars The American Military Experience in World War I 1998 a standard history Kretchik Walter E U S Army Doctrine From the American Revolution to the War on Terror University Press of Kansas 2011 392 pages studies military doctrine in four distinct eras 1779 1904 1905 1944 1944 1962 and 1962 to the present Woodward David R The American Army and the First World War Cambridge University Press 2014 484 pp online reviewExternal links EditUnited States Armyat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Official website United States Army official website Army mil photos United States Army featured photos GoArmy com official recruiting site U S Army Collection Missouri History Museum Finding Aids for researching the U S Army compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History US militaria com The U S Army during the Second World WarRetrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title United States Army amp oldid 1039286997, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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